INTRODUCTION TO ANTHROPOLOGY
INTRODUCTION TO ANTHROPOLOGY ANTH 103
Virginia Commonwealth University
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Date Created: 10/28/15
STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM I scheduled for Tuesday February 24th Remember to bring two sharpened 2 pencils SCANTRON sheet EXAM I on Tuesday February 24Lh will contain 40 multiplechoice 10 truefalse questions and will cover material contained in 5 chapters of our Kottak textbook and accompanying class lectures amp discussions as well as 2 lms the Stephen J Gould lecture the documentary on common chimpanzees and Bonobos and the lecture presentation by archaeologist Dr Dores Cruz Exam I will cover the following chapters in Kottak textbook 133911 edition Chapter 1 What is Anthropology Chapter 4 Studying the Past Chapter 5 Evolution and Genetics Chapter 7 The Primates Chapter 8 Early Hominins NOTE If you are using Kottak textbook 12th edition the corresponding chapters are Chapter 1 What is Anthropology Chapter 3 Ethics and Methods in Physical Anthropology and Archaeology Chapter 4 Evolution and Genetics Chapter 6 The Primates Chapter 7 Primate Evolution Chapter 8 Early Hominins IMPORTANT Exam I will NOT include questions about speci c information covered in the Interesting Issues News Brief or Beyond the Classroom boxes in the Kottak textbook chapters these are different for the 12Lh and 13111 editions so better not Classification scheme with category distinctions in the modern primatological terminology from top to bottom from more inclusive to more exclusive Primates All mammals of the order Primates which includes the anthropoids and prosimians characterized by refined development of the hands and feet a shortened snout and a large brain Anthropoids refers to one of the two suborders of primates monkeys apes and humans are anthropoidsibut NOT prosimians Hominoids member species of the superfamily that includes humans and all of the apes as well as our ancestors Hominids refers to contemporary humans and fossil human ancestors as well as chimpanzees and gorillas and all of our common ancestors Hominins member species of the line that led to anatomically modern humans as well as other human lineages that did not AFTER the split with the line that led to chimpanzees Kottak Chapter 1 What is Anthropology 1 Understand what is meant by the statement that anthropology is the holistic and comparative study of humanity Equot Be able to identify distinguish and describe the four subfields of American anthropology 3 IT J j fwhy quot r J is J asocial science how it integrates both scienti c and humanistic perspectives What distinguishes anthropology from other disciplines that study human beings What are the four main subdisciplines or subfields of Anthropology Why did the discipline of anthropology develop in the United States as a 4f1elds approach to studying human societies while it did not develop this way in Europe e g archaeology in most European universities is not a subdiscipline of anthropology it 1s its Lpwn department Answer The ori in of American anthropolog can be traced to the 19 century early American anthropo ogists such as Franz Boas t e father of American anthropology were especially concerned with exploring the origins and diversity of Native American groups studying their customs social life language and physical traits Which subdiscipline or field of anthropology involves the study of nonhuman primates What is the difference between ethnography and ethnology in cultural anthropology In what way is anthropology sometimes scientific and in what sense is it a humanistic discipline Kottak Chapter 4 Studying the Past 1 Consider the ethical obligations of physical anthropologists and archaeologists to the people species and materials they study as well as their host colleagues 2 Understand the multidisciplinary nature of physical anthropology and archaeology 3 Distinguish the primary areas of study that Kottak identifies in physical anthropology 4 Be familiar with the field methods of survey and excavation used by archaeologists as well as the different kinds of archaeology in which researchers may engage 5 Understand the basic differences between relative absolute and molecular dating methods used by archaeologists and physical anthropologists What is informed consent What are some ways in which anthropologists can appropriately reciprocate or give back to the people with whom they work as assistants or as sub ects of their research What is NAGPRA When physical quot r 39 39 and 39 39 39 quot 39 in research what is the division of labor involved That is what do the physical anthropologists focus on and what do the archaeologists focus on in the research What are the two major r activities 0 39 eldwork research HINT Dr Dores Cruz went over these in detail in her visiting lecture to the class and these are covered in the Kottak chapter as well What are the 4 or 5 different kinds of archaeology Which of the above is the kind of archaeology practiced by our guest speaker archaeologist Dr Dores Cruz What is the nature and purpose goals of paleoanthropology With regard to paleoanthropology What is bone biology What is anthropometry What is paleopathology What are some basic examples of lowtech and hi htech tools or methods used by physical anthropologists or archaeologists in studying t e past What is the difference between relative and absolute datin And what are some basic examples of each Answer relative dating might be base on stratigraphy the sequence of layers of sediments in strata with those closer to the surface representin more recent and lower levels or layers representing more ancient remains absolute dating can be established for example using the radiometric technique of Carbon 14 dating What do molecular anthropologists study I NOTE Aside from the particulars of carbonl4 C14 dating you will NOT be responsible for identifying or understanding the different kinds of radiometric techniques of absolute dating nor anything about the specifics of the various molecular dating techniques and findings the ones using genetic analysis of DNA sequences to assess evolutionary links Kottak Chapter 5 Evolution and Genetics 1 Know the key dimensions of Darwin s theory of evolution by natural selection Consider the in uence of the idea of the geological principle of uniformitarianism on Darwin s work Compare and contrast the other perspectives on the origin of life which existed before and during Darwin s time Remember in the context of understanding the history of the science of evolution it is important to distinguish between the recognition of evolution as a FACT which was common in the 193911 century and Darwin s contribution of a THEORY to explain the facts of evolution 2 Know the importance of Mendel s experiments and their implications for evolution Identify the key contributions of Mendelian genetics to the study of hereditary traits 3 Be able to discriminate between the key mechanisms of genetic evolution and understand the role each mechanism plays in evolution Understand how the mechanisms of genetic variation complement natural selection basically it is that these genetic mechanisms produce that variety in a given population from which natural selection selects What theory did Charles Darwin propose in order to explain the mechanism driving and directing evolution According to Stephen J Gould why did Darwin never use the word Evolution in describing his theory of descent with modi cation through natural selection What is it that Darwin didn t know about evolution Answer Darwin knew that there must be variety within a population from which natural selection selects but he understood neither how physical traits are inheritedtransmitted from one generation to the next nor how the variety within a population is actually produced The answer would have to wait for the rediscovery of Mendel s work and the development of the modern science of genetics To which aspect of modern genetics did the work of the Austrian monk Gregor Mendel ultimately make a contribution Answer Mendelian genetics studies the way in which chromosomes transmit genes across the generations What is the difference between dominant and recessive traits What does it mean that an organism is homozygous or heterozygous for a speci c ene What is the difference between genotype and phenotype What role do independent assortment and recombination play in evolution What are the three basic mechanisms of genetic variation which contribute to evolutionary change in interaction with the mechanism described in Darwin s theory Which of the above is the most important source of variety on which natural selection depends and operates What is the term for the exchange of genetic material between populations of the same species through direct or indirect interbreeding What potential evolutionary result does gene ow act against What is the theory of punctuated equilibrium and how is it different from Darwin s idea about how evolution operates NOTE You will NOT be responsible for identifying or understanding the specific varieties and mechanisms of mutation for example base substitution mutations or chromosomal rearrangement Kottak Chapter 7 The Primates 1 Understand the role of analogies and homologies in determining zoological taxonomyclassifications 2 Know what is the scope and subject matter of primatology as well as its relevance and specific relationship to the discipline of anthropology 3 Know what are the basic features of primates which differentiate them from other forms of life 4 Know what are the features and evolutionary trends in the development of anthropoids that differentiate them from the prosimians Why is primatology of significance to anthropology Answer Primatology allegedly helps r 39 quot r 39 39 make 39 f about the early social organization of hominids members of the zoological family that includes fossil and living humans What are the 2 most basic criteria for selecting which nonhuman primate species might be useful as model or analogy in trying to make inferences about the early social organization and behavior of early hominid species What is a zoological taxonomy and how are its classificationscategories organized What is a species Answer A species is a group of organisms whose mating produces viable and fertile offspring What is the difference between similarities between species that are considered to be analogies and those considered to be homologies While the primate order is extremely diverse its members do share a significant number of homologies derived from common arboreal ancestors What is the basic set of such common primate features and evolutionary tendencies Hint we discussed 4 of these in class while Kottak lists 6 ofthese What is the theory that explains the shared characteristics and trends in primates with reference to their common heritage of life in the trees When did the first primates evolveexist What are the further developments and trends in primate evolution exemplified in early Anthropoidea anthropoidsthe suborder including monkeys apes and humansithat differentiates them from the prosimians When did the first anthropoids appear What epoch is referred to as the Age ofthe Apes and why When Which group of species represents the most abundant and successful anthropoids of the Miocene epoch In what waysfeatures was Proconsul like a monkey and in what waysfeatures was Proconsul like the later apes Which of the Miocene apes was the largest primate that has ever existed Why did the Age of the Apes come to and end with the majority of the Miocene apes fading out while the Old World monkeys thrived and proliferated What does the term Missing Link refer to Answer A theoretical primate postulated to bridge the evolutionary gap between the anthropoid apes and humans that is the most recent last common ancestor shared by gorillas chimpanzees and humans What are the social organizational and behavioral differences between the contemporary stillliving species of a the common Chimpanzees versus b the Bonobos and what relevance might these differences have for complicating or critiquing anthropologists attempts to use living nonhuman primate species as a model or analogy for understanding or reconstructing how early hominin species lived HINT see the notes I provided to you about the film The New Chimpanzees NOTE You will NOT have to be able to identity and distinguish between the various candidates for the missing link discussed in Kottak chapter 7 such as Toumai and Orrorin tugenensz39s Kottak Chapter 8 Early Hominins 1 Know the four key human attributes identi ed by Kottak and their signi cance for hominin evolution 2 Know the basic chronology and sequence of hominin evolution 3 Be able to identify the oldest known bipeds their approximate dates of existence and their connection to australopithecines and to Homo 4 Understand what distinguishes early Homo species from the australopithecines KEY Students often think of human evolution in terms of one species leading to the next in a simple linear sequence Kottak Chapter 8 makes it clear that early in our lineage this was not the case rather there were a number of different hominin species living in East Africa at the same time coexisting during overlapping periods of their existence NOTE You will NOT have to be able to identity and distinguish among the six species of Australopz39thecus discussed in the chapter But you should know the basic physical features anatomy diet and habitat of austalopithecines in general as well as the basic differences between gracile and robust australopithecines Also know the explanations posited for their evolutionary relationship and connection to early Homo Which epochs are the most important time periods for the study of hominin evolution What were the two major environmental changes that swept Africa more than 5 million years ago that led to the beginning of evolutionary changes toward the development of hominins as distinguished from our last common ancestor with the chimpanzees What is bipedalism What are the most widely accepted theories of the evolution of bipedalism which stress the adaptive advantages it provided in a habitat increasingly dominated by dry savanna like conditions What species is currently recognized by paleoanthropologists as the earliest known hominin and when did this species exist What is this species relationship to early Australopz39thecus Which came first in hominin evolution bipedalism or the development of larger and more complex brains What was the significance of the discovery of the australopithecine Lucy for resolving this issue What is the relationship between the development of a larger brain and an extended period of childhood dependency in hominids and hominins In what ways was Australopithecus apelike and in what ways human What are the comparative similarities and differences in size between the cranial capacities skullbrain of australopithecines modern chimpanzees and anatomically modern humans Which of the early hominins likely had the ability to use and manufacture tools What were the characteristic evolutionary changes in dentition teeth and jaws chewing muscles of early hominins as they adapted to a savanna diet of brous gritty vegetation and why What is the larger signi cance of the discovery of Kenyanthropus by Maeve Leakey and her research team in 1999 based on fossils from northern Kenya Answer Leakey views Kenyanthropus as showing that at least two hominin lineages existed as far back as 35 million years ago the earliest overlapping coeXistence of two hominin species in r1ca Whatare the a J 39 among r 39 quot r 39 39 about the relationship between the gracile australopithcenines such as A afrz39canus and the robust austraolopitheciens like A robustus When from where did the earliest species of Homo come from Answer Sometime before 2 million years ago the ancestors of Homo split off and became reproductively isolated from the later australopithecines What were the distinctive early Homo trends which made members of this new genus unlike the earlier and coeXistent australopithecines What is the most distinctive trend in the development of early hominins that is NOT characteristics of later evolutionary trends in the hominin line Hint this has to do with teeth dentition For EXAM I you will NOT need to know about Oldowan Tools IMPORTANT Be sure to study your class lecture notes as well as the Kottak chapters as well as the notes I provided for you on both the films Disclaimer It may be that some few questions on the EXAM will not be derived from the above Study Guide questions Study hard and good luck
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