COM 217 Exam 2 Study Guide
COM 217 Exam 2 Study Guide COM217LEC-RL
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This 46 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Palermo on Friday March 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COM217LEC-RL at University at Buffalo taught by Dr. Richard H. Lesniak in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 188 views. For similar materials see Organizational Communications in Communication at University at Buffalo.
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Date Created: 03/25/16
Chapter 5: Constitutive Approaches- Lecture Communicative Constitution of Organizations Metaphors so far Machines Families (Human Relations) Systems of interconnected relationships Cultures All share the conceptualization as a container within which communication occurs o They saw this as limiting o Wants to move beyond this framework and consider ways that organizations are produced through communication and ways Communication scientists wanted to move beyond the container to a social constructionist position o “We create our social world through our words and other symbols, and through our behaviors” o People through their communication form their organization o Social Constructionism: Most of what we have in our social world are created through people talking about them It argues that reality is not an objective thing but is an intersubjective construction created through communication Difference between container and social constructivist: container- everything is in a box and social constructivist doesn’t think the box matters CCO Communicative constitution of organization “Try to understand the complicated processes through which our interactions create, re-create, and change organizations” Appreciate the verb of organizing rather than the noun Theoretical schools Structuration Theory (Giddens) There are different aspects that create an organization o Agency: people free to act; free will- social world is generated through this o Structures: rules and resources called upon by actors; ability to converse o Constrain our behavior by giving us specific directions about how to act o Can be changed during interaction Ex: when you are shopping for food there are rules that guide how you are to behave- some might be explicit and others are more implicit o Duality of Structures: producing and reproducing structures through personal conversation Every time someone in the organization has a conversation, the organization changes Discourse (Fairhurst and Putnam) o discourse: study of talk, text, and social practices Thus ‘becoming’, ‘conversation’ Little d= the study of all the talking that is going on and the behaviors that people are using o Discourse: general and enduring systems of thought Thus “text” written down Taking the thought and talk and write it down It has been codified/written down to be shared with other people Problem: it’s enduring; it is always changing so if the little d changes/alters the big d has to be amended to those change CCO Strong emphasis on communication as central to any understanding of organizing Reciprocal and recursive relationship between ongoing interaction at micro level Systems of meaning at macro level Patterns 1. Moving to a strong emphasis on comm. as a central to any understanding of organizing 2. These ideas highlight the reciprocal and recursive relationships between ongoing interaction at micro level (the action of agents or discourse) and systems of meaning at macro level (structures or Discourse) The Montreal School Strongest set of research being done Co-orientation: the process through which people coordinate activity through interaction- CCO approach o Text & conversation Text: product of conversational language- the written down interaction from the conversation that occurred o Influences the co-orientation process that occurs during conversation Conversation: ongoing interaction- among individuals using language o Together form a self-organizing loop Distanciation o Meaning created in relationship between text and conversation can be codified and make a difference in situations beyond initial interaction o “Scaling up” – degrees of separation between the initial interaction and the place where it is fully codified (6 degrees to Kevin Bacon) Where the original intent of a speaker is embedded in conversation and then distances from that conversation (scaled up) through its transformation into text Distanciation First degree of separation: The intent of the speaker is embedded in conversation Patrick, a worker at an urban nonprofit, suggests a new way to connect homeless individuals with job opportunities Simply just having an idea in your head- not telling anyone Second degree of separation: The conversation is given a narrative representation Heather tells others about the ideas Patrick shared with her Patrick is interacting with someone else about his idea Third degree of separation: The text is transcribed into a more permanent form- enduring A written plan is developed based on Patrick’s ideas Could be a video recording Now people who were not there during the initial discussion now have that idea- how ideas spread Fourth degree of separation: A specialized language is developed that is used in subsequent texts and conversations Specific terminology is created for components of Patrick’s plans so others in the city center can share in the planning Fifth degree of separation: The texts and conversation are transformed into material and physical frames Procedure manuals are created and kiosks are built in strategic locations Sixth degree of separation: The standardization form is disseminated to a broader public The new system is shared with nonprofits in other urban areas Montreal School Texts have agency o They lose connection with authors over time o They add to complexity of organization constitution Ventriloquism o Texts take on life beyond their original intent, interpreted o Suggests that one agent in an organization can do the speaking for other agents o A person could post an anonymous comment on a website and let that comment do the talking o There are times when these texts take on a life and might come back and speak for others in various ways Four Flows- Robert McPhee Different types of communication flows happen in process of organizing o Necessary and sufficient conditions for organization o Reciprocal relationship with organization Four Flow theorists v. Montreal theorists 1. Montreal concentrate to a large extent on the “micro” processes of constitution—the ways in which specific conversations take place and get scaled up WHILE four flow’s don’t examine this process explicitly, they begin at a higher level to consider comm. flows as they intersect and constitute organizations 2. FF look more explicitly at the functions of communication flows These four comm. flows encompass what are typically seen as internal and external matters FF consider more of the content of comm. during the constitution process and what specific flows need to occur in order for organizing to take place o They see themselves as contributing to the ongoing question of how large-scale orgs are constituted Membership Negotiation- 4 flows Members crossing various boundaries o Organizations are communicatively constituted through people who bring the organization into existence and enter/exit over time o Not necessarily explicit boundaries of an organizational container, but boundaries of knowledge, legitimacy, and connection that can separate org members from others Knowledge Legitimacy Connection Self-Structuring- 4 flows Distinguishes organizations from other kinds of groupings Provides norms, standards, and rules for getting work done within organization o Ex: official documents such as charters, organization charts, policy and procedure manuals etc Provides norms, standards, and rules for getting work done Can often be ongoing (schedule meetings, discussing new procedures, providing feedback) Activity Coordination- 4 flows Highlights ideas of interdependence of actors to accomplish things through communication Ongoing interaction that’s necessary to get work done Suggests that organizations are in a very basic way constituted by ongoing interdependent comm. through which individual activity is coordinated Institutional Positioning- 4 flows Establishing relationships with other entities in environment Establishing ways information and resources can move among relevant organizations Issues of organizational identity o As an org tries to establish itself as a viable partner or create/maintain an image that will help it successfully position itself with other organizations in the larger environment or with the public Challenges Downplays issues of materiality Less emphasis on wider structures of power Chapter 6: Critical and Feminist Approaches Metaphors so far: Machine Systems/Organism Culture Constitutive NOW: Critical lens Perspectives on Models so far: “Political” frame of reference (Burrell and Morgan) Chiefly derogatory relating to, affecting, or acting according to the interests of status or authority within an organization rather than matters of principle” Unitary: emphasis is placed on common organizational goals o Conflict is rare and undesirable o Thinking about what needs to happen- task o One brain- do what I say o Power is the natural prerogative of management Pluralist: Emphasis is placed on the positive aspects of divergent interests within the organization o Conflict is positive and normal o People having different ideas in an organization is normal o Group, team Radical: organization is seen as a battle ground where rival forces seek incompatible goals o Conflict reflects larger class struggles- what’s happening in the organization is most likely happening outside in the environment o They see things very differently- incompatible goals Theorists take an activist role in instigating and encouraging organizational transformation “Role” of the theorist in approaching organization life (Pursuit of theory) Classical, human relations, human resources: role is prescriptive o Find effective techniques o Systems, culture: role is to understand or explain o Casual relationships, view of the insider o Never towards change esp. cultural o Find causal relationships- how do things work; what causes one activity to result in another o Not about changing the organization Critical Approaches Approaches to organization analysis that consider.. -change organization Organization as sites of domination and See theory as a force that can emancipate individuals from these dominating forces o Emancipation: people are liberated from restrictive ideologies and power relationships Historical Origins th Karl Marx: 19 century German intellectual o “Critique” would lead to revolution as it reveals fundamental truths about the human social condition Little afraid of the conflict with the powers that be o You have to transcend unhappy situations through critical thought and action o People don’t know what their value is/what they’re worth; willing to settle for what people give you Critical Theory in a Nutshell 1. Certain societal structures and processes lead to fundamental imbalances of power Tradition, convention = societal structures Leads to alienation and oppression 2. Imbalances of power lead to alienation and oppression for certain social classes and groups 3. Role of theorist: Explore and uncover the imbalances Bring them to the attention of the oppressed groups Pervasiveness of Power Key element for critical theorist: power “The capability or ability to direct or influence the behavior of others or the course of events” Locus of power: comes from the individual Power is directly related to: control and domination Power begins with the individual Power Three approaches to Power (Conrad and Ryan) 1. Traditional: power is relatively stable entity that people or groups possess One group has power over another Ex: blacks & whites Role: what factors lead to this? Impact on outcomes like job satisfaction? Get passed on culturally 2. Symbological: power is a product of communicative interactions and relationships How we comm. about particular subjects gives us power Ex: talking about students- it is a power word; there is a teacher, they are still learning- it is a derogatory term Role: cultural lens: what messaging leads to this? 3. Radical-critical: assumption that there are inherent contradictions between the “surface structure” of power and the “deep structure” of power that must be explored The way things look or what we think the belief is- surface structure What the reality is- deep structure Role: what are the underlying deep economic, social, communicative relationships to produce and maintain power How does the way we comm. w people and produce/train people to continue to allow oppression etc. Always looking for the underlying reasons for why some people have power and some don’t Sources of Power (Table 6.1) 1. Formal authority—through appointment/designation -Ex: you are designated the deputy 2. Control of scarce resources—because you have that resource you can get people to do things for you 3. Use of organizational structure, rules, and regulations—comes from things that are written down 4. Control of decision processes 5. Control of knowledge and information—keeping people in the dark who don’t have certain knowledge 6. Control of boundaries 7. Ability to cope with uncertainty—people follow your lead when they don’t know what to do if you act like you know what to do 8. Control of technology 9. Interpersonal alliances, networks, and control of ‘informal organization’ 10. Control of counter organizations 11. Symbolism and the management of meaning 12. Gender and the management of gender relationships 13. Structural factors that define the stage of action 14. The power one already has These sources of power parodied organizational members with a variety of means for enhancing their interests and resolving or perpetuating organizational conflict Two sources of power in detail Control of Modes and Means of Production From Marxist theory Modes of production: the economic conditions that underlie the production process Owners expropriating surplus labor from workers Surplus value of labor may be hidden from workers and owners o 0 surplus labor = when you are completely occupied o Example: flip phone o $100 for supplies and $100 for labor selling the product for $200 which leaves $50 of profit to the owner—Marx says that is imbalanced because workers aren’t getting paid enough o He says if there is a $50 profit then the workers are being underpaid—oppressive situation Means of Production: the actual work processes involved in production Processes that are involved Assembly lines, data processing, retail, telemarketing have “deskilled” the worker, resulting in alienated and oppressed workforce Fragmented, monotonous work Controlled by owners and managers How products are made and services are rendered As a workplace becomes more technologically advanced, workers become deskilled and alienated from their work o When owners and managers have control over workplace processes and technologies (means of production), critical theorists believe the result will be an alienated/oppressed workforce Alienation can occur through: repetitive and boring jobs created by technology Oppression can occur as: workers are replaced or limited in advancement by robots o Allows management to constantly monitor the behavior of workers o This is one of the ways management maintains its domination over employees Control of Organizational Discourse Highlights concerns most typically associated with critical theorists in the comm. discipline Reality created through discourse is the site of domination Stories told in the organization which uphold managerial power o Accounts of organizing, examples of rules violations Power relationships are produced/reproduced through organizational discourse There are a number of ways discourse can be seen as creating/recreating power structures 1. The use in our culture of particular phrases to describe work can be seen as reinforcing dominant power structures 2. Narratives provide members with accounts of organizing o Stories people tell make sense of the organization in a way that often supports the dominant organizational coalition 3. Entire industries can be influenced by the discursive constructions found in regulatory materials Outcomes of Control Structures Ideology Take for granted assumptions about reality that shape our beliefs about what exists, what is possible, and what is good o More than beliefs, they structure thought and controls interpretations of reality o Rarely questioned or scrutinized—women accept 11% less money than what a man is getting because we don’t know the difference o Used to legitimize actions Example: hierarchy and decisions o Influences our behavior o When its exercised on groups of people this is hegemony Hegemony The process where a dominant group leads another group to accept domination as the norm o It is manufactured consent where employees are willingly adopt and reinforce hierarchical power structures o Does not refer to simple domination- involves attempts by various groups to articulate meaning systems that are actively taken up by other groups Typically accomplished by shaping ideology in such a way that the controlled group accepts and actively participates in the control process o Accomplished by shaping ideology to reinforce the norm o Example: Nazi Germany, Japanese management theories, professors Social structures, processes allow the dominant class to shape organizational ideology The result is a hegemonic relationship where one group is controlled by another through coercion, acceptance, or even active participation For critical theorists the next step is emancipation of the oppressed group For participants the next step might be activities of resistance Ultimate goal Emancipation People are liberated from restrictive ideologies and power relationships The role of the critical theorist is to reveal the social structures/processes that have led to ideological hegemony When Alienated people are able to consider their condition critically- this is possible It is important to find ways that people can participate in free and open communication about power/control Role of critical theorist: reveal the social structures and processes—emancipate people Role of Org Comm theorist: Find communicative ways for people to have free and open dialog about power and control in orgs where they work Look at the words being used—revealing those o At minimum, forums Pendulum Swings Resistance Research in this area considers the ways in which workers can exert counter pressure on the exercise of power and control by organizations How workers can exert counter pressure on this exercise of power and control o Domination and resistance are intimately linked o Sometimes seen in collective and organized processes such as unions, strike, boycotts, etc Examples: o Organized labor processes o Large scale social movements (WTO protest) Looking at how they are globally affecting each other o Counterinstitution websites: walmartsucks.com Critical Approaches in Comm. Theory of Concertive Control Attempts to explain how power relationships can be transformed in an era of team-based and ‘alternative form’ organizations o power relationship—boss is controlling mean/modes of production transforming it to spread the power between the workers Concertive Control concepts: Control Identification Discipline Types of Control: Simple control: direct and authoritarian exertion o One person directly states what you have to do Technological control: through technology, (assembly lines) o Assembly line controlled how people behaved— fast or slow Bureaucratic control: through hierarchical structure and rational-legal rules Concertive: shifts from managers to workers who collaborate to form rules and norms that govern behavior People working together Identification: when individual takes on the concerns of the organization or group and accepts those concerns as their own Discipline: the techniques that develop as a result of communicative interaction to reward and punish behavior that conform with or deviates from the values identified as important by the work group Meted out by the work group Being done by the workers themselves Summary of Concertive control theory: Power is embedded in a system of identification and control Workers identity with values and norms of management o They see what the managers want o The workers start to exercise control over each other to make that happen Workers use as basis for making decisions and discipline Feminist Approach Critical view Traditional/bureaucratic form: patriarchal in form (gendered practices)—things are done differently based on the gender of the participants o Because it’s an ideology people accept this o Individualism, linear thinking, aggressiveness, competitiveness o Downplay emotion, empathy, intuition, connectedness, cooperation ‘female characteristics’—ability to be connected, formation of relationships Situation ripe for Feminist Critical Theorists Sexual Harassment o Expression of power not sexuality o Men and women see this very differently because of contrasting experiences with power and fear and different socialization regarding masculinity and femininity o Investigated “framing devices” to uncover hegemonic aspect of communication and eliminate bias Women use in telling of the harassment stories; often served to reinforce the dominant ideology “Harmless joke” Table 6.2: Framing Device : Explanation (sexual harassment) Accepting dominant interests: accepted or justified as a less important problem than other managerial concerns Simple misunderstanding: accepted or justified as mere flirting Reification: accepted or justified as the way things are Trivialization: accepted/justified as a harmless joke Denotative hesitancy: encounter not defined by the term sexual harassment Public/private expression/domain: described as a part of private—rather than public—life or described using private forms of expression (embarrassment, fear) Two ways of situating feminist organizational communication: emphasizes activism and feminism Feminist Approaches Kanter (1977) Gender issues permeate organizational life ‘Tokenism’, ‘glass ceiling’ Organizations inherently patriarchal Women have distinct ways of viewing work and creating meaning Concepts used to understand organizational life tend to be male-biased Very structure of language is patriarchal Feminist intellectual Framework Ashcraft (2005) Feminist approach is not a subset of critical approach, but a reflective of feminist movement Emphasizes the links of feminist organizational communication scholarship with the larger feminist movement o Feminist movement emphasizes activism, social justice Key assumptions: o Gender relates to power and identity configuration o Work is key site; dominate system is patriarchal o Communication is constitutive of this process o Also accept material conditions as critical Paths for Activism--views on what should be done Liberal feminists: work on change from within, gain power o Believe that remedies for female subordination should come from within the system and that women should work to gain their fair share of control in institutions currently run by men Radical feminists: destruction of male-dominated hegemony o Believe that emancipation for women can occur only through the destruction of male-dominated institutions or through the total separation of women from these institutions Standpoint feminists: work to have marginalized voices heard o Work to enhance the opportunity for a variety of marginalized voices to be heard within societal dialogue Postmodern feminists: ‘deconsruct’ meaning systems o In order to highlight women’s perspectives Pluralist feminism: hybrid form favored by Ashcraft o Moderate approach to seek social change without antibureaucrattic, countercapitalist practices Discourse at Women-led business Edley—organization talked the talk, but owner did not walk the walk Communication marked by emotion and conflict— labeled way women talk Women played into sexual stereotypes of women Tracy Everbach Suggests that the news becomes masculized even when reported by women Disciplined bodies Thretheway—examined how organizational context serves to discipline women’s bodily displays o Particular size and shape that must be maintained o Nonverbal movement o Displayed with makeup and clothing that exhibit femininity How are women to manage this dilemma? 1. Women saw a professional body as a fit body that symbolized discipline and endurance 2. Believed they need to control their nonverbal displays to communicate strength but non-threatening 3. The need to control and discipline the female body’s tendency to leak through unruly clothing, menstrual bleeding, pregnancy, emotional displays o Such leaking calls attention to the feminine and private nature of a woman’s body in a public context that values control Ch. 7—socialization processes Transition From approaches: ways to understand org comm. TO processes: how communication works within orgs to accomplish particular ends o Sets of behaviors that cut across particular topics o How people join and exit an organization NEW FOCUS Assimilation—how people join, become integrated into, and exit organizations o ongoing behavioral and cognitive processes Jablin and Krone Environmental Change What is different today v. 50 years ago? In terms of importance of assimilation ‘Behavioral and cognitive processes by which individuals join, become integrated into, and exit organizations’ Assimilation Dual Process: socialization and individualization Org influence via socialization o Adaptation of individuals o Formal, informal processes—training, shadowing, watch & listen o Process is marked by turning points—where an individual become more (or less) connected to the organization o Organization is influencing you Employee influence on org o Individualization o Employees tries to change the organization with new ideas, perspectives, traditions “These are the processes that play out over time as an individual encounters and becomes a part of the organization” o Stages o Can take a long time Socialization Stages I. Anticipatory Before org entry Work, occupation, organization Essentially a life long process ‘What do you want to be when you grow up’ Ex: UB career services Several aspects: learning about work in general, learning about a particular occupation, and learning about a particular organization II. Encounter Point of entry; sense making (can be stressful) Difficult because you’re an outsider/don’t know the culture First immersing self into organization Examples of communication processes in this phase o Induction processes through orientation sessions, mentoring, Q & A sessions III. Metamorphosis You’ve made the transition—seen as an insider o You are accepted o Result of learning, changing Never static though o Change in roles, positions—transfers within org etc. Content of Socialization The ‘WHAT’ of assimilation process Role-related o What you need to perform o Information, skills, procedures, rules, dress codes Organizational Culture o Much more complex o Formal documentation rarely exists o Difficult to articulate—learned through interaction, observing, testing limits Org context plays a critical role in socialization process o Firefighters, assembly line work Have to rely on each other in a way that their lives are dependent on it—what people talk about makes a big difference because stakes are much higher Summary of socialization models Phases of models—helps us understand the when of socialization (how individuals move from anticipating occupational and organizational life to becoming integrated organizational members) Content—helps us understand the what of socialization (differentiating role-related and cultural information) Embedded within these notions of when and what are a variety of processes through which assimilation occurs: formal training programs, mentoring, interviewing, outside research, and relationships with managers, coworkers, and subordinates Communication processes in socialization Employment interview Newcomer information-seeking tactics Role-development processes Organizational Exit Interview Process One or many people, location varies, many outcomes Interview functions 1. Recruit/screen and decide about quality o Interviewer gathers information in structure ways Structured—schedule of questions and have to answer them Unstructured—simple and natural way of learning about someone o Interviewers ‘cue’ appropriate responses Will you be willing to work on Saturdays What cannot be asked of you: sexual preference, gender, age, creed (religion), race, married, have children o Much variability in content by industry 2. Applicant finds out more about the org o Form first impression o Asking questions 3. First point of socialization o Forming opinions of the organization o Realistic job previews: Wanous ‘idea that expectations will be violated less and less voluntary employee turnover’ When Lesniak left the room and we asked Katie questions o The effectiveness of RJPs may depend on what information is communicated during interview and how the interaction occurs Should be viewed as persuasive communication Highlights choices made about message source (job incumbent v. recruiters), message content, and communication medium (electronic v. written v. oral) o This view also carries risks Rynes argues that some recruits may view negative job characteristics as a challenge and not self-select out of inappropriate jobs Newcomer Info-seeking Tactics New hires are not passive o Tactics vary re: uncertainty o There are costs Miller & Jablin Developed the most complete typology of newcomer information-seeking Seven modes The use of these tactics will vary depending on the extent to which uncertainty needs to be reduced and the social costs of seeking information o Social costs might include embarrassment about not knowing something or fear of irritating coworkers with repeated requests Also depends on personality (extrovert) and can be enhanced by relationship-building opportunities Tactics: Overt questions: newcomer solicits information by asking direct questions of information targets Indirect questions: newcomers solicits information by asking noninterrogative questions or by hinting o “Do people eat their dinner at their desks” is a way of asking if they’ll be there at 6pm Third parties: newcomer solicits information by asking a secondary source (coworker) rather than a primary source (supervisor) Testing limits: Solicits information by breaking or deviating from organizational rules and observing reactions o Wearing yoga pants to work instead of dress pants Disguising conversations: solicits information by disguising the information-seeking attempt as a natural part of the conversation o Chatting with people & cleverly working your question in Observing: newcomer solicits information by watching behavior in salient situations o Least intrusive Surveillance: solicits information by making sense of past observed behavior Role Development How you take your job description and turn it into a reality People accomplish work through roles o Roles develop from interaction Leader-Member-Exchange (LMX) theory—Graen o The LMX model divides role development into 3 interrelated phases Role taking, role making, and role routinization o Role taking Sampling and exploring different roles Supervisor assigns tasks to subordinate in order to learn about the subordinate’s skills & motivation o Role Making Subordinate modifies nature of role Negotiation process where supervisor and subordinate exchange resources in the further development of role definitions Takes initial role and stretches it into different directions EX: Laura wants Josh to take on more responsibility for tailoring the pharmaceutical company’s presence on social media, Josh might respond that he needs a break from other org responsibilities or that he needs additional staff to accomplish this Involves a social exchange where each party must see the other party as valuable and each party must see the exchange as reasonably equitable or fair o Role Routinization st Roles developed in the 1 two phases are well understood Roles range along a continuum from in- group to out-group In-group: high trust, mutual influence, high reward, high support, and latitude in task development (flexibility) Out-group: low trust, formal authority, low rewards, low support, and tasks based on job description Differences are attributed to the role negotiation process o Interactive process through which individuals create and alter expectations about how a job is to be done o Likely to be key in predicting the newcomers chances of successfully individualizing their role Org Exit Process (not an event) o Anticipated (retirement, layoff) Wide impact o Changing roles for people who are left behind and for their families Demographically o The baby boom generation is aging (more and more people are reaching retirement age) thus org disengagement through retirement is important Economically o Global and postmodern marketplace is often characterized by mergers, acquisitions, bankruptcies, and downsizing Mobile society—people are constantly moving from job to job o Job transfers are common Workers today are more likely than in past eras to make radical job switches because of disenchantment with an initial job/career Generalizations about the exit process Individuals often anticipate their exit Influences both those who leave and those who are left behind Profound effects on the families of those who leave Communication plays a critical role Retirement o American workers held a “master narrative” that situated retirement as the ultimate marker of freedom from routine and the financial need to work o That narrative was often fractured as individuals contemplated worries about money or the double-edged sword of not having work activities TABLE 7.3 APPROACHES TO SOCIALIZATION PROCESS Classical: socialization is seen as a way to ensure that employees are properly trained for maximum effectiveness and efficiency Scientific management—Taylor Research might evaluate training programs or consider socialization strategies as a means of reducing employee turnover Human Relations: socialization is seen as a way to maximize the possibility that employees will be highly satisfied org members. Research might evaluate extent to which socialization practices helps employees satisfy higher order needs Human Resources: socialization is seen as a way to maximize the contributions employees can make Questions asked during interview process leads directly to how they will contribute Research might evaluate selection process will attract recruits who can contribute to the org goals Systems: socialization is seen as a boundary transition between the outside and the inside of the system Research might consider the role of communication networks on the adaptation of newcomers Cultural: socialization is seen as a process through which newcomers come to understand the values and norms of the new culture Research might consider sense making strategies of new employees Constitutive: socialization is seen in terms of the membership negotiation flow that constitutes the og rather than as a transition across the boundaries of a container Research might consider ongoing discourse processes that contribute to member identification with the organization Critical: socialization is seen as a process through which organizational owners and managers develop and maintain hegemonic relationships with employees Research might consider how socialization tactics serve as instruments of unobtrusive control Feminist: socialization is seen as a process that is potentially gendered as new employees are introduced to rational and patriarchal org systems Research might encourage alternative modes of recruitment and assimilation that would encourage alternative and feminine values Ch.8 lecture Role of communication in decision-making How General models o Rational, intuition, heuristic Small-group context Who Participation in Decision making (PDM) Model: Rational Problem action! Linear AKA Normative method (Nutt) 1. Formulation o Define the problem 2. Concept development o General alternatives 3. Detailing process o Feasibility of alternatives o Additional research might be conducted and evaluated in terms of factors such as reach and impact 4. Evaluation stage o Criteria used to scrutinize alternatives (the other options) o Information that is gathered during detailing would be placed under intense scrutiny by the group to determine the cost effectiveness and appeal of each marketing option 5. Implementation stage o Selection and recommendation to sponsors Is this realistic? No—shouldn’t just look for a single solution— looking for a solution that will work well enough for dealing with the situation Model: Satisficing If rational-normative method is optimizing Satisficing (satisfying + sufficing)—realistic o March and Simon o Seek solutions that will work well enough for dealing with the situation Why propose this o Not possible for humans to optimize (ideal, rational) all the time Bound rationality o Make rational decision, but limited by cognitive limits, limits of org life o Still use logic but do so under personal and organizational constraints Model: Intuitive Intuitive processes (Simon) o Experienced managers must often make decisions quickly Often unaware of how they are made Rely upon their experience (tactic knowledge) Heuristics are based on—patterns, facts, techniques, abstractions Analogical (analogy + logical) o Based on past experiences in similar circumstances Faster decisions Improved decision quality—applying more than just rational Promotes compatibility with org culture (test question) Model: Garbage can Process where problems, solutions, participants, and choices are all dumped together and a decision is made when all coincide Once everything “makes sense” o Wait for the “Aha moment” Fundamentally—are people rational? o In org’s what about times of Crisis? o Impacts on Predictions, Creativity? Small-Group Decision Context for majority of decisions, especially in team environments Descriptive Model (Fisher) o Phase (or stage) Model Orientation Conflict Emergence Reinforcement o Systematic logic Stage models explain decision behavior as the result of the group following a systematic logic o Assume a rigid and unitary sequence of group activities 1. Orientation o Group members become acquainted with each other and with the problem at hand 2. Conflict o Possible solutions to the problem are presented and debated 3. Emergence o Group will arrive at some level of consensus during the next phase 4. Reinforcement o Decision will be supported and commitment to implement Punctuated Equilibrium Gersick Model that highlights both the underlying deep structure and the revolutionary shifts that occur in groups Multiple Sequence Model Poole, et al (1989), highlight communication patterns groups take Most complex response to rational phase models Represents a variety of decision paths taken by groups Unitary sequence path—23% frequency o Group interaction generally followed traditional sequence of orientation, problem analysis, solution and reinforcement o Rational process Complex cyclic path—47% frequency o Group interaction consists of multiple problem- solution cycles o Way that groups really work Solution-orientated path—30% frequency o Group interaction involved no activity related to problem definition or analysis Lack of communication Effectiveness Dysfunction studies o What makes for ineffective decisions Groupthink o Mode of thinking where a group is more concerned with appearing cohesive and maintaining group relations than they are with making a high quality decision Symptoms: o Illusion of invulnerability-- the belief that nothing can go wrong within the group o Pressure on dissidents-- coercive force that obliges group members to behave and think in similar ways o Self-censorship-- overt restraint of group members against offering opinions counter to the prevailing thought in the group Limit your behavior due to worrying about affecting relationship with group members How to improve? Cognitive Conflict is good o Affective, bad (based on personal issues) Devil’s Advocacy, good Functional Theory (Hirokawa & Gouran) Argues that effective decision making depends on groups attending to critical functions through group communication These functions are: o Correct understanding of issues to be resolved o Determine the minimal characteristics required for alternative to be acceptable o Identify a relevant and realistic set of alternatives o Examine alternatives in relation to the characteristic o Select alternative most likely to have desire characteristics Critiques of this research Focus strictly on task functions of groups, ignoring socio-emotional and relational aspects of group interaction Symbolic Convergence Theory (Bormann) o Examines the relational elements involved in group interaction by analyzing dramatizing messages with group interaction and the ways in which these messages contribute to the information of a group identity Participation Early research (human relations period) o Participation would make employees less resistant to changes Since then several effects have been studied o Job satisfaction o Job involvement o Commitment o Improved productivity PDM o Concludes that participation has significant and consistent effects on satisfaction and performance o There are several models that link participation, job satisfaction, and productivity Affective model & Cognitive model Affective Model Human Relations based Maslow influence (satisfy higher order needs—self- esteem) Result: Job satisfaction, Productivity o PDMsatisfaction of higher-order needswork satisfactionmotivationproductivity Cognitive Model Humans resources based o People closest to the work participate, tap their brains better, better able to implement the decisions Key: Quality of Information, leverage “pools” of knowledge in the workplace o PDM either upward or downward information flowlead to productivitysatisfaction Workplace democracy Realizing the ideals of a democratic society in the workplace o Based on humanistic deals about how individuals should be treated and involved in society Actual influence on processes Democracy at all levels of the org Issues o Collaboration among multiple stakeholders can be lengthy, but crucial o Representative v. direct forms of democracy Direct avoids additional hierarchical forms (perhaps patriarchal forms) PDM may introduce paradoxes PDM Paradoxes Present a cautionary note about complexity of instituting participation and democracy There are 14 that fall into 4 categories o Structure, Agency, Identity, Power Structure Involving how org democracy is planned, designed, and formalized Employers are told: be spontaneous, creative, vocal, and assertive in the way we have planned Agency Concerning an individual’s sense of responsibility, autonomy, and cooperation within participative system Employers are told: do things our way but in a way that is still distinctly your own Identity Concerning issues of inclusion, boundaries, and interests within the participative system Employers are told: be self-managing to reach org goals Power Concerning how control and leadership are exercised within the participatory system Employers are told: be independent—just as I have commanded you Collaboration Processes Org’s are more likely to collaborate 1. Globalization 2. Technology o Audio, video, computer conferencing, online collaborative communities 3. Business, political and social issues o Increasingly complex and multi-org solutions are required to deal with this Cooper & Shumate o Argue that a bona fide group perspective is appropriate for this because it emphasizes the dynamic, fuzzy, and multiplex relationships Walker & Stohl o Used this approach to model changing networks in interorg engineering collaborations Interorganizational Collaboration Can lead to tensions regarding how contact is structured and how relationships evolve and change Communication and Organization Knowledge Org’s no longer see decision-making as an isolated process It is an ongoing system Integrated into structures and behaviors There are a variety of ways to think about org knowledge Synoptic knowledge o Abstract representations that might be encoded in instruction manuals or expert systems Cultural knowledge o Allows org actors to act in coordinated ways through understandings of particular sites and systems Improvisational knowledge o People may use when they encounter unusual situations o Must move beyond what is encoded in synoptic knowledge Process of knowledge involves Identifying and harnessing intellectual assets to allow organizations to build on past experiences and create new mechanisms for exchanging and creating knowledge Use of explicit knowledge o Saved in documents, systems, and programs o Synoptic knowledge Tactic knowledge o Held by individuals in an org (typically cultural knowledge) in ongoing collaboration and improvisation Management will do 2 things in a successful system of knowledge 1. Will allow individuals in an org to convert their tactic knowledge into explicit knowledge that can be shared and used in org decision-making operations 2. Org members to find ways to make the codified knowledge meaningful once it has been retrieved from org systems Iverson and Mcphee argued that the need for these various kinds of knowledge has led to 2 distinct approaches: 1. Information-based knowledge management Most concerned with tracking data and developing processes for cataloguing and retrieving those data 2. Interaction-based knowledge management Concerned with tactic knowledge that org actors hold How interaction patterns in org networks can facilitate the sharing of that information Approaches to decision-making Classical: seen as rational and logical process Emphasis is placed on procedures through which decision makers can reach an optimal solution as efficiently as possible Human relations: participation is seen as an avenue for the satisfaction of workers needs Satisfied workers will be more productive Human resources: participation is seen as an avenue for eliciting valuable information from employees and for ensuring effective implementation of org decisions Systems: complex process involving multiple and varied stages Both information and org members are seen as a part of knowledge management systems Cultural: set of practices that reflect org values and assumptions Cultural information is an important fact of embedded knowledge Constitutive: interactive site through which org is constituted Texts created through conversation can facilitate or impede collaborative processes Critical: process where management can exert control over employees through the definition and acceptance of decision premises and procedures Feminist: one way to enact feminist values such as non- hierarchical structure, collaboration, regard for emotion, and supportive interaction
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