Exam 2 Study Guide- Social Psychology
Exam 2 Study Guide- Social Psychology PSYC 3520
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abigail Sanders on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3520 at Clemson University taught by Alice Brawley in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 122 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 10/28/15
Social Psychology Exam 2 Brawley Chapter 5 Attitudes and Attitude Change ATTITUDES 0 Evaluations and enduring dispositions feelings and thoughts about something 0 People objects issues attitude object I 3 parts of attitude 0 Affective feelings positive or negative towards objects 0 Behavioral actions towards objects 0 Cognitive thoughts toward objects beliefs knowledge facts 0 Affective behavioral and cognitive don t always have to line up 0 EX Attitude object parents Affective positive Behavioral act nicely Cognitive know their job type of music they like birthdayage I Attitudes are measured by items like 0 Are you for or against 0 How important is to you I Attitudes are difficult to change enduring relates to persuasion I Attitudes allow us to make decisions quickly 0 Sometimes attitudes predict behavior sometimes not 0 2 theories of attitudes 0 Balance Theory are your attitudes consistent usually compared to someone else I 3 parts 0 Your attitude towards attitude object 0 Your attitude towards other person 0 Other person s attitude towards attitude object I Balanced when parts fitmake sense I EX Attitude object drinking alcohol look in notes at diagram You have a negative attitude towards drinking alcohol You have a positive attitude toward best friend Best friend has a negative attitude toward drinking alcohol I Uneven number of negative signs unbalanced I Even number of negative signs balanced Social Psychology Exam 2 Brawley 0 Cognitive Dissonance Theory usually focuses on consistency between attitudes and behavior I When attitudes and behavior don t match they produce cognitive dissonance feel uncomfortable more likely to change attitude to make consistent with behavior I When dissonance happens 1 After Making Decision a EX Buy car A dependable or car B cool Decision car B cool car After decision every good think about car A is inconsistent with your decision Change attitude towards car A 2 Insufficient Justification for behavior b EX Volunteering for a cause you don t care about for no Pay i Likely to change attitude to match behavior c EX Attending a class with no attendance policy 1 Threats haVing a threat for not doing a behavior helps justify behavior a EX Lose points by not doing homework b Mild threat lose 5 points if don t attend class c Severe threat lose 50 points if don t attend class more external justification less dissonance less attitude change 2 Choice more dissonance a EX Have a choice to volunteer at event more dissonance more attitude change b EX Have a mandatory volunteering event less dissonance less attitude change 3 Effort more effort more dissonance a EX Going through basic training for military MORE DISSONANCE 1 After Making Decision after decision 2 Insufficient J ustification no external reason for behavior 3 Threats no threatmild threat 4 Choice have a choice 5 Effort requires lots of effort APPLYING COGNITIVE DISSONANCE THEORY Social Psychology Exam 2 Brawley 1 Change kids attitudes towards vegetables a Give them a choice between serval vegetables b Mild threat no dessert 2 Political candidate who wants campaign workers who really care about the campaign a Seek volunteers b Make them work hard lots of effort USING COGNITIVE DISSONANCE THEORY TO PREDICT OUTCOMES 1 Studying for 2 hours vs 20 hours who will like subject more a 20 hours more effort more dissonance attitude change 2 Choose your presentation topic or have it assigned a Choice more dissonance attitude change 3 Interns who earn credit or not a No credit no external justification PERSUASION Social Psychology Exam 2 Brawley Ex Politicians advertisers friends 1 The Communicator more favorable expression more persuasive a 3 components i Credibility expert trustworthy ii Likeability balance theory iii Reference Groups groups you arewant to be in 2 The Communication the message trying to persuade a Discrepancy how different is message from current attitude i Moderate medium discrepancy most persuasive b Argument Strength quality amount of good evidence i Paying attention strength matters ii Not paying attention strength doesn t matter c Repetition helpful for strong argument not helpful for weak argument i Ex Weak argument football player in DirecTV ad 1 Application have different versions different football players ii Ex ICYMI in case you missed it posts 3 The Target the person you are trying to persuade a Commitment to initial attitude b Issue Involvement how important the issue is for the target i Ex Raising tuition more likely to pay close attention c Response Involvement being concerned about social approval of your attitude strength of argument is not important 4 The Situation a Forewaming someone trying to convince you good when target is not committed more likely to be persuaded bad when target is committed less likely to be persuaded i Happens when watching commercials b Distraction mildslightly distraction is good not going to evaluate your argument i Too much distraction is bad 1 Ex Commercials are so funny you have no idea what they were advertising c Culture i Individualist emphasize selfindependence more persuasive ii Collectivist emphasize others sharing interdependence Chapter 6 Prejudice PREJUDICE Social Psychology Exam 2 Brawley 0 Virtually every racialethnic group 0 Most prejudice research focuses on African Americansblacks I Don t stereotype prejudice not just race disabilities diseases Asian women oldyoung people overweight homosexuals 0 Prejudice noun prejudiced adjective 0 Part of broader concept Group Antagonism 0 Affective negative feelings toward a group prejudice O Behavioral behaviors that disadvantage people based on their group membership discrimination 0 Cognitive thoughts or beliefs about typical characteristics of members of a group stereotype INGROUP OUTGROUP 0 Ingroup group to which you belong can have multiple 0 Outgroup group to which you don t belong 0 Consequences of inout groups 0 Ingroup Favoritism showing favor to members of your in group I EX Hiring an in group member over outgroup member 0 Assumed Similarity with ingroup members assume sharing beliefs and attitudes I EX All Clemson student feel the same about South Carolina 0 Outgroup Homogeneity members of an out group are all similar to each other while you see members of ingroup as diverse I EX Young people think all older adults seem the same I EX Older adults think all young people seem the same APPLYING PREJUDICE Female Clemson student Her boyfriend Her grandma Her boyfriend s grandma 0 Ingroup Clemson students young grandchild gender 0 Who would she give the nicest gift to 0 Grandmas same gender 0 Who would she see as most similar to her and why 0 Boyfriend young same school 0 Grandma gender family OLDFASHIONED RACISM traditional racism against blacks in the United States 1 Believing in white supremacy Social Psychology Exam 2 Brawley 2 Segregation 3 Discrimination in education and work CURRENT RACISM I Illusory Change expressing racist ideas are not socially acceptable buy many whites still don t support actions for equality I Symbolic Racism modern racism whites may think blacks don t face discrimination and blacks just aren t making effort I Averse Racism when whites have negative feelings toward blacks prejudice O Situation where fairness is important whites likely to treat everyone the same I EX Grading tests 0 Ambiguous situations whites likely to avoid blacks I EX Choosing a seat in class I Implicit implied Stereotypes wellleamed associations that can be automatically evaluated 0 EX Older adults and frail boring 0 EX African Americans and good or bad 0 Implicit Association Test compares response time for stereotypeconsistent pairs should be faster to response time for stereotypeinconsistent pairs should be slower chart in notes REDUCING PREJUDICE I Socialization family and friends beliefs affect your beliefs 0 If your group promotes norms of tolerance then reduces prejudice 0 Start with or born into some groups later on can change your groups I Intergroup Contact members of different groups come into contact with one another 0 More contact more accurate perception of groups reduce prejudice 0 Most prejudice are least likely to contact 0 Contact Theory contacts works best when members I Have a common goal I Have equal status I Have friendship 0 Frequently 0 Long enough I Institutional support I Recategorization members of different groups see themselves as part of one larger group Chapter 7 Social In uence CONFORMITY tendency to change beliefs behaviors or attitudes to match others Social Psychology Exam 2 Brawley 0 Voluntary you choose to make the change 0 Solomon Asch line study 0 5 participants in session Which comparison line match the standard line Multiple trails repeated task In one trial first four participants actually researchers answered incorrectly 75 of participants conformed at least once Group unanimity everyone agrees increases conformity 0 Shown same effect in studies of attitudes opinions facts OOOOO WHY PEOPLE CONFORM 1 To Be Right informational in uence a EX Tour groups on campus follow you to dining hall b EX Asch study 2 To Be Liked normative in uence a EX Pretend you like working out around healthy friends b If you confirm behaviorally may stop doing behavior or change attitude toward working out or friends c Usually people don t change private attitudes WHEN PEOPLE CONFORM 1 Group Size larger group more likely to conform a EX Am I the only one feeling cold b If a lot of other people agree you would be likely to change own attitude 2 Group Unanimity if everyone else agrees a Reduces a lot if even one person disagrees 3 Commitment To Group more committed to group a Includes positive and negative commitment i EX Positive getting paid liking coworkers ii EX Negative not having other job options iii Either type of commitment more likely to conform 4 Desire For Individuation how much you are willing to stand out from the group a Good thing when it makes someone less liable to conform in a positive way i EX If all of your friends jump off a bridge MINORITY INFLUENCE when someone with minority opinion or behavior in uences rest of group majority Social Psychology Exam 2 Brawley 0 Good when majority of behavior is bad 0 Ex Working with a group and majority has wrong answer for test 0 Ex Group is brainstorming only one has a unique new idea 0 When this works behaviors of minority members 0 Consistent forceful logically consistent make sense not rigid exible in how you present idea 0 Other examples of minority in uence 0 Ex Women right to vote 0 Ex Jury of 12 people I 11 guilty votes I 1 innocent vote 0 Forceful speak up 0 Have a logical sensible case for innocence 0 Flexible consider what others say COMPLAINCE making a changedoing something at another s request 0 Ex Roommate asks about doing dishes 0 Ex Parents ask to do chores 0 Ex Ask Siri about a song WHY PEOPLE COMPLY six bases of social power Social Psychology Exam 2 Brawley 1 Rewards a Ex Money points tshirt free food b Personal or impersonal c Formal or informal agreements 2 Coercion threat of punishment a Ex Fined for not paying taxes b Ex Points taken off for paper being too short 3 Expertise a Ex Doctor says you need certain medicine you believe them 4 Information giving information or logical arguments a Ex Kesha is performing b Ex If you take me to Charlotte then you can go to the nice mall 5 Referent Power when we want to be part of like a person or group a Same as reference group 6 Legitimate Authority someone has power based on social norms a Ex Police officer parents b Special case Helplessness i Social norm of responsibility comply with requests of helpless individuals 1 Ex Help freshman find building 2 Tourists young children APPLY COMPLAINCE 0 Roommate wants you to go on a road trip 0 Information about some attraction they will like 0 Reward pay for their costs 0 Referent Power other people they like are also going STANLEY MILGRAM obedience to authority 0 1960s 0 Pairs of volunteers 0 One learner and one teacher 0 Learner was a researcher 0 Leamer memorize pairs of words 0 Teacher administered a shock when learner got the words wrong 0 Learner and teacher communicated by an intercom 0 65 of teachers used the XXX 435450 volts shock because the experimenter told them experiment must continue 0 Complied with authority Chapter 8 Interpersonal Attraction Social Psychology Exam 2 Brawley WHY DO WE LIKE CERTAIN PEOPLE 0 We like people when our interactions seem profitable 0 Is your time and effort worth it 0 Does the person s good qualities outweigh the bad 0 Social Exchange Theory 0 4 factors 1 Proximity how close together you live a More proximity more likely to like i Ex Neighbor roommate b Functional Distance actual travel distance c Why i Can t like someone never met ii Reduced costs of the interaction less effort time money iii Cognitive Distance Theory want attitudes and behaviors to match iv Exception when two people previously dislike each other proximity may make it worse 2 Familiarity how often you see somebody a More familiarity more likely to like Mere exposure effect Ex TV show The O ice with Jim and Pam Ex Repeatedly showed some faces people like those faces more Ex You see mirror image of your face participants preferred mirror 9906 image of their own face friends see your face as is friends preferred regular image f Why i Fear of unfamiliar ii Comfort of familiar g Exceptions i Previous disliking ii May cause boredom 3 Similarity like people that are like us Social Psychology Exam 2 Brawley a Based on attitudes religion education race interests age SES b opposites attract probably not i In dating and marriage this is called the matching principle c More similar couplesfriends may be more likely to stay together d Why i Selective Attraction one person has strong Views and uses them to select other people a EX Only dating someone they re your same religion ii Social In uence two people initially diff but one person persuades the other one to change a EX Persuade your new friendsignificant other to be a Clemson fan iii Environmental Factors situations that lead similar people to meet a EX Playing the same sport working out at the same gym 4 Desirable Qualities of the Other Person a 3 qualities we generally prefer i Warmth positive outlook or attitude 1 EX Complimenting others like movies ii Competence good at being or doing something relevant to the relationship with that person 1 EX Good mechanic good bus driver good friend iii Attractiveness physical l Facial bilateral symmetry b Why i We stereotype think attractive people have other good qualities 1 EX Funny smart good health ii Seen as a marker for good genes c When are we bad at detecting bilateral asymmetry i Intoxicated 0 Proximity familiarity and similarity 0 Can cause liking 0 Or liking can cause these factors I EX Like someone want to see them more often familiarity TRIANGULAR THEORY OF LOVE 1 Passionate love emotionally charged love Social Psychology Exam 2 Brawley Companionate love affection and caring 1 Liking 2 Infatuation 3 Empty love 4 Romantic love 5 Companionate love ex Friend 6 Fatuous love love at first sight 7 Consummate love 2 Commitment Passion Social Psychology Exam 2 Brawley Chapter 9 Interpersonal Relationships GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF MANY RELATIONSHIPS I 2 people in a relationship are interdependent in uence each other I 3 basic characteristics of close relationships 1 Frequent interaction over a long period of time 2 Includes many types of events 3 In uence between them is strong a Good and bad FAIR EXCHANGE 0 Define fair 0 Equality I EX Both get half of pizza 0 Relative Mood I EX The hungrier person gets more pizza 0 Equity profits equal contributions I EX Whoever paid more I When there s not equity I Over benefitted person stressed 0 Under benefitted person stressed I 2 ways to restore equity or end the relationship 0 Actually restore equity 0 Make more or less contribution 0 Change your perception of equity 0 Think you re making enough effort getting more out of it I 2 types of relationships in equity 0 Exchange relationship keep track of favors care more about maintaining equity I Communal relationship don t keep track of favors care less POWER EQUALITY I What determines power in a relationship 0 Social Norms I EX Men boss police officer 0 Relative Resources anything that helps with our goals I EX Smart money 0 Principle of Least Interest person who is least interested or dependent Social Psychology Exam 2 Brawley CONFLICT when one person s actions interfere with another s I 3 general categories 0 Specific Behaviors I EX Roommate who chews loudly complains O Norms and Roles someone doesn t do what you expect them to do I Roommate is mean to your visitors 0 Personal Dispositions characteristics of a person I Personality roommate is a rude person I Motive roommate did it just to annoy you COMMITMENT all the positive and negative forces that keep you in a relationship 1 Personal Commitment when you personally want to keep or improve a relationship a EX Someone you really want to be friends with 2 Moral Commitment sense of obligation or responsibility to keep a relationship a EX Your significant other stucked through some hard event b EX Staying in a marriage 3 Lack of Attractive Alternative a EX No physically attractive alternatives b EX No other job offers 4 Sunk Costs Investments Alreadv Made a EX Invested time in a relationship b EX Invested money to move for a job 3 and 4 are called Constraint Commitments APPLICATIONS 1 3 couples 1 dating 1 engaged l married a Married couple has moral commitment b All three couples could have equal personal commitment 2 Sunk Costs 5 year couple more likely to stay together than 2 year couple RESPONSES TO DISSATISFACTION 0 4 reactions to dissatisfaction 0 Voice speaking up trying to make a change 0 Loyalty passively waiting for change 0 Neglect passively allowing a relationship to deterioratefall apart 0 Exit when you actually leave the relationship I EX Divorce breakup Social Psychology Exam 2 Brawley Chapter 10 Behavior in Groups BEHAVIOR IN FRONT OF OTHERS We are interdependent we in uence each other 1 Social Facilitation doing something in front of other people makes you better at it 2 Social Inhibition doing something in front of other people makes you worse at it a EX Giving a speech typing in front of others When Does Each One Happen I In general the presence of other people makes us more likely to do our dominant response 0 Practiced a lot know very well I If dominant response is correct or good social facilitation 0 Ex Practices speech a lot do better in front of other people I If dominant response is wronghad social inhibition 0 EX Not practicing speech practicing sitting down or in head I Why 0 Other people s presence is arousing aware attentive O Other people s presence is motivating I Caring what others think evaluation apprehension I EX Care whether someone thinks you are attractive 0 Is distracting I So try harder I For easy tasks do better I Social facilitation I For difficult tasks may not do any better I Social inhibition 0 Physiological challenge or threat response I Physiological blood pressure sweating I Challenge have resources needed to accomplish practiced act I Threat don t have those resources Social Psychology Exam 2 Brawley 3 Social Loafing when you work less hard as part of a group compared to working alone a EX Group project 4 Social Compensation working extra hard to make up for lazy or incompetent group members When 0 Social Loafing 0 Group performance is not important to the person I EX Not a big part of your grade The person does not think their contribution is necessary for group success Larger group Individual contribution is not identifiable When is social loafing less likely to happen I Incentives paid points I Meaningful passionatecareinterestingdifficult 0000 0 Social Compensation 0 Group performance is important to the person I EX Big part of grade 0 The person does think their contribution is necessary for group success SOCIAL IMPACT THEORY how strong is the in uence of other people s presence 1 Number of other people 2 Strengthimportancepower of other people 3 Immediacy closeness in space or time DEINDIVIDUATION anonymity of a group leads people to do things they would not do alone 0 EX Rioting spring break 0 Generally negative CROWDING subjective own perception feeling of having too little space SOCIAL DENSITY objective actual count number of people in a give space
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