General Chemistry II
General Chemistry II CHEM 1120
Utah State University
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Riley Lemke on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 1120 at Utah State University taught by Cheng-Wei Chang in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see /class/230507/chem-1120-utah-state-university in Chemistry and Biochemistry at Utah State University.
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Date Created: 10/28/15
Chapter 14 Aldehydes Ketones and Chiral Molecules Learning Objectives 1 Identify compounds with carbonyl group as aldehydes or ketones 2 Provide both IUPAC and common names for aldehydes or ketones 3 Recognize the differences in physical properties of aldehydes or ketones as compared to alcohols phenols ethers and thiols 4 Recognize the oxidation and reduction of aldehydes or ketones 5 Write the products of addition of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones 6 Identify chiral and achiral carbons in molecules Sections 141 Aldehydes and Ketones 142 Physical Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones 143 Oxidation and Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones 144 Addition Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones 145 Chiral Molecules Recommended additional problems 1445 1447 1449 1453 1455 1461 1463 1465 141 Aldehydes and Ketones A Structure of the carbonyl group i i A H H R H R R39 B Nomenclature of aldehydes 0 AA H i C Nomenclature of ketones O 142 Physical Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones A Boiling points B Solubility in water 143 Oxidation and Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones Overview I W39 o o CCH gt C C H gt C C OH l 4 lt OH H1 H 0 oxidation H reduction I I O I C Cquot R E C l3 R I OH H l o A Tollens test B Benedict s test U C Reduction of aldehydes and ketones Hydrogenation H2 H Raney Ni gt 0 H2 VHH Raney Ni gt 0 H2 H Pt gt O i Commonly Used Metal Catalysts Pd Pt Pt0 PtII Ni Raney Nickel Rh 144 Addition Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones A Addition of water o39 k HO 9H R H R R HR H20 B Addition of alcohols Formation of acetals hemiacetals ketals and hemiketals o39 HOR39 2 equivalents HOR39 2 equivalents R39O OR39 H20 C Cyclic hemiacetals Know the bond distance between carbonyl groups and hydroxyl groups 0 O HOU H HO H OH O U HON H HO 145 Chiral Molecules Important Terminologies achiral chiral plane of symmetry mirror image enantiomer and stereocenter A Chiral carbon atoms Mirror a 39 Lb imbe a amGaneralDrgauhnr quot 39 39w u quoty f 3 m 1 J 2th hing quot Cumming t r Rotate Aahiral i rmr carbon atom 1 These are ihe same structures Timberlaka 69991246 Emma and 3193099132 Chemfgl rjr Copyc ght lv aarm Enmatian inc uhllahing 25 Benjamin Cummings Trick for identifying chiral carbons look for four different substituth or two identical substituents Examples W O H Cl HO B Drawing Fischer projections HO CHO CHZOH CHO OH CHZOH
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