CHEMISTRY & SOCIETY
CHEMISTRY & SOCIETY CHEM 110
Virginia Commonwealth University
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Theodore Simonis on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 110 at Virginia Commonwealth University taught by Joseph Topich in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 101 views. For similar materials see /class/230683/chem-110-virginia-commonwealth-university in Chemistry at Virginia Commonwealth University.
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Date Created: 10/28/15
Study Guide Exam 2 Tuesday October 21 2008 1L33AM CHE 110 Fall 2008 Exam 2 Information Sheet Exam 2 will take place on Wednesday 1022 at 12noon in 101 Harris Hall Be on time You will not be allowed to take the exam if you are late and someone has completed the exam and left the room The exam is multiple choice Bring pencils a photo ID and your Banner V ID number to the exam Bring your own calculator to the exam YOU CANNOT SHARE CALCULATORS Relevant text sections are 31 32 34 35 36 37 38 39 310 311 41 42 43 44 51 52 53 55 mass percent only Relevant tables 31 32 36 42 51 Relevant figures 32 34 35 36 313 314 316 317 323 324 327 45 46 47 55 In general you are responsible for anything discussed in lecture including any figures and tables that were used More specifically you should know the names and symbols of the first 36 elements Hydrogen H 1 Helium He 2 Lithium Li 3 Beryllium Be 4 Boron Carbon C 6 Nitrogen N 7 Oxygen O 8 Fluorine F 9 Neon Ne 10 Sodium Na 11 Magnesium Mg 12 Aluminium aluminum Al 13 Silicon Si 14 Phosphorus p Sulfur Sulphur S 16 Chlorine Cl 17 Argon Ar 18 Potassium K 19 Calcium Ca 20 Scandium Sc 21 Titanium Ti 22 Vanadium V 23 Chromium Cr 24 Manganese Mn 25 Iron Fe 26 Cobalt Co 27 Nickel Ni 28 Copper Zinc Gallium Ga 31 Germanium Ge 32 Arsenic As 33 Selenium Se 34 Bromine Br 35 Krypton Kr 36 what microwave radiation does to molecules Microwave radiation rotates the molecules what infrared radiation does to molecules IR causes molecules to vibrate but can39t break chemical bonds how C02 vibrates See notes for 10108 picture at top of page what makes a vibration able to absorb infrared radiation In order for a molecule to absorb IR it needs to have an uneven charge the vibration of the atoms in the molecule allow for the molecules charge to be moved or altered about the llcarbon cycle Stock Billion metric tons Flow Billion metric tons per year The carbon cycle has almost no net gain or loss The burning of fossil fuels causes a slight increase in atmospheric carbon natural factors that affect earths climate Volcanic Eruptions Greenhouse Effect Changes in solar output Changes in Earth39s rotation about the Greenhouse effect Our atmospheric gases trap and return a major portion of the heat radiating from the Earth A natural and necessary process Sun Hits the Earth 25 reflected by the atmosphere 23 absorbed by our atmosphere 6 reflected off of the surface 46 absorbed by the Earth 46 emitted by the surface 9 escapes into space 37 absorbed by the atmosphere In the absence ofthe greenhouse effect the Earth39s average surface temperature of 570 F would be about 040 F what gases are Greenhouse gases and what gases are not Greenhouse Gases HZO Water Vapor COZ Carbon Dioxide O3Ozone CFC39s CH4Methane N20 Nitrous Oxide possible consequences of global warming Temperature increase Loss of crops Drought Rise in sea level Drying of Glacier fed rivers and lakes about the Kyoto Protocol Kyoto Protocol December 111997 159 Countries Signed the Protocol Green House Gas Emission Reductions United States 7 reduction below 1990 level European Union 8 reduction below 1990 level Japan 6 reduction below 1990 level The United States has not signed the Kyoto Protocol atomic weights about the atomic weight standard One molecule only weighs an incredibly small amount Mass of a molecule is measured in amu or Atomic Mass Units Proton 1 Neutron1 Electron 0 An electron actually weighs a tiny amount so much less than Protons and Neutrons that we consider it a non value how to compute molar masses MM Also known as a mole or one mole When we have a quantity of a molecule in grams equal to it39s atomic weight 4401 combined atomic weight of two oxygen and one carbon atom gt 4401g is one mole of CO2 carbon dioxide 11422 combined atomic weight of eight carbon and eighteen hydrogen atoms gt 11422g is one mole of C8H18 octane about the mole 602210quot23 molecules Avagodro39s Number how to compute the mass of product for a given mass of reactant Mass of product Mass of reactant forms of energy There are various forms of energy but they fall under two categories Potential Energy Energy of position or stored energy Chemical Energy Energy stored in the bonds of atoms and molecules Nuclear Energy Energy stored in the nucleus of an atom Stored Mechanical Energy Energy stored in objects by the application of a force Gravitational Energy The energy of place or position Kinetic Energy Energy of motion Radiant Energy Electromagnetic energy that travels in transverse waves Thermal Energy The internal energy in substances the vibration and movement of atoms and molecules within substances Motion The movement of objects or substances from one place to another Sound The movement of energy through substances in longitudinal waves Electrical Energy The energy of the movement of electrons 1st Law of Thermodynamics Energy can neither be created or destroyed difference between heat and temperature Heat is energy Temperature is the speed the molecules in a substance are moving energy units J cal Cal The joule J Ajoule is the amount of energy required to raise a 1kg object 10 cm against the force of gravity The calorie cal A calorie is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius Conversion of units 1 ca 4184J 1 kca 1000 cal 1 Cal 1 dietary calorie what a calorimeter is and how it work A calorimeter determines the chemical energy in calories of a substance by burning the substance and measuring the increase in temperature of the surrounding water exothermic and endothermic reactions Exothermic reactions give off heat Endothermic reactions absorb heat bond energies Bond Breaking requires energy Bond Forming gives off energy heat of reaction from bond energy calculations Energy taken to break bonds kJ Energy given off when bonds are formed kJ heat given off kJ sources and purification of drinking water Surface Water is from lakes rivers and reservoirs Ground water is pumped up from wells drilled into underground aquifers An aquifer is an underground lake Water goes to the James River Treatment Plant Settling basins remove large and medium sized particles Filtration removes small to minute particles Aeration and disinfection improves taste and kills bacteria Chemicals are added to buffer water and provide dental protection Water leaves the plant and goes through pipes to homes and businesses about solute solvent and solution Solvents are substances capable of dissolving other substances usually present in the greater amount Solutes are substances dissolved in a solvent usually present in a smaller amount Solution is the substance produced when a solute and solvent are combined mass percent solutesolvent calculations Parts per hundred percent 20g of NaCl in 80g of water is a 20 NaCl solution Can be mixed by mass or volume Molarity M moles soluteliter of solution To have a mole of something you must have the atomic weight in grams of a substance One mole of water is 18g One mole of methane is 16g Same number of molecules concentration of 1 mole of solute added to a liter flask then filled with the solvent until the 1 L mark is reached creates a 1M solution
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