Exam Two Study Guide
Exam Two Study Guide PSYC 314
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nora on Friday March 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 314 at The College of William & Mary taught by Brandy Burkett in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at The College of William & Mary.
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Date Created: 03/25/16
Textbook Vocabulary Chapter 7 4 categories of friendships -Authority Ranking: goods are divided based on social status -Communal Sharing: group members share community resources, giving and taking when necessary -Equality Matching: every person gets the same as the others -Market Pricing: each member gets out in proportion to what they put in Domain General vs. Domain Specific: all behaviors explained with one simple governing rule vs. governing principles differ based on the adaptive problem posed by the relationship Equity: when one’s costs/benefits are proportional to their partner’s Health Psychology: study of behavioral and psychological factors that affect illness Mere exposure Effect: tendency to feel positively toward what we see frequently Proximity-Attraction principle: tendency to become friends with those you live near/work with Reinforcement-affect model: we like and dislike people based on the positive or negative feelings associated with their presence Self-disclosure: sharing personal information about yourself Social Capital: assets drawn from your personal relationships Social exchange: exchanging benefits in a relationship Social support: any assistance provided by other people Chapter 8 Attachment types, Hazan and Shaver -Anxious/ambivalent attachment: marked by fear of abandonment -Avoidant Attachment: defensive detachments from others -Secure Attachment: trust that the other person will provide love/support, being able to easily express your love for others Hatfield and Rapson’s types of love Passionate Love: state of longing for union with another Companionate Love: affection for those whose lives are intertwined with our own - Nurturant Love: feelings that inspire parents to care for their children - Attachment love: desire to be cared for/protected by another person Equity Rule: each person’s benefits and costs in a relationship should equal each other Erotomania: disorder marked by the belief that someone is in love with you, even with opposing evidence Factor Analysis: statistical technique that sorts like items into conceptually similar groups Need-based rule: each provides benefits, as the other needs them Need to belong: our need to maintain strong and stable interpersonal relationships Polyandry vs Polygyny: One woman married to multiple men vs. One man married to multiple women Sternberg’s 3 components of love - Passion: physiological arousal, sexual desire, longing to be together - Intimacy: feelings lead to bonding and emotional support - Decision/Commitment: deciding that one is in love and committing to maintain that love Sociosexual Orientation: differences in the tendency to prefer unrestricted or restricted (only in a relationship) sex Two-factor theory of Love: love consists of general arousal (F1), which is attributed to and attractive persona and labeled (F2) as love Chapter 9 Arousal/cost-reward model: observers of a victim’s suffering want to help in order to relieve their own personal distress (done when arousal is strong, when there’s a “we” connection, and when reducing arousal has low costs but high rewards) Bystander Effect: a bystander’s tendency to be less likely to provide aid during an emergency if there are other onlookers present. The more bystanders, the less likely any one will intervene. Caused by diffusion of responsibility, pluralistic ignorance, and fear of social disapproval Diffusion of Responsibility: tendency for group members to dilute personal responsibility by diffusing it to others in the group Empathic concern: compassionate feelings caused by taking the perspective of a needy other. Empathy-altruism hypothesis: when one empathizes with the plight of another, one will want to help for purely altruistic reasons Gourmet vs. Gourmand: a person who’s either very picky or loves their food deeply (depending on quality) vs. a person with a hearty appetite but indiscriminant taste Inclusive fitness: survival of your own genes within your offspring and any relative you may help Mood management hypothesis: people use helping tactfully to manage their own personal moods Personal Norms: internalized beliefs and values that combine to form a person’s standards of behavior Perspective taking: process of mentally putting oneself in the shoes of another Pluralistic Ignorance: the mistaken impression that unconcerned group members means that there’s no cause for alarm Prosocial behavior: an action intended to benefit another person Pure altruism: an action intended solely to benefit another person Reciprocal Aid: helping that occurs in return for prior help Social responsibility Norm: the societal rule that people should help those in need of help. Lecture Vocab Kitty Genovese: a woman mugged in New York, supposedly watched/heard by 38 neighbors. Sparked interest in the bystander effect Sempo Sugihara: a Japanese diplomat in Lithuania who wrote Visas for Jews trying to escape the Holocaust. Example of prosocial behavior- having an expanded sense of “we”, prior attachment to the victims, and relevant self-image Reciprocal altruism: I’ll help you now and later, when I need help, you’ll help me. Issues: delay in time and possibility of cheaters Prisoner’s Dilemma: the game theory model that represents reciprocal altruism. Exemplifies that cooperation is the smartest strategy for long term repeated interactions Evolutionary Stable Strategy (ESS): the strategy that works best from an evolutionary standpoint. For example, reciprocal altruism, but can also be defection if it beats out other strategies Tit for Tat: a form of cooperation based on reciprocity-it’s both retaliatory and forgiving. You cooperate on the first move of a PD and then do whatever you opponent did on their previous move Prosopagnosia: neuropsychological disorder where you lose the ability to recognize faces Classical View of the mind: Humans have general purpose reasoning abilities. There are very few reasoning processes and they are completely content independent Exchange Relationships: when one focuses on the benefits given and received. There’s an obligation to return comparable benefits Communal Relationships: when one focuses on the needs and the welfare of the other person The Banker’s Paradox: the idea that bankers have a limited amount of money to loan out. The people who need it the most are the biggest risks, therefore, are least likely to receive the help they need. The idea that we all must make decisions about whom to give help to Self-Evaluation Maintenance Model (SEM): Assumes that we are motivated to maintain positive self-evaluation. There are three key aspects: closeness, performance, and relevance. There are two processes: reflection (sharing the success of friends) and comparison (drawing comparisons between relevant others and yourself.
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