NUTRITION EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE
NUTRITION EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE NTR 108
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ndidiamaka Okorozo on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to NTR 108 at University at Buffalo taught by Temple, J L in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University at Buffalo.
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Date Created: 10/28/15
NUTRITION EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE PROTEIN Proteins are made up of amino acids and have a three dimensional structure Amino acids the structure of each amino acid is made up of a an amine group which is a nitrogen and two hydrogens b a carbon skeleton a carbon and a hydrogen c Acid group a carboxyl group COOH d And an R group side chain it s this part that determines the structure and function of the amino and thus differentiates it from the others Ii H N C C 01 1 Group Side Elimin Peptide bond links two amino acids together Two amino acids linked by a peptide bond is called dipeptide while polypeptide is many amino acids Structure and sequence of an amino acid determines its function Protein is an essential nutrient but 1 2 Some amino acids are essential l essential amino acid EAA can t be made by body source of nitrogen and can be used as energy source Others are nonessential amino acids NEAA can be made from other substances in diet Also provides nitrogen and can be an energy source Functions of proteins involve VVVVVV Structural tissue bones muscles etc Growth adding mass muscles skin blood vessels growth Maintenance and repair of body tissues protein recycling Energy 4kcalsgram SECONDARY role of protein Hormone production insulin glucagon secretin and CCK Blood proteins Regulation of uid balance acidbase balance blood clotting delivery of oxygen to tissues and transport proteins albumin and lipoproteins Digestion starts in the stomach with denaturation of by the stomach acid Denaturation involves unfolding the protein so its loses its structure and therefore its function Peptide bonds are broken by pepsin and the proteins become amino acids Absorption proteins absorbed in the small intestine as amino acids or dipeptides gt In the small intestine they are taken up in the enterocyte by secondary active transport D A transporter transports sodium along with an amino acid Different R group amino acids utilize different transporters Therefore if unbalanced protein quality is affected and there is competitive inhibition gt Proteins released in to capillaries l portal vein l liver l body area its needed Liver regulates amino acid level in blood and distributes them where needed Recycles protein 250gday Metabolism 1 Transamination transfer of an amine group from an amino acid to the carbon skeleton to form a new different amino acid gt Used for formation of nonessential amino acids 2 Deamination removal of amine group from an amino acid gt Used for amine excretion and energy production from amino acids 0 Vitamin B6 is needed for these processes Without Vitamin B6 all nonessential proteins become essential because they can t be produced by the body Protein Requirement based on balance intake minus output a lntake more efficient at low levels than at high levels used for energy b Protein quality amino acid content determines quality and digestibility determines quality i Complete proteins all EAAs are in their optimal ratios ii Incomplete proteins missing or having a high amount of one or more EAAs iii Complementary proteins two proteins have a high amount of the EAA that is low in the other Combo of proteins leads to high quality protein intake c Output feces depends on digestibility urine depends on intake and quality and insensible loses not controllable skin nails hair sweat etc d Need needed for maintenance during pregnancy for growth lactation extreme exercise and in preventing diseases e Retirement an adult needs 08g x kg per day kg is the individual s body mass in kg Vegetarianism Vegan most extreme no animal products at all Lactovegetarian eat milk products Lactoovovegetarian eat milk and egg products Pseudovegetarian choose what to eat and when varies in different people gtUUl 39 Pros low in saturated fat high in ber high in most vitamins phytochemicals richin low energy density foods Cons low in iron and calcium low in energy and protein density low in Vitamin 812 and Vitamin D Vegans have the highest risk De ciency a Kwashiorkor protein malnutrition that causes impaired growth mental retardation impaired immune system edema because of lack of albumin to hold water and intestinal malabsorption Occurs mostly after weaning a child b Marasmus protein and energy malnutrition that is caused by hunger and famine Victims look starved Causes growth stunting and increased risk of illness Vitamin B6 Water soluble vitamin easy de ciency and hard to get toxicity of Functions amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism immune function and heme synthesis De ciency signs includequot convulsion anemia depression and confusion Sources per serving are meat sh poultry and nuts Per calorie are potatoes green vegetable purple fruits and bananas Most are from supplements not food Supplements used to treat PMS and carpel tunnel syndrome excessive intake causes nerve damage and skin lesions ENERGY METABOLISM Anabolism building up of body compounds with basic building units Catabolism breaking down of basic building units for energy and excretion Metabolic Pathways 1 Glucose six carbons from blood or glycogen 4 kcalg a Glycolysis breakdown of glucose i Anaerobic ATP formed in cytosol of cell without oxygen and lactate produced as byproduct ii Aerobic large amount ATP formed in mitochondria with oxygen through the Citric acid cycle Carbon dioxide formed as byproduct 2 Amino acids from blood or intracellular protein 4 kcalg a Metabolism i Anaerobic in cytosol same process in glucose ii Aerobic in mitochondria and produces urea in liver as byproduct 3 Fatty acids from blood or cellular triglycerides 9kcalg a Metabolism all AEROBIC i Without glucose produces some energy and ketones are produced as byproduct ii With glucose large amounts of ATP formed in citric acid cycle Carbon dioxide formed as the byproduct Vitamins Alcoholics are at risk of de ciency of all vitamins 1 Thiamin Source is whole grains De ciency is beriberi reduced cognitive function fatigue heart failure 2 Ribo avin Source is whole grains De ciency is cracks at corner of mouth and bright pink tongue 3 Niacin Source is whole grains De ciency is pellagra dermatitis diarrhea dementia and death 4D s 4 Pantothenate de ciency is very rare and causes weakness Source is whole grains 5 Biotin de ciency is very are don t eat a lot of raw egg whites Minerals 1 Chromium trace mineral helps with glucose transport by acting on insulin lt de ciency is similar to conditions in diabetes 2 Iodine trace helps in thyroid function De ciency causes goiter Energy Intake Hunger physiological drive to eat Appetite psychological drive to eat initiated by external factors Could be in absence of real hunger Satiation quotbeing satis edquot Both drives are satis ed and there s no desire to eat Satiety interval between meals Fiber affects satiety directly because it makes you full for longer period of time less appetite to eat but it doesn t make you get full faster while you re eating Energy Balance 1 Intake Expenditure 2 Intake gt Expenditure gain weight 3 Intake lt Expenditure lose weight Energy Expenditure Components a Basal metabolic rate BMR amount of energy needed to b maintain body function in order to survive Makes up about 60 75 of total energy expenditure in lightly active individuals Affected by gender male higher lean body mass if it s lower you have lower BMR age height shorter lower BMR nutritional status fever increase BMR pregnancy and lactation increases BMR and environmental temperature extreme temps increase BMR i Calculate using gender factor male 132 lb 60kg 10kcal for male 60kg x 10kcalkgh x 24hd 1440 kcald ii Using activity factor with BMR 20 year old female 58kg 09 for female BMR 09 x 58 x 24 1253 Physical activity 05 x 1253 626 1253626 1876 kcalday Physical activity i NEAT non exercise activity thermogenesis includes shivering dgeting etc Fidgety people burn more calories H voHUonal c Thermal effect of food TEF energy costs used in digestion d absorption and metabolism of food Fat is metabolized more efficiently than protein or carbs so they have lower TEF Obese individuals have less TEF energy cost Heat production minor Consequences of energy imbalance a Obesity prevalent in all US states Rapid increase in the last 30 years All states have above 20 obesity rates thus no state has less than 20 i Health risks associated with obesity are cardiovascular disease hypertension Type II diabetes cancer breast prostrate osteoarthritis complications during surgery gall bladder disease etc Diagnosis of obesity a Body weight ideal weight determined by reference to weightfor height charts Metropolitan Life Insurance Tables commonly used b Interpretative guidelines i Overweight gt 10 desirable range ii Mild obesity gt 20 desirable range iii Moderate obesity gt 40 desirable range iv Severe obesity gt 100 desirable range Limitations include not being based on body composition and it s based on all health risks and not obesity exclusively Body Mass Index BMI Calculation weight kgheight m2 gt Interpretative guidelines weightfor height categorizes individuals according to degree of obesity Degree of Risk BMI Range Underweight lt 185 Healthy Weight 185 249 Overweight 25 299 Obese 30 399 Morbid Obesity lt 40 Above 60 Super super obese Body fat distribution a Android shape central obesity excess abdominal fat distributed viscerally and common in men b Gynecoidpear shape excess hipfemoral fat fewer health risks but harder to lose More common in women Ways to measure obesity 1 Skin fold not a good estimate of visceral fat body fat estimated based on skin fold on several sites fat distribution varies in men and women so optimal sites differ Limitations good technique is needed and it primarily measures body shape 2 Underwater weighing more fat present the less the individual will weigh underwater body fat calculated based on relationships between body weight density and volume Limitations special facilities are needed and it s not useful in elders children and people who are afraid of water 3 BOD POD measures how much air your body displaces within the chamber Limitations special facilities are needed 4 Bioelectric impedance fat impedes the ow of electricity so body fat is proportional to the amount of resistance to the ow of current passed through the body 5 DualEnergy Xray absorptiometry DEXA low levels of xrays used to differentiate bone tissue lean tissue and fat tissue GOAL SE39ITER Limitations high cost and takes 1530 minutes to complete test Causes of obesity 1 Energy imbalance the main one Too much energy taken in than used for activities 2 Genetics 25 genetic heritage factors a Thrifty theory in the past people overate in order to stay full longer so it causes us to overeat 3 Metabolic In uences a Setpoint theory an individual ls programmed to have a certain amount of body fat and weigh a certain amount Your body adjusts BMR to keep you at that weight b Energy Regulating hormones i Ghrelin released when you eat ii Leptin is a result of fat gain doesn t cause the gain Made by fat cells increased fat cell in body means increase in leptin National Weight Loss Registry voluntary registry made by people who had successfully lost weight and maintained it Contains good form of behavioral modi cation Fat Cell Theory fat cells multiply during rapid period of growth like in childhood but during adulthood fat cells can only increase in size when an individual is gaining weight Environmental in uences Lack of exercise TVvideo gamescomputers Portion sizes Alcohol Fast food Infrastructure Marketing and advertising Schools Food cost 0 Technology HPWFP P FWF Treatment of obesity 1 Caloric restriction lower calorie intake 2 Successful programs have Lifelong changes Moderation Exercise Energy de cit patience lose weight slowly Foods carbs 60 fats between 10 30 protein near 50 to 60 gd and high variety of healthy foods DP00quot Easier to be prevented than treated Failed Weight loss programs 1 Low energy diets lt1000 kcalday 90 failure rate loss of lean body mass ketone production and heart failure Restriction of carbohydrates low carb intake Reliance on formulas and special products Promise drastic and immediate results Rigid diet that excludes whole food groups No physical activity No maintenance phase as you need to maintain the weight you ve lost or you regain it FP P FP N Successful strategies 1 Decrease calorie intake by eating smaller portions and eating breakfast 2 Increase activity by having 60 90 minutes physical activity per day Weight Loss medications 1 Sibutraminemeridia removed by FDA 2 OrlistatXenicalAlli only over counter medication approved by FDA for long term use Reduces fat absorption by 30 3 Qnexa and Belviq prescription approved for short term use They increase dopamine in brain so you have no appetite Serves as a kick start to weight loss They don t really work Bariatric Surgery 1 Gastric bypass lining the size of stomach greatly that forces the person to eat less 10 mortality Gastric banding Use bands so as to decrease mortality less effective but more healthy Sleeve gasorochomy All are effective but you re still obese Behavior Modi cation the use of demonstrated techniques to improve behavior Concentrates on behavior not the person Should set SART goals Speci c Measurable Attainable Relevant and TimeBased Cancer second leading cause of death Cancer cells multiply out of control and disrupt normal functioning 2 Tumor rapid and uncontrolled increase in cell number 4 5 Neoplasm new growth Benign non harmful cell number increase Malignant cancerous harmful and persists treatment Carcinogenesis 1 2 3 Carcinogens initiators cause cancer Can be radiation or carcinogenic chemicals Promoter increases cell division but doesn t cause cancer a Alcohol b High estrogen levels c Dietary fat Anticarcinogen agents that protect against carcinogen or promoter Decrease risk of tumor formation Dietary ber anticarcinogen and antipromoter Energycalories restricted energy intake reduces tumor growth Antioxidants vitamin A C E etc Cruciferous vegetables phytochemicals brightly colored DP00quot Dietary Recommendation 1 2 3 4 5 High ber intake soluble and insoluble whole foods High intake of fruits and vegetables a Antioxidants like Vit E b Phytochemicals Low fat Moderate alcohol intake Calorie reduction Oxidation change in structure of a molecule caused by free radicals highly reactive molecules Free radicals take electrons from DNA or tissue making them highly reactive Could be endogenous produced by body or exogenous from environment Antioxidants react with free radicals to make them less harmful and prevent them from taking electrons from DNA and tissues a Nutrients like Vitamin E and C carotenoids b Enzymes need cofactors such as selenium copper and zinc Vitamin C ascorbic acid water soluble immune function protects white blood cells from oxidative damage antioxidant protects lungs and LDL cholesterol De ciency is scurvy and increased infection Alcoholics at big risk of de ciency Vitamin E lipid soluble Antioxidant for lipids in body Found in oil and seeds Deficiency is anemia Vitamin A and Bcarotene vision carotenoids are converted to vitamin A Sources are fruits and vegetables Selenium trace cofactor for an antioxidant enzyme De ciency causes heart disease and higher rates of some cancer Sources pork sh plants Individuals at risk live in areas with low selenium soil level Functional foods phytochemicals chemical substances found in plants Give color avor odor and protection to plants Not essential and has antioxidant properties Found in brightly colored foods apple tomatoes broccoli garlic etc Antioxidant nutrients and chronic diseases lowers heart disease cataracts arthritis diabetes cancer breast lung colon and prostrate Will not prevent them but lowers risk NUTRIENTS AND BONE METABOLISM Bones are living tissue made up of cells in a mineral and protein matrix lt s dynamic tissue Func ons 1 Storage of calcium and phosphate 2Suppo 3 Protection 4 Movement 5 Formation of blood cells Consists of calcium and its basic structure is calcium phosphatecalcium carbonate with protein Bone turnover is formed by osteoblasts make the bone and broken down by osteoclasts breakdown the bone ln childhood more formation than breakdown In adults 34 45 years equal amount of both In adults over 45 more breakdown than formation After menopause in women more breakdown than formation Occurs at about 45 years old gtUUl 39 Nutrients 1 Calcium major mineral nutrient Functions in bone structure nerve 2 3 4 transmission blood clotting etc De ciency is osteoporosis Phosphorus major found in phosphate Functions in DNA and RNA structures De ciency is weakness loss of appetite and muscle pain 0 Calcium and phosphorus use similar transporters so if you have a high phosphorus intake it decreases the absorption of calcium Soda has high phosphorus Fluoride functions in teeth and makes it resistant to dental caries Deficiency is dental caries with poor mouth hygiene Vitamin D acts as a hormone Functions in bone metabolism calcium absorption by intestine and calcium reabsorption by kidney De ciency id rickets and osteomalacia Toxicity here is much higher with less consequences Vitamin D increases the absorption of calcium into the blood Osteoporosis loss of bone mineral and protein Less bone strength Incidence high in adults lose balance at old age so are more likely to fall leading to fractures Fractures are the problem but falling is the cause Risk factors 1 2 3 wove Age After 45 years bone mass decreases and risk increases Gender amp hormones After menopause rapid loss of bone density in women Race whites have low bone density and highest risk Asians have the lowest bone density but intermediate risks Black have the lowest risk and highest bone density Smoking increases risk Astronauts lose bone density in space Low calcium and Vitamin D intake Physical activity decreases risk Recommendations higher intake of calcium and vitamin D avoid high phosphorus intake avoid smoking avoid being underweight and exercise TAKE SUPPLEMENTS FOR CALCIUM Synthetic calcium carbonate calcium citrate malate and lactate They are all good for you Natural has risks they are oyster shells dolomite and bone meal Excess is linked to kidney stones and mineral imbalances
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