HSTRCL DETECTN HIST 201
Virginia Commonwealth University
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nicolas Dibbert on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 201 at Virginia Commonwealth University taught by Timothy Thurber in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see /class/230596/hist-201-virginia-commonwealth-university in History at Virginia Commonwealth University.
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Date Created: 10/28/15
Oct 1 1 What was Herbert Hoover39s approach to the Great Depression Hoover thought that business would correct the economic conditions if government did not interfere He vetoed many bills aimed at relieving the depression because he felt they gave the federal government too much power Oct 8 1 What solution does John L Lewis propose for avoiding social chaos To avoid social chaos John L Lewis thought that unions should be allowed to protect their own wages and working conditions If this didn t happen they would rebel against the upper class leading to class wars Oct 13 1 What were Landon39s chief arguments against Social Security Oct 20 1 What do these sources indicate about the relationship between African Americans and the New DealFDR Oct 29 1 What were the main goals of FSA photographers Attempted to convey both suffering and dignity presenting the images to the American public ofwhat was really going on 2 What according to Leuchtenburg were FDR39s legacies a centralized and more active government Part One 1 What were the main forces shaping Franklin Roosevelt before he became president pages 38 biographical information Raised basically by his mother went to Harvard then Yale Progressive senator New York believed in progressive ideas bottom up politics the government should try to help the people in lower classes who need the most help not just the wealthy 2 What did FDR try to do in his first term 19331936 in office What were his most notable successes and failures Wanted to rebuild people s trust in the government and raise their expectations of the government Failures national industrial act AAA all unconstitutional by the supreme court 3 Why did New Deal reforms wane between 1937 and 1940 A lot of what the articles talk about not going to be on the test the second half of the new deal about reform and giving the president more power 193738 quotRoosevelt recession employment fell prices rose Conservative coalition southern democrats worried about his social reforms would mess up the racial hierarchy in the south the republicans join in with the southern democrats The first half of the new deal was about relief and initial effects of the great depression second halfis about reforming the nation as a whole The Documents 1 What is the main theme of FDR s first inaugural address 2 Why did FDR and Harry Hopkins favor federal jobs programs Anti Social Darwinism ifpeople were poor they could still be good people and it was the duty of the government to help its people unemployment and poverty is not a re ection ofa person s morality rejecting the idea that some people are better than others 3 What attitude toward business did FDR express in his campaign speech at Madison Square Garden in 1936 Thought they were greedy and didn t care about the workers 4 Why did FDR believe the Supreme Court needed to be reformed They were saying that a lot of his new deal policies were unconstitutional so FDR wanted to pick his own supreme court that would agree with him He thought they were too old and didn t understand how the policies would benefit and affect the country Makes the Supreme Court more liberal 5 What was FDR s view of conservation the need to conserve natural resources for future generations profit should come after conservation 6 What did the National Labor Relations Act do wagner act Revised the national industrial act which allowed unions to be specific to the company so there was no wide spread of union strikes and easier for the business to control the unions Wagner act outlawed the small company unions and made them more broad All of the workers collaborate to advocate for better pay and working conditions Blew up what we now think of unions EX Autoworkers union rather than Ford autoworkers union and Chevy autoworkers union 7 How did Frances Perkins defend Social Security The government had a responsibility to the disadvantage Gov needs to take care of its citizens State and federal government should work together to provide for the citizens needs and to provide for individuals what they cant get on their own 8 What according to John Steinbeck as the crisis in agriculture in the 19305 Chinese and Hindu agriculture workers coming in working season and leaving when the work is unneeded Racehatred exploitation strong prejudice against the people really really low wages Steinbeck believes it needed to be addressed 9 What did the Federal Theatre Project do Wrote plays to put on to travel around the country to places that were hit hard by the depression and to boost morale in the end to get people involved in politics and what was going on 10 What did FDR mean by an economic bill of rights People should be helped and protected by the government housing education and healthcare natural rights every American could have and it s the government s responsibility to make sure people get that 11 How did the New Deal impact Mexican Americans African Americans and American Indians Mexican Americans there were fewer jobs so Mexicans were deported because American workers needed their jobs Concshellers Minimum wage was much higher than what Mexicans were getting paid anyway it became too expensive to employ them For the ones that did not go back to their home land their standard of living greatly decreased lived in shelters became crazy or whores etc African Americans put out ofwork when white people lost their jobs and wanted the black people jobs NAACP tried to help the black people with strikes and marches on Washington American Indians Wheeler Howard Act Indian Reorganization Act tried to preserve Indian culture instead ofputting children in city schools they put schools on the reservations that also taught them their own cultures Started by a white politician who thought he was doing them a huge favor by cultivating Indian culture yet some Indians thought it was holding them back from participating in modern schools and politics 12 What were the chief criticisms of the New Deal from Republicans such as Herbert Hoover and conservative groups such as the American Liberty League American liberty league initially supported the new deal and business control but thought it went to far thought the new deal was too radical made of business men and business owners thought the government was trying to compete with private industries and trying to destroy them Hoover Competing on American liberty and taking away the American freedom that people can do whatever they want with their homes and jobs and private lives 13 What were the chief criticisms of the New Deal from Charles Coughlin Huey Long and Upton Sinclair They thought the new deal was too conservative wanted more radical measures taken to help the lower classes Huey Long gov of Louisiana share of the wealth criticized the new deal wanted to run for president created a populist program for redistributing wealth through sharply graduated income and inheritance taxes Charles Coughlin priest who wanted the new deal to be much more extreme Upton Sinclair ran for gov of cali and wanted more radical policies 14 What were Eleanor Roosevelt s views of women in the labor force and in politics How did the New Deal affect women women in the labor force transcript from an interview You cant make a rule to exclude them because women need work to supplement the income Women could get jobs easier sometimes because they get paid less Women should be allowed in the workforce if their not needed at home Gender equality to benefit the family Women in the politics Women were not voting as a group voted the way their husbands told them the women s vote they need to come together on issues Women should vote as a group and politicians would improve their treatment and policies frances perkin increased women s confidence that females can participate in the government WW1 vets were promised compensation in the 40 s when the depression hit they wanted their money early and the gov didn t give it to them so they marched on Washington and in the end made hoover look like a dbag to the American public reformers vs unions progressive faith in reformers not unions wagner act legally allowed unions but didn t change peoples attitude about unions Reformers need to press that working class due need personal rights Laws don t change attitudes people change attitudes fdr referred to the south as economically backwards before the new deal believed the govt needed to protect all citizens the first 100 days hoover had lost control of the American citizens Fdr comes in with his first 100 days in office and has the federal bank holiday to help stabilized banks and works really well Ends prohibition bringing in money to the government Implements in AIC raising peoples hope and confidence in the gov takes America off the gold standard which strengthens the value of the dollar bank insurance improve the American economy Trying to store confidence in the gov federal roll in housing Reduce the cost of housing increased morgages which allowed more people to own homes The gov est laws which would eventually segregate neighborhood mortgage companies would only sell homes to white people red lining also excluded people by marriage status social security shrank the labor force because of the elderly insurance if old people retiredleft the labor force they were still going to get paid Took old people out of work force and made room for younger workers money from social security came from congress and taxes etc conservative coalitions a gov should not spend more than it takes in republican belief in a balance budget Fdr believes that a gov can responsibly take on gov debt HST 201 Exam 1 Readings Aug 2 7 1 What is Sumner s attitude toward government attempting to solve economic problems William Graham Sumner Yale Professor Prescrihes LaissezFaire for Depression Woes Sept 1 1 What e ects did working in the stockyards have on workers Upton Sinclair The workers had no nails swollen knuckles or even fingers and hands cut off due to the circumstances and environment of their jobs Workers also acquired and were exposed to diseases like TB and rheumatism The labor and exposure these men endured took years off their life expectancy 2 What is Riis s attitude toward the poor immigrants he studied He blieved that they were trapped in an environment that they could not control The power to shape their own lives was taken by landlords cops saloon owners employers and politicians Sept 3 1 What did Dehs s attitude toward capitalism He calls it the monstrous system of capitalism Capitalism was not in favor of the workingman only making them more poor 2 What did Wilson mean by a quotnewfreedom quot How was this di ferentfrom earlier ideas about freedom New Freedom Government would get involved in business Everyone deserves a decent life and a decent wage Its pulling away from the industrial era and lifestyle 3 What did Schneiderman believe was the way to deal with industrial deaths such as those that occurred at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Rose Schneiderman believed that it was up to the working class to save and protect themselves through a strong working class movement They cannot depend on others sympathy and donations because it is not enough 4 What was the Social Gospel and how did it di ferfrom other views ofreligion Why did Rauschenhusch believe the Social Gospel was needed Social Gospel A Christian movement trying to reform society stress the points of Christianity and moralizing the poor A religious reform Sept 8 1 What does Plunkitt mean by quothonest graft quot and how does it di fer from quotdishonest graftquot Talking about how people gain power honest graft when someone sees the opportunity takes it dishonest graft bribing people illegal ways to gain power 2 How did Ste fens feel about having businessmen try to reform politics Politics is business 3 How did women reformers in Chicago di fer from male reformers in their approach to urban issues such as sanitation education and police Why did those di ferences exist Women reformers were more hands field of social science walking around talking to people on male reformers did it through laws and court cases which women did not have that opportunity to do Sept 10 1 What does Addams believe to be the main source ofimmoral behavior amongyouth They should have fun and be children not worry about work etc 2 What does she propose to address these problems Sept 1 5 1 What were the goals ofthe eugenics movement Why was her situation more complicated than what was depicted at her trial What was the relationship between Americans who favored eugenics and Nazi Germ any Eugenics is categorizing races thought segregation was good an unspoken way of life Forced sterilization in VA to people who were troublesome or not worthy so they could not reproduce bringing an end to the people who were seen as unfit for society Carrie Buck Buckv Bell was raped and became an unwed mother at the age of 17 Her daughter was diagnosed as abnormal They didn t want Carrie to give birth to anymore defected children so they sterilized her In the court case she is portrayed as bisexual and promiscuous leading it to seem like it was her fault even though she was raped The US scientists who were in favor for Eugenics were in communication with the Nazi Germans sharing information about how to wipe out undesirable races 2 Why did Governor Mark Warner apologizefor Virginia s sterilization laws 3 What is Gilmore s central argument about the role ofAfrican American women in the South during the progressive era Black women were diplomats for the African American community to white women African American women were much more accepted in the white community they weren t as feared Women are the more gentile fair seX they re not trying to hurt anyone Muller Vs Oregon Chapters 12 Documents 110 1 What were protective laws What were the two main rationales offered in support of such laws Women employed in factories and laundries could only work a maximum of ten hours a day An entering wedge for protective laws for all workers women were inherently different from men so they needed to be protected 2 What was quotfreedom ofcontract and how did it relate to protective laws freedom of contract right for individuals to bargan among themselves the terms of their own contract without government interference 3 What was the significance ofthe Lochner case Lochner was able to appeal a similar conviction under the 14th amendment and the freedom of contract quotnecessarily interfered with the right of contract between the employer and the employee therefore allowng the state of NY to the freedom of contract which was never overruled throughout Muller v Oregon 4 What were the main constitutional issues in Muller v Oregon The constitutional right to contract Police Power The theory that the govt can intervene in private affairs to protect citizens 5 How did Florence Kellyjusti l a quotright to leisure She said it was a natural human right such as the freedom of speech etc 6 What was the Brandeis Brief and how did it di ferfrom traditional legal briefs It was two pages that asserted concerns directly related to the health safety and welfare that could justify a states right to abridge freedom of contract and set limitations on the hours worked Along with the two pages were examples through other states with similar restrictions and beliefs 7 What were the main arguments made by Muller s lawyers Argued the case from an equal gender rights view 8 What did the Supreme Court decide in this case and how did itjusti l its decision Upheld the 10 maximum law Women needed to be taken care ofespecially because they are the mothers of future Americans Chapters 34 Documents 1 1 14 1 What was the signi cance ofthe Bunting v 0regon case After the ten hour maximum work without paying overtime was in place Bunting s employee worked 13 hours with no extra pay 2 What did reformers mean by quota living wage and how did theyjusti l it People were not being paid enough to cover the cost ofliving at the time 3 What was the significance ofthe Adkins v Children 5 Hospital case What were the chiefarg uments made by the Court in its decision 7 4 Why did protective legislation and the Equal Rights Amendment divide women in the 19205 What were the chiefarguments ofeach side Equal rights women believed the protective legislations were holding women down not treating them equally with men 5 What happened to protective legislation in the 1930s In the 1970s Went from just protecting women to protecting both genders In the 1970 s single seX minimum wage laws pretty much no longer existed 6 What was the significance ofthe West Coast Hotel Co v Parrish decision What were the main arguments offered by the Court in this case A woman who worked in West Coast hotel sued the hotel because she was not being paid proper wages It was brought to the supreme court and the woman won Its significant because it s the first case to really signify the minimum wage law Muller V Oregon Summary Owned a laundry factory in Oregon one woman complained that she was being working longer than law allowed Muller argued that it was unconstitutional to have maximum hour laws because it goes against the freedom of contract The Supreme Court still agreed with the maximum hour law in safety of the female gender and their ability CLASS NOTES Social Darwinism Survival of the fittest the wealthy are wealthy because they worked hard for it you get what you deserve Progressivism Henry George Disagrees with Social Darwinism believes the unequal distribution of wealth is unnatural PRO GESSIVISM Central Beliefs 1 Rejection of laissezfaire minimal government role in economic affairs faith in applied knowledge 2 Interdependence ofmodern life dependent on others for food clothing protection etc 3 Faith in governments ability to ameliorate problems 4 quotextraordinary pliability of human nature Iane Adams personal power to improve the world around us Iacob Riis How the Other Half Lives 1890 famous book ofprogressive era 1 Background Comes to the US from Denmark and achieves middle class status 11 Social Forces photographed the slums of the US A Photography B Realism C Class Structures III Riis views of the other half quotSomeone had to tell the facts that s why I became a reporter I Riis Riis asked Why don t they have money Why do they spend it all at the saloon binge drinking His Progressive Views He believed that the American lower class factory workers were trapped in an environment they can t control The power to shape our own world is limited To progressives the question is SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT unlike Social Darwinism it is not the person s fault if they are in poor conditions People are in uenced by their own surroundings Riis Villains People Institutions adding to poverty Landlords don t keep up the slums they are renting out Police Officers harass children unmoral unjust Saloon Owners profiting off human misery Politicians Employers financial greed As a worker you have the illusion of choice for many people there was very little of it Progressives Business and Consumers I The middle class Occupations white collar work with brain not hands rely on their education Values and Family Life are important 11 Taming Business A Consumer Protection business regulation B Financial Regulation federal reserve C Conservation environment D Taxation federal income taX taX the wealthy III Labor and quotIndustrial Democracy Regulating big businesses Pure food and drug act Meat inspection act Progressives and the Regulation of Finance federal reserve act Progressives and Conservation John Muir Sierra Club 1892 quotWilderness is a necessity Inhertance taX when they really rich die some of the money goes to the government Progressives and Political Reform
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