study guide exam 2 (part 2)
study guide exam 2 (part 2) PSYC 2015
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jennifer Gittleman on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2015 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Wu in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see biological psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/28/15
Olfaction sense of smell amp detectsrecognizes chemicals that contact membranes inside nose critical in most mammals for nding foodmates amp avoiding danger cells line olfactory epithelium in rear of nasal passage olfactory cilia extends from cell body into mucous surface of nasal passage Early Olfactory Processing odorants dissolve in mucus amp bind to cilia action pot sent via olfactory nerve to olfactory bulb olfactory receptor proteinsproteins respond to chemicals outside the cells amp trigger changes in G protein inside cell G protein triggers chemical activities leading to action pot Central Olfactory Processing olfactory cortex amygdala hypothalamus orbitofrontal cortexidenti es pleasant vs unpleasant smells olfactory info Pheromones vomeronasal organ is set of receptors that are sensitive to pheromones chemicals released by animal to affect behavior of others of same species Taste perception of avor is combo of taste amp smell avor of foodtaste temp texture smell categoriessweet sour bitter salty umami fats Molecular Basis for Taste saltiness receptor permits sodium ions to cross membrane sourness receptors close potassium channels when acid binds to receptor sweetness bitterness amp umami receptors activate G protein that releases second messenger in cell when molecule binds to receptor Pathways for Taste Perception diff nerves carry taste info to brain from tongue taste nerves project to structure in medulanuceus of the tractus solitaries Muscle Cells Cardiaccontrol heartbeat striated branched uninucleated walls of hear involuntary Skeletalcontrol movement striated tubular multinucleated voluntary Smoothspindleshaped nonstriated uninucleated walls of internal organs involuntary Skeletal Muscle Types aerobicslowtwitch bers produce less vigorous contraction wo fatigue anaerobicfasttwitch bers produce fast cont amp fatigue fast Antagonistic Muscles exor muscleraises appendage biceps extensor musclestraightens appendagetriceps alternates contraction of opposing muscles Proprioceptors muscle spindlesparale to muscle that responds to stretch causes contraction of muscle Golgi tendon organresponds to increases in muscle tension acts as quotbrakequot against vigorous contractionsends impulse to spinal cord where motor neurons are inhibitied detect positionmovement of part of body Movement Types re exesinvoluntary consistent automatic responses to stimuli rhythmic motor patterncombines characteristics of re exes with voluntary movement voluntary movementpurposeful goaloriented directed movement 1 Visual info required to locate target 2 Frontallobe motor areas plan reach amp command movement 3 Spinal cord carries info to hand 4 Motor neurons carry message to muscles of handforearm 5 Sensory receptors on ngers send message to sensory cortex 6 Sensory cortex receives message 7 Basal ganglia judge grasp forcescerebellum corrects errors 8 Spinal cord carries info to brain Posterior Parietal Cortex keeps track of position of body relative to world damage dif culty in coordinating visual stimuli w movement plans movement 7 Primary Prefrontal Cortex responds to lightnoisessensory signals that lead to somatosensory movement calculates outcomes of actionsplans movement according to cortex outcomes Premotor cortex Premotor Cortex prepares for movement receives info about target integrates info about positionposture of body organizes direction of movement in space Supp Motor Cortex organizes rapid sequence of movements in speci c Prefrontal cortex order Primary Motor Cortex active when people intend a movement orders outcome Cerebellum balanceamp coordination damage trouble w rapid movements requiring aimtiming receives input form spinal cord amp sends it to cerebellar cortex Basal Ganglia group of large subcortical structures in forebrain learns motor skills organizes sequences of movement automatic behaviors amp new habits Lateral corticospinal tract controls movement in peripheral areas hands amp feet red nucleus output mainly to arm muscles contralateral control Medial corticospinal tract control of muscles of neck shoulders amp trunk enables movements like walking bending standing contralateralipsilateral control prpbpllum Supplementary Primary Central sulcus motor cortex motor cortex Posterior parietal cortex Homeostasis internal regulation that keep body variables within xed range Set Point single value that body works to maintain negative feedback processes that reduce discrepancies from set point allostasis how body changes its set point in response to changes in enviro motivationdirects behavior drive states Temperature Regulation poikilotherms body temp matches that of enviro accomplished via choosing locations in enviro basking in sun endotherms maintain body temp through internal metabolic activity homeothermic use of internal mechanisms to maintain a constant body temp amp requires energy Deviations in Human Temp fever response to pyrogens hyperthermia heat stroke low surfvol ratio young athletes hypothermia high survol ratio infants method to reduce brain damage cooling may counteract increased free radicals glutamate amp calcium How Fever s Generated bacteriaviruses trigger release of leukocytes which release cytokines which attack intruders amp stimulate vagus nerve Water Regulation water conserved by excreting concentrated urine decreasing sweat accomplished via drinking more water than needed amp excreting the rest Osmotic Thirst results from eating salty foods osmosis water moves from area w low concentration to area w higher concentration osmotic pressure solutes are more concentrated on one side of membrane detected by receptors around 3rd ventricle OVLT subfornical organ receptors in periphery info relayed to areas of hypothalamus amp receptors relay info to lateral preoptic areacontrols drinking prefer pure water Hypovolemic Thirst associated w low volume of body uids internal bleeding severe injury vomiting diarrhea triggered by release of hormones vasopressin amp angiotensin II which constrict blood vessels to compensate for drop in blood pressure vasopressin hormone released by posterior pituitary which raises pressure by constricting blood vessels compensating decreased water volume enables kidneys to reabsorb water prefer slightly salty water lAl Visual information is required The sensory to locate the target cortex receives the message that the cup has been grasped Il Basal ganglia quotx judge grasp forces and the 1 Frontai l ohe motor areas plan the reach and command the movement The spinal cord carries x information t39otfhe hand quotMumr cerebellum quot 39 I corrects 7 i l 39 movement Motor neurons carry the l errors message to muscles of the hand and forearm Sensuw r naumn The splnal card carries sensory information to the brains Sensory receptors on the fingers send a message to the sensory cortex that the cup has been grasped Smooth mussie cell
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