Study Guide for Midterm on 10/29
Study Guide for Midterm on 10/29
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kassandra Murawski on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 99 views.
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Date Created: 10/28/15
PURPOSE AND VALUES Chapter 1 oz How does college differ from high school gt gt College requires greater independent learning Professors do not provide as much study help or review materials Expect you to know how to study effectively College moves at a faster pace Cover more chapters in smaller period of time College courses require critical thinking Need to go beyond memorization and actually apply the material College classes have few safety nets Little to no extra credit opportunities You are tested less on more material College requires you to study longer and more effectively Not about the amount of time you put into studying it is about the quality of that time College provides less chance for evaluation Fewer exams with more information you need to know on each College gives you more freedom and responsibility You have to prioritize what you want to do vs what you have to get done You have to stay on top of things yourself College provides more anonymity So many students so it is hard for a professor to get to know you well Professors will not constantly be checking in and see that you are understanding the material College requires you to be proactive Yourjob to seek out resources before it is too late oz What special situations can you expect to encounter gt Professors who take attendance Very important to attend these classes but also very good idea to attend all others as well not matter if it is technically required or not Early classes Juggle your schedule accordingly or try to avoid them if you are not a morning person A course or professor you do not like Do not blame your attitude on the professor Motivate yourself with small rewards and push through Cramming for a test Will happen but do not make a habit out of it Takes days to recover which can affect other classestests too Having no motivation Set small speci c reachable goals Helps you stay focused and improves motivation Personal issues or illness Build in exibility into your schedule so that everything does not fall apart if this happens Be aware of resources on campus like the clinic Obtain a set of reliable peers that can help you gt Frustration Deal with frustrations as they arise do not let them build up and affect other aspects of your life gt Juggling too much It is easy to become overcommitted prioritize and learn to say no gt Dif culty organizing Chapter 7 Find new ways to organize materials from all different resources kt 5 Components of Beliefs that In uence Learning gt Certainty of Knowledge Believing that knowledge is constantly changing vs is always the sameabsolute answers 0 College courses require that you go beyond facts Professors want you to be prepared for future learning on top of present learning Simple Knowledge 0 Complex highly interconnected concepts vs series of unrelated information 9 Those who believe that knowledge is complex look for relationships between ideas 9 Those who believe that knowledge is simple break down the info isolate it and then do not put it all together again gt These students miss big ideas 9 Thinking critically and connecting all of the information to understand main concepts is the way to go Responsibility for Learning 0 College professorscourse expect 0 You to learn a lot on your own 0 You to ask for extra help when you do not understand something 0 To pull together the main ideas on your own 0 To gather information from multiple sources Speed of Learning Gradual ongoing process vs quick sudden process 0 Gradual process better prepared for college courses 0 Immediate process face frustration The Role of Ability Nature vs Nurture 9 Nature gt Have a xed idea of what they can and cannot learndo gt Talk to themselves in a negative way 0 Nurture gt Challenge themselves with the dif cult tasks that come gt Try different strategies for learning gt Ask for help Beliefs Lesson 0 Students who 0 Believe knowledge is changeable o Believe knowledge consists of interrelated concepts 9 Believe learning is in their control 9 Believe that learning takes effort and time 0 Will be more successful in college kt Changing Your Beliefs gt Be aware of your beliefs Understand if they are helping or hurting you Understand that you are unsatis ed with your current set of beliefs Look for the Big Picture Connect ideas Live with Uncertainty Accept that sometimes there is not a quotrightquot answer Do not compare your ability to others39 abilities Focus on improving yourself College is quotendurance not a sprintquot Realize learning takes time Expect it to take you awhile to understand new material 0 Will face less frustration Spread out study material so you can review hard concepts multiple times kt Evaluating Information from the Internet gt Ways to evaluate the credibility and quality of info Source point of view expert bias etc Purpose informing and educating vs marketing and persuading Corroboration compare to other similar info online Accuracy approach with common sense does any wrong info stand out if it sounds too good to be true it probably is Timeliness more recent more accurate Bias gure out the bias and how it affects the way the info is being presented ACTIVE LEARNING Chapter 2 00 Active learners gt gt Read with a purpose to understand and remember the information Check their understanding as they read Re ect and Think Critically Actually think about the information they are retaining gt Take comprehensive notes Are always engaged with readings and lectures alike Think about what they are writing about o 9 o 90 gt Know learning requires more than just putting in time Quality of that time is what counts 0 Effort does not count performance does gt Get assistance at the right time Constantly monitor their understanding so they know when their comprehension breaks down Have a plan ahead of time for when they think they will experience trouble gt Accept responsibility for learning Know that responsibility for learning is all on them gt Question information They challenge when they are not convinced instead of accepting everything the professor says blindly Bene ts of Active Learning gt Involves skill and will Skil the tools to handle the studying and learning demands Will the desire and motivation to follow through and learn 0 Skill is something that can be developed if one has the will gt Leads to greater academic payoffs Higher grades More time for extracurricular activitiessocializing Gained knowledge Actually like to learn Are more engaged with professor gt Leads to greater psychological payoffs quotSuccess begets successquot 0 Being successful motivates you to do what it takes to have greater success Four Factors that In uence Active Learning gt Your own characteristics as a learner Motivation 0 Open to learning new things and expanding interestsmore success Background Knowledge 0 More you already know about a topic easier it is to learn Ability to concentrate Your beliefs about knowledge and learning gt The tasks your professor asks you to do Some professors are clear 0 Set daily expectations as well as long term ones 0 Help prepare you for exams by giving practice testsformat Other professors are not clear 0 Ask them questions when they are unclear and you are uncertain 9 You cannot properly prepare and strategize if you do not know what is expected gt The Texts Not just textbooks but also articles lecture notes newspapers essays movies etc Familiarize yourself with the type of and the format of the texts 0 Learning material becomes easier once you understand how it is organized gt Learning Strategies Strategies should be chosen based on your characteristics as a learner the tasks you need to complete and the texts you use 0 Important to remember 0 Must be able to use strategies without guidance o These strategies have speci c underlying processes so follow them and trust their results 0 Effective strategies will require critical thinking o Strategies are exible modify them to your liking for success 60 Holistic Nature of Active Learning gt Active learners possess three different types of knowledge that all contribute to their success Declarative Knowing what you need to do and what strategy you need to use Procedural Knowing how to do what you need to do o Follow procedures once you know what you need to do in order to be successful Conditional Knowing when and why you are using the strategies you are MOTIVATION AND GOALS Chapter 6 oz Motivation ln uencers gt Motivation level increases when you have a choice in whathow you are learning College is good for this because you get to pick what degree you are seeking gt Motivation level increases when you have desire to learninterest in the courses taken gt Motivation level increases when you value the subject more Ex nding value in foreign language course vs being forced to take it gt Motivation level increases when you are more willing to take control of your learning oz What motivates people gt You motivate you No one else can directly motivate you gt Intrinsic motivation Internal motivation comes from within Activity is its own reward gt Extrinsic motivation External motivation The incentive is the reward gt The more you are intrinsically motivated the easier it will be to learn ln classes you are not intrinsically motivated for nd something anything that you like about it and focus on the positives Focus more on understanding concepts to be learned than on grades kt Finding motivation through goalsetting gt Realistic Set small speci c goals will achieve in the next few days Set intermediate goals will achieve in next few weeks or months Set longterm goals will achieve in months or a few years Should be deliberate and made with thoughtfulness gt Believable Be con dent in achieving the goal Necessary for motivation gt Desirable Have a reason for wanting to achieve the goal gt Measurable Set standards to help measure your progress gt Public Share your goals with others 0 Are good for encouragement Holds you more accountable kt Staying motivated gt Before sitting down to study take a moment to analyze your motivation level forthattask Study when you are at your concentration peak Be aware of physical and psychological signs when your motivation starts to wane Be in tune with your feelings and stress so you can diagnose it and recover more quickly Start studying the more dif cult material rst Take breaks and switch tasks after the break Work with a study group Study where you are free of distractions Think about the best and worst case scenarios for your actions Doing your work getting better grades and feeling accomplished and productive Avoiding work getting poor grades feeling guilty gt If starting to lose motivation in the middle of the term set new goals oz Changing Attitudes and Interests gt Attitudes in uence your learning Re exive experience these attitudes without even thinking based on situations we nd ourselves in Constantly changing ln uences motivation Positive attitude greater motivation Characteristics that match your behavior VVVVV 0 Ex if you have bad mindset with learning a course then all of your behavior will follow that avoiding readings not studying falling behind etc gt Types of Academic Attitudes Attitude toward college 0 College is often not what people expect it to be which can throw people off 9 Con icts can occur Q Your attitude can in uence your academic performance Attitude toward instructors Can directly in uence how successful you are in that class Attitude toward subject and learning environment Directly in uences your motivation in that class 0 Keep an open mind at the beginning of the course Attitude toward yourself as a learner Most important of the attitudes People with positive attitudes know themselves well enough to make the change when they doubt themselves 0 People that come into college with negative attitudes often have a dif cult time but can change when they experience success gt Maintaining Positive Attitude Focus on what excites you or makes you happy Do not stress over things that you cannot control 0 Focus your energy on things you can control Do not focus on past mistakes Find your balance 0 Comfort zone vs trying new things 0 Having high interest in a class vs low interest in required class 0 Give each course and professor a chance Expect to learn valuable things in each course gt Role of Interests Attitudes and interests go hand in hand Should approach each class as an opportunity to develop new interests Don39t wait until senior year to take all the courses you did not want to take before 0 Balance the courses GETI39ING ORGANIZED Chapter 5 kt Key to selfmanagement get organized gt Create balance between school work and social life Treat College Like a Fulltime Job 0 But with more exibility take advantage of that Schedule Your Classes at Your Most Alert Times Go to Class 0 You will know what info is emphasized You will know if something was added to the syllabus Don t Procrastinate kt Managing Your Time gt Determine What you need to accomplish Plan more time than what you think you will need 9 Things tend to take longer than you think and cause problems with your schedule What typically wastes your time Restructure your days if your free time is cutting into your 40 hour school time How to keep track of what you need to do 0 Have planner or schedule you mark everything down inwith 9 Check in with it don39t abandon after writing down 0 Prioritize the list oz Creating a Schedule You Can Actually Live With gt Plan to study when you are most alert gt Spend some time each day on each of your courses spread it out Won39t have to cram Leaves more time to study effectively right before exam because already have seen material Allows you to remember the material better gt Being speci c Listing quotread pagesquot Instead of quotstudyquot gt Make a reading schedule for each class Divide the readings up little in each course each day gt Prioritize The tasks that need to be done based on timeliness and percent of grade gt Make to do lists Keep one next to you while studying in order to get back on track more quickly Set aside time to create your schedule for that week Borrow time don39t steal it If you go out instead of studying make sure to plug that task back in later in the week Use time between classes Schedule breaks Take some time off guilt free Get help as soon as you need it anning for Midterms and Finals Plan ahead Cut down on work or other commitments Get enough sleep Study with a partner Don t panic VV 0 60 VVVVVEVVVV LEARNING STYLES AND MEMORY Chapter 3 kt The Role of Memory Two Theories gt The Parts Theory Sensory store short term memory longterm memory Sensory o Serves as a lter of everything our senses are bombarded with at once 0 Cannot ll up but can overload too much stuff wanting your attention so cannot focus Shortterm memory Takes over when you actually want to remember something 0 Holds information for 30 seconds unless you do something to retain it 0 Holds 7 2 pieces of info 0 Increasing time info is held in short term 9 Rehearse it 0 Write it down 0 Chunk it Longterm memory 0 Holds in nite amount of info 9 Older the memory the more rmly the memory is set in your brain 0 To get info in to long term 9 Rehearsal o Traumatic or stressful events somehow easily nd themselves in LTM Parts Theory number and variety of ways you rehearse in uence how much info you can remember and for how long gt Levels of Processing Theory Ability to remember and retrieve depends upon how deeply the materials are processed 0 Maintenance rehearsal o Engaging in just enough rehearsal to process info shaowy so it can be used brie y o Elaborative Rehearsal 9 Making info meaningful and rehearsing to the point where you know the info immediately gt Includes writing info in organized way repeating the material connecting the material to prior knowledge personalizing the info 00 Stretching Your Memory gt Mnemonic devices Good for 0 Learning lists 0 Learning sequences of events 0 Learning processes Acronym 0 Take rst letter of each word in list you are trying to memorize and spell something Imagery o Create an image in your mind of what you are trying to retain Method of Loci 0 Attach information from your subject to objects in a familiar place 30 Role of Learning Styles gt Visual Learners Learn best through diagrams or imagery gt Auditory Learners Learn well by listening to lectures of teaching a classmate gt Kinesthetic Learners Learn best by touching or through movement Writingtyping 00 Using Your Senses to Learn gt First year students tend to be quotonetrick poniesquot Prepare the same way for every subject and test format Good learners take into account test format subject and their sensory strengths MULTIPLE INTELLIENCES p 230250 kt Sternberg39s Triarchic Theory The Value of Practical Intelligence gt Componential or Analytic Intelligence Abilities to think critically and analytically gt Experimental or creative intelligence Emphasizes insight and the ability to formulate new ideas gt Contextual or practical intelligence quotstreet smartsquot and good at solving everyday life problems kt Cattell s Theory of Crystallized vs Fluid Intelligence gt In the past psychologists have used factor analysis as a statistical technique Discovers clusters of items on a test that seem to be related to one another Measures the underlying factor a speci c aspect of intelligence gt Cattell used this when he came up with his theory Two major clusters of mental abilities exist Fluid 0 Inherited abilities to think and reason 9 Ex how quickly one can analyze info 9 Declines with age Crystallized o Accumulated knowledge info and experiences we have stored over a lifetime plus applying skills and knowledge for problem solving 0 Ex breadth of one s vocabulary o Stays level and increases steadily kt Measuring Intelligence gt Binet ran some studies and created a test that could help determine which kids needed some special help Became so successful that he revised it and applied it to a broader range of kids gt Lewis Terman psychologist from Stanford developed the StanfordBinet test which is now used all over the world Famous for its single score result the Intelligence Quotient IQ gt IQ was a computation using mental age and chronological age Not accurate as people get older because mental age growth levels off but chronological age does not oz Weshsler Scales gt Include verbal and nonverbal sections gt Weschler believed psychological disorders could be detected through this test but others have found mixed results gt His test is an aptitude test It is designed to measure the ability to acquire new info or skills Often is used to predict future performance gt Other type of test is achievement test which us designed to test what you have already learned gt The quickness of individuals completing cognitive tasks is correlated to people39s success on intelligence tests gt Inspection time is another cognitive measure of intelligence The shorter the time the faster the speed of their cognition kt Neural Basis of Intelligence gt Nerve conduction velocity speed with which nerve impulses are conducted in the visual system correlates with intelligence gt Physical structure like size is likely to correlate with intelligence The Role of Hereditary and Environment on Intelligence kt Evidence for In uence of Hereditary gt Twins Ones that stayed together Ones that were separated gt Adopted children have more closely related IQs to their biological parents gt Research in these examples have shown that hereditary in uences intelligence Heritability increases with age kt Evidence for In uence of Environment gt Average for IQ tests is rising around the world indicating we are growing in knowledge gt Studies have been done on environmental enrichment and environmental depnva on If at a young age there is little environment stimulation could have impact on intelligence gt Biological factors like malnutrition or abnormal fetus gt Group differences in IQ scores environment 0 Cultural bias on IQ tests test questions tend to favor white middle children giving them an edge Hereditary Genetic hypothesis group differences are due in part to genetic factors 9 This argument is generally weaker kt Emotional Intelligence gt Cluster of traits or abilities relating to emotional side of life gt Major Parts Knowing our own emotions Hard for them to know their own feelings along with others Managing our emotions Regulate their nature intensity and expression Motivating ourselves Being able to persist to reach a goal keep yourself optimistic delay resultsgrati cation for larger goaIs being reached Recognizing and In uencing others39 emotions Handling Relationships gt Having good emotional intelligence and having a balance of the major parts can lead to college success academically socially and physically STRATEGIC READING Chapter 9 oz Gearing Up gt Good Learning Environment Being in a bad setting can hinder your efforts and concentration Know your optimal noise level 0 Complete silence vs noisy coffee shop 0 White noise vs music they suggest white noise like a fan Special Place Set Aside Just for Studying Ideal place is where all you do there is study 0 Bed would not be a good place Q You have all the tools you need right at your disposal so don39t have to interrupt studying gt Survey Textbooks Read the intro Read tips for studying out of the book Read preview questions at beginning of each chapter Analyze diagrams and charts Pay extra attention to bold or italicized words Read summary or sample questions at end of chapter Familiarize yourself with the topics 9 Link new info to info you already know o Creates more interest in what you are about to read so you will be more engaged Preview the reading task 9 Will give you estimate of what to expect and how long it will take Preview Reading Assignments Read chapter title Read Headings and Subheadings Read boldfaced words Note the graphs charts and diagrams Read the intro Read summary Read end of chapter material Determine reading purpose 0 Identify key ideas you think you will be accountable for knowing kt Staying Active During Reading gt gt Do not use highlighters Mindlesspassive task if you do not come back to and do more with it Tend to either highlight too much or not enough Make note of it Write notes in the book kt Annotation gt Writing the key ideas in the margin Requires that you understand the material Put ideas in your own words Process Select information Reduce information Organize information Identify key concepts Monitor your learning How to annotate Read rst then write most important part of the section Write Annotations in your own words What to Annotate De nitions Examples Predicted test questions People dates places and events 0 This is for chronology make sure you know how they apply under larger concepts Numbered lists and characteristics Relationships between concepts Causeeffect Compa recontrast Charts graphs diagrams kt Studying your Annotations VVVV Read them over annotations not text and over and over again Talk through the major points without looking at your annotations Review a little bit each day Asked yourself questions bae on what you have written Preferably higher thinking questions TESTING STRATEGIES AND TEST ANXIETY Chapter 16 Preparing for Objective Exams kt Active learners are always in test preparation mode but in general you should gt VVVVVV gt Start studying early Reading and studying are not the same thing Get organized Spread out studying sessions instead of cramming Break up the information into chunks categorized by major concepts Take care of yourself eat healthy get enough sleep monitor your stress level SelfTest Study with Classmate study on own and then ask questions day or two ahead of time Look at old exams or talk to others who used to be in the class oz Objective Exams gt gt gt Require one answer Multiple choice Matching Fill in blank How to prepare Organize Make a jot list 0 Group together your rehearsal strategies o Look for overlap between text and lecture and study at same time o Focus on a couple broad concepts for each study session 9 Concentrate on weaknesses 9 Talk through ideas that were bringing you dif culty on morning of exam Thinking Know how you are supposed to be thinking for the test 0 Factual or application 9 Straight forward or room for interpretation 0 Have an accurate picture on what is to be expected of you for the exam Taking the Exam Get there early or on time 0 Do not want to be in a rush because that will make you nervous Look through exam before you start 0 Read the directions Skip questions you do not fully understand and come back to it Eliminate answers Use information from the test to help you answer other questions Use all of the time you are given When you have to guess go with your gut and do not second guess If question includes diagram make sure you understand the diagram before answering Chapter 17 Preparing for and Takin Essay and Specialty Exams oz Essay Exams gt PORPE Predict predict broad questions you could be asked Organize organize the info to answer the questions such as with an outline Rehearse read through outline multiple times and then go through it without looking at the outline Practice practice answering the questions in the allotted time that you will be given Evaluate after writing your answer evaluate your writing and compare to outline and text oz Taking Essay Exams gt Consider Amount of time you are given to write How you will structure your essay 0 Intro 0 Each paragraph should start with one of your main ideasclaimsgeneralizations c When in doubt leave it out 0 Conclusion oz Specialized Exams gt Problemsolving Exams Working through practice problems Talk through practice problems so that you understand underlying concepts Strategies 0 Make your own practice test 0 Get help early if you do not understand so you are not behind on building concepts 0 Know the processes gt Openbook Exams Organization is key so that important info is easy to nd Must still study and prepare Predict Organize Rehearse Practice 0 Evaluate gt TakeHome Exams Expectations are higher especially for essay because you have more time Keep up with readings and rehearsal strategies so you are all organized and ready for the test REHEARSAL AND REVIEW STRATEGIES Chapter 11 oz Importance of Rehearsal gt Better retention gt Better organization of concepts gt Better comprehension gt Personalized information that you will remember better oz Written and Oral Strategies gt Written Record information in organized way Flashcards concept maps charts questions and answers timelines gt Oral Talking rather than writing Good for auditory learners Helps you recall the information when you need it Reciprocal questioning and talkthroughs gt Factors of Good Rehearsal Strategies Include SelfTesting Flexiblecan be modi ed if needed Include precise and thorough information Are Organized and have structure Ideas are stated in your own words Help you monitor your learning kt Reviewing gt Making sure you have learned the material in a way that is organized complete and precise Ensures that it will stay in your memory gt Review Daily gt Speci c Study Plan Construct week ahead 0 Set goal on how you want to do on the test 0 Figure out how much time you are willing to put in to earn this grade 0 Figure out what strategies you plan to use SSP outlines what you will do at each study session 0 Review last week39s session at this week39s beginning 0 Review current session at its end gt Study Groups Good for Auditory Learners Good for access to other interpretations Key parts to success in group Everyone studies before the session and comes prepared every time Divide the sections up so each person specializes in topic and can help others Members should be classmates not friends Location is key few distractions Create a game plan with speci c goals and structure that must be followed gt Improving Memory Through Reviewing Reviewing helps you memorize up to 3 times as much Make sure information is organized in an easily retrievable way Use images and mnemonics to help memorize o The more outrageousthe better it will stick Say it rather than read o Involves more of your brain and is more effective 9 More of an active action 0 Helps you put own words Have several review sessions 0 Do not cram o Longer it is spread out better it will stick 0 Can concentrate better and less tired Overlearn 9 Know information to the point where it is automatic gt Like lyrics gt Result of overexposure gt Very successful in helping remember 9 Therefore familiarize yourself with the material so much that it becomes this automatic
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