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Study Guide for Test #3

by: Katie Warren

Study Guide for Test #3 Psyc 3221

Katie Warren
GPA 3.48

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This is all of the information covered in class that was important to know for the exam, and the main terms from the book are highlighted for easy finding.
Social Psychology
Kendell Thornton
Study Guide
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katie Warren on Friday March 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 3221 at East Carolina University taught by Kendell Thornton in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 03/25/16
Social Psychology Study Guide Test on March 30 th This is a review of all of the material studied since last exam. The professor has not put out a study guide yet, so I am compiling everything we have learned and it should include all of the things he has gone over in class and what is most likely to be on the exam. Some specific terms from the book are highlighted in yellow. *****The Research Paper is due next Friday the day after our exam! Date due: April 1 ***** Chapter 7 Relationships is the topic of this chapter. LOVEEE:  Most people think that you have to have something to love to be in love!  Our natural state of existence is to reside in a state of love.  Love is a feeling you learn to allow yourself to feel or not.  We start to think that we are in need of that special person to have the feeling of love and stuff. o Not true because we can be unhappy and not having the love feeling when we are with that thing or person also. o It is untrue that we need other things outside of us to have love.  With depressed people they are not getting the same outcome on the inside as most people with joy and love.  CBT: don’t have that bio genetically healing and all Side note:  Happiness and contentment ebbs and flows and changes over time in relationships. We can fall in love with anyone and anyone can be your soul mate. Probably found the one and only in driving distance that will put up with you for more than 3 days.  Smiling: o Facial feedback hypothesis study o Study was of people holding a pen in their mouth and this causes them to be happier.  FRIENDSHIP: o Proximity research: close in miles and distances. o Leon Festinger: social comparison and cognitive dissonance. o Research on married student housing. And randomly assigned couples to their place they will be living. Found out that at the end of a year the people who were their best friends lived within 3 doors of them. o Propinquity: state of being close over a period of time: in the mind closeness o Frequency of exposure is important and proximity increases frequency of exposure. And in propinquity you will encounter them more too in some way. o Frequency of exposure increases liking.  Zajonc research (1969) o Showed people geometric figures. o Two groups and in one group the figures reoccurred more often than in the other. o Then asked how they reacted to the figures and how they liked them. o This is research that shows that if the individuals saw the figure more than one of the others it caused them more happiness and they liked it more.  Info that came from this is figuring out how you can get more into liking someone after seeing and being around them more and then you can also see someone too much. Relationships: Acquaintanceship theory: can’t become aquatinted without getting to know the individual. Need multiple exposures to an individual!  Definition: strange phenomenon where you can see two possible outcomes to being exposed to individuals multiple times. From Milgram: “So shocking” obedience research. Ex: riding bus together every day: frequency of expose such as these makes it harder to get to know the person more. The more opportunities where you could have interactions that you pass up the less likely you will ever interact! o After you are done with the class you will recognize the people and then maybe introduce yourself to them. Friendship: what leads you to become friends: because they remind you of you… even when you used to dislike them you only didn’t like something you were similar to! Crazy!!  Occurs because of reward.  Reinforcement Affect Model: we are conditioned animals and like people because they do nice things for us. All of it is a form of manipulation when you tell them you like them, then you try to impress them, then do something fun together and feed them. This is a conditioning process. We do this over a period of time to think of us in positive terms because when they have hung-out with us they enjoyed it. o When you do something that will have a physiological arousal then they will attribute that to you.  Misattribution is a conditioning. Study on the bridge is similar (example given in class). The more suspenseful the bridge crossing with a woman the more attracted the man felt to her. Misinterpretation of the arousal.  Reinforcing their arousal of you by making sure you are being connected to it. If activity sucks and food tanked they might not call you back.  Path through heart is stomach. Ingratiation from other chapters is similar. Complementary = Enhancement Favors: basic rewards.  BOYSSS: Reward and balance. Don’t give too much without reciprocation because it becomes impossible for them to reciprocate in any way other than sex and this makes them feel bad. Need reciprocity in relationship, if not imbalance will cause them not to be with you. Most important factor in making a good relationship: attention, honesty and patience. (Other things said in class also, couldn’t type that fast….) Who you most likely to be attracted to: someone similar to you for a longer period of time but for a short period of time it is nice to have someone who is different and will give you arousal. Similarity is reinforcing:  For a long time relationship similarity is the key. Everything you could think of being similar is the better. Some differences are good though and no matter what you will have a few at least. Differences are tolerable when they are peripheral but not when they are central like religion, money and politics. Relationships need compatibility when the person is similar to you.  Why is similarity so important? Makes for a lasting endurance and an agreement. Similarity means predictability:  We like to think we understand our immediate world and be able to predict what will happen.  People say they love unpredictability but in the long run they really don’t, it causes stress and is anxiety provoking. If you don’t know how the day will go then you will be anxious about it and uneasy.  The simple things are going to be what drives you crazy if your partner is not doing it the same way, it was a conditioned way for you and him and if it was different then it is too hard most of the time. o If the little things drive you crazy then you’re the crazed person who is having the problem, not them!!! People create problems when we shouldn’t care about these. You are creating the problem unless it is an actual normal issue like never helping around the house or anything like that (major stuff). Chapter 8 Research suggests that men are more romantic than women.  Men tend to fall in love quicker than women and tend to have the romantic expectations to bring flowers and stuff. Most women are more likely to live up to the ideas but men are the ones who have to follow through and do it. Men are more romantic in their minds than in actions.  Women are taught at a young age to have boundaries, have a reality check and have consequences right at the forefront of their minds.  Women have sex with the men that they love, they need to emotional connection and men love the women who have sex with them. o Conditioning process: wanting to get him to like you by having sex with you.  Why is he cheating, because he can, probably has nothing to do with you? Misattribution of love and arousal.  Arron Dune study done bridge study with the two different bridges. o With arousal the man felt more for the interviewer than on the cement bridge. Came up with the two factor theory of love. o Two Factor Theory of Love:  First factor suggests that there is a general physical arousal.  The second factor then attributed to that person in the environment.  In a new relationship there is general physical arousal and this is attributed to the other person when you are just excited about getting to know this person and they are so new. This is the misattribution of arousal. The person just went with you on these fun events and “dates.” The thrill dies and the excitement goes away. People rationalize afterwards that the person is just not enough anymore and they have to get someone new. Arousal-Facilitation Theory:  Finding that general arousal will enhance any ongoing cognitive processing that is going on. If you are already fearful of the situation then arousal makes it worse or if you are in a good mood arousal makes you into a better mood! Ongoing process and we are commonly misattributing the arousal to that person who is closest to you. o More common when you live with them and you think it is all them and blame it all on them or give the good mood credit to them. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy:  From above statement. We develop the idea that they are always going to be like this and it is just who they are. Thinking they are something that they might not be. You created the ideas in your own little mind. You are the more responsible for the subjective reality and cognitive framework and beliefs are what create your reality more than the external objective reality. Cognitive reality effects your emotion more than the truth. It is the experience that is great. Not him or her. He/she just happened to be in the space with you when you had the experience.  When you look at it you discover that they were NEVER the cause of your great feeling. It never really had to do with the other person. They just helped you allow yourself to experience the feelings you feel when in love. When you are born you are a bundle of love and then conditioned out of that. When you meet someone the romantic relationship allows you to put yourself back into that situation of being love again. It is a burden to know this stuff because it is really you and your responsibility to make yourself happy. You can’t blame your boyfriend or girlfriend because you will wear them down if you do. They cannot really fulfill you! You are not taking the responsibility of your own emotions and feelings. It is your responsibility to help yourself be happy. Question in class: you trying to be better for the other person and by doing that you are a better person overall Michelangelo effect: Women see their boyfriend as a work in progress and how you can always help them be better. Literally you can interact in a manner that allows and individual to come into their own. You are there to give them fearlessness and helping them inhabit what they want to be without fear. Your partner should help you be fearless. The individual should not worry about losing you and this helps them grow. There are cons to this also. Not always good to try to shape someone and you need to watch out for what you want because you might get it and that is so not good. Equality:  The world is not fair. Nothing is equal and you will not be paying more if you are making more. If the woman makes less and you don’t have shared accounts then she is paying a higher percentage of her income and that is not equality. In relationships it is important that they are equal as possible. Exchange:  With a friend you keep score and you help each other out when needed. But you keep up with what the other has done and paid.  Works best in a love relationship when the couple is still in the early stages of the relationship. They feel like they are equal and putting into the relationship an equal amount. Not always the case but often works well in the beginning of the relationship. Communal: situation by having a relationship of giving all you have and then taking what you need.  Stuff is equitable, the relationship has more than just money so they split other activities too. Like cooking and planning activities. This makes the relationship feel equal, even though it isn’t exactly, it is equitable. If both of you think your winning then there is no problem. It is only a problem when one feels cheated and slighted, imbalanced.  There may always be an exchange in the relationship even if it is communal, since no one is keeping score!  If you have strong feelings about something you should just do it because they will feel strong about others can do those things. o Professor relationship: His relationship with wife and a fight they had. His wife wanted a fuzzy toilet seat and he didn’t want it. This was a deal breaker for him. He said that his wife is usually right so they do not argue that much about stuff.  There is a difference between your needs and wants. Don’t pursue the wants as if they are needs because there will be violence in the relationship. This goes back to the wave thing, and all of our ups and downs and correlations and bringing each other out of needs and wants. Desire is the crucks of the biscuit. You create a problem when you think you need something that you just want. When you remember who you are and they forget you can help them and vice versa!  Bottom line: figure it out, you don’t really need anything from your partner. They are just like, the world is a bowl of ice-cream. Ice cream is perfect, you got your ice cream. With whip cream on top makes it better even though you don’t need it. Your partner is like the whip cream, they are a bonus in life and they are not necessary.  They mythology and media tells us that we need it and it is nottt true. We are social and need relationships to be okay, but we don’t need that one person. We obsess over them like they are a need even though they are not. We feel like we need them even though we really might not. It is okay to be alone.  Pheromones and attractiveness, reproduction are all factors. Doesn’t have to be the ONE.  Fear of not having someone happens with getting obsessed with people.  Prenuptial: planning for it to not work. Exit strategy. True love, genuine relationship you would want the best for them even if you are not with them. With your partner in crime you really are in that relationship. Are you in it for them or for you? Would support them if they left you in a state of forgetting themselves. You don’t need the pre-nump if you have a relationship where you support each other. There is real respect in your relationship and you will stay committed even if they are lost so you don’t need a relationship like that. o Jealousy: you want to force them to be with you! It is a manipulation and a form of forcefulness. You want them to spend more time with you and it is controlling them. You shame and blame and that is jealousy.  With forcing them you ruin the whole week and your whole “thing” for a while. You will be mad at each other. You train people how to treat you. So you need to make a point of how you want to be treated and follow through that way. Women should not allow the man to control her and act like it is okay. Needs to be fair and equal.  You need to find what it is that makes the relationship equitable and everything needs to be negotiable and able to be communicated. You need to be able to grow, change and it is on-going. Need to be willing to revisit, renegotiate, re-deal the relationship. When you give all you got then the person cannot expect anything more. When you both do all you can do then that either will be okay with your partner or not and that’s when you know if they are for you or not. You have to be willing to help each other in life. You both need to want the relationship and want to both stick around with each other.  If you think something then that’s what you think, probably won’t change.  You will learn the truth and reality about that person and you know they don’t need NEED you. You are extra in their lives. Don’t take the relationship for granted because you are just fluff for each other and make life better for each other. There is a constant reevaluation and making the other persons time worth it to stay with you.  Jealousy is normal and it probably served us well in the past way back but now we don’t really need it since there is so much variety in finding people now. Jealousy does not make since anymore and it is not a good thing to act on that anymore. It will cause problems with you partner. Control and power wars are terrible in a relationship. Relationships are for positive time and there is no need for competition and arguing. Chapter 9 Pro-social behavior Example: Emergency Helping Behavior: 1964 in Q gardens in Queens Kiddy Genevieve: Was going to show a woman getting murdered and then 38 people were witnesses. No one came to help her. He was stabbing her and then he left because people were watching, he then came back to stab her again, then left again. She made it to a stairwell and he found her again, he was in a disguise this time. So then when the people who witnessed it were called in, they admitted that they saw her. This was like a 90 minute incident and no one called for help. In the stairwell someone actually did call and the police were slow getting there like about 20 minutes, they were too late. People didn’t call because they thought others had called and they were scared and didn’t get involved. There is safety in numbers: not true in emergency situations! The more people in emergency situations the less likely it is that anyone will help. Daolley and Latane study (1970) they had put a bystander cognitive model for helping. Series of 5 cognitive steps you have to move through before help will be coming. 1. Notice the situation a. New York City: a lot of homeless people are just laying around and so others become desensitizes and stop paying attention to the homeless so when they are in really bad shape the still don’t notice the situation. 2. Interpret the situation as an emergency 3. Assume Responsibility 4. Decide upon intervention 5. Intervene ******Paradigm: Different ways of doing things******** End conclusion: group inhibition effect: With more people at an emergency situation then the less likely they will help. Bystander intervention. 3 Reasons: 1. Social Comparison or (Pluralistic Ignorance): why would there be less people helping in a large group. Very informing activity. Do this to find out what is going on and this comes from everyone standing around where everyone is acting as if it is not an emergency then you will assume it is not also. a. Paradigm: stage an emergency and you have different amounts of people present. Then you see how long it takes for the real subject to offer up assistance. Confederates are helpers of the incident who are present. Naive participants are those who are being tested and see how long it takes them to interact. i. Example: falling woman paradigm: Late 1960s 1. When there was someone alone 70 percent of the time people got up to participate and help the woman. They were in a psychological experiment. They could have been scared or suspicious. Social comparison. 2. When here were 2 strangers then the helping goes down to 20 percent 3. When there was a naive participant with a nonreactive confederate then it went down to 5 percent ii. Example: Epileptic seizure paradigm: Individuals in a Paradigm and there were separate individuals on the phone in a booth. Confederate was always the communicator and so the person in the booth was studied to see how long it took them to respond. 1. When alone 85% of people would help the person 2. Two participants receiving this info then helping went back to 62% 3. With four people it goes down to 40%. They are in their own booths. No social comparison. So that is the first reason but not the only culprit. They also met before the scenario started so they all knew other people were there. a. Diffusion of responsibility iii. Example: Smoke in the room Told to fill out forms in a room and someone would be back for them. So then smoke started billowing into the room under the door. a. One naive participant: 75% sought out help b. 3 naive participants: 38% looking for help and they don’t even leave c. Evaluation apprehension: with other people you are sitting there. And then you don’t want to overreact because you don’t want to look like an idiot. You are afraid of what others think. Pluralistic ignorance: if others are acting as if there is no problem, then there isn’t! d. Not social comparison or diffusion of responsibility. Why do we get this group apprehension effect? Why? iv. Reapplication of: smoke in the room and falling woman a. There were two adults in either of these two studies then 16% reacted. b. 4-6 year olds and an adult (no confederates) about 50% i. Effect still in place with the kids. c. Overall this is the group inhibition effect. With one person interacting then everyone will take action. Piliavin and Piliavin: staged emergencies in a subway that was moving. They didn’t find group inhibition effect. People reacted.  Bystander calculus model: o Two Costs: 1. Cost of helping 2. Cost of not helping: you don’t help and then they die, you would feel bad for the rest of your life. Helping Table Cost of helping High Low Cost of not High Indirect help Very direct Low No help: Escape Variable: up for helping debate Clean vs. Dirty: people will be more likely to stop and help you if you are clean. *****All studies done in America, mostly New York. Factors: 1. Degree of ambiguity 2. The relationship to the victim: the closer you are to them the more likely you are to help 3. Dependency of the victim: children associate more dependency than adults. 4. Justification: when you give a reason behind what you want, give a good justification than you are more likely to get it. ***** Make sure you read the most important sections of the book before the exam to get all of the needed information and have the best exam results! *****


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