study guide exam 3 (part 1)
study guide exam 3 (part 1) PSYC 2015
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jennifer Gittleman on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2015 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Wu in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see biological psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/28/15
JamesLange Theory frightening situationappraisal cognitive aspectaction behavioral aspect including physiologyemotional feeling fear leads to two predictions people w weak autonomicskeletal response should feel less emotion increasing one39s response should enhance emotion emotional feelings result from body39s actions smiling increases happinessparalyzed people same degree of emotional feeling but not physiological people with pure autonomic failure have less intense feeling botox injectionweaker than usual emotional responses right somatosensory cortex damagenormal autonomic response little feelingprefrontal cortex damageweak autonomic response normal feeling Brain Areas insular cortexlocalization of disgust frontal amp temporal areas of left hemispherebehaviora activation systemlow to moderate arousal characterizes happinessanger frontal amp temporal areas of right hemispherebehavioral inhibition systemincreases attentionarousal inhibits action stimulates feardisgust Function adaptive valuesallows for quickmoral decisions fear leads to escapeanger leads to attack damage to prefrontal corteximpairs decision making AttackEscape Behaviors related physiologically amp behaviorally corresponding behaviorsangerfear environmental factors related to violencewitnessvictim of violence in childhood living in violent neighborhood hormones in uence aggressive behavior triple imbalance hypothesisviolence depends on other chemicals besides testosterone notably cortisolserotonin low cortisol high testosterone high aggression serotonin low violent impulses FearAnxiety amygdaaintegrates environmentalgenetic in uences regulates current levels of anxiety damageinterferes w learning fear responses fear responses previously learned interpreting stimuli w emotional consequences affectes ability to recognize emotions in pictures startle re exextremely fast response to unexpected loud noises found in infants cells in amygdala receive info from pain vision hearing circuitsaxons extend to areas in midbrain that relay info to nucleus in pons relay controls startle re ex output from amygdala to hypothalamus controls autonomic fear responses axons extending from amygdala to prefrontal cortex regulate approachavoidance responses fMRl studiesamygdala responds strongly to emotionalfacial stimuli activity is strongest when meaning is unclear amp requires processing bed nucleus of stria terminalisregulates longterm generalized emotional arousalanxiety UrbachWiethe diseasecauses calcium to build up into amygdala until it wastes away experiences fearlessness people s anxiety remains consistent over time Stress Hans Selye de ned stress as nonspeci c response of body to any demand made upon it general adaptation syndromegeneral response to stress because of threats on body alarm stageincreased sympathetic nervous system resistance stagesympathetic response declines adrenal cortex releases cortisol amp other hormones prolonged alertness exhaustion stageoccurs after prolonged stressinactivity vulnerability decreased energyheighted responses Sapolsky argues that nature of crises are more prolonged stress activates two systems in body sympathetic nervous system ght or ight that prepares body for brief emergency responses HPA axisdominant response to prolonged stressors activation of hypothalamus induces pituitary gland to secrete ACTH which stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol cortisolhelps mobilize energies to ght a situation enhances metabolic activity PTSDsmaller hippocampus lower cortisol levels Endogenous Cycles circadian rhythmsinterna mechanisms that operate on 24 hour cycle regulates eating drinking body temp secretion of hormones urination sensitivity to drugs mood keeps our internal workings in phase w outside world Zeitgeberstimulus that resets circadian rhythm sun Mechanisms of Circadian Rhythms suprachiasmatic nucleusmain control center of circadian rhythms of sleeptemp damageless consistent body rhythms that are no longer synchronized to environment light resets SCN via branch of optic nerve known as retinohypothalamic pathtravels directly from retina to SCNcells respond directly to light two types of genes responsible for generating circadian rhythm periodproduce proteins called PER timelessproduce proteins called TIM PERTIM inhibit clockincrease activity of certain neurons in SCN that regulate sleepwaking CLOCK activates PERTIM sleepSCN regulates pineal gland which secretes melatoninhormone that increases sleepinessusually begins two to three hours before bedtime Stages of Sleep EEGdiscover that there were various stages of sleep polysomnographcombination of EEG amp eyemovement records beta wavesactively thinking amp alert desynchronized rapid irregular low amplitude 1520 Hz alpha wavesawake but very relaxed slower larger more regular waves 912 Hz theta wavesdeep relaxation problem solving 48 Hz delta wavesdeep sleep largest slowest most synchronized waveform 14 Hz Brain Activity During Sleep REM sleepparadoxical sleep sympathetic activity muscles paralyzed vivid dreaming Stage 1 NREMtheta waves myocloniamuscle jerk Stage 2 NREMsleep spindles Kcomplexbursts of brain activity Stage 3 NREMsome delta waves parasympathetic activity Stage 4 NREM50 delta waves when one falls asleep they progress though stages 1234 in sequential orderafter an hour person begins to cycle back through the stages from stage 4 to stages 32 then REMthe sequence repeats with each cycle lasting approximately 90 minutesStage 34 early in nightREM sleep later in the night Pontomesencephalon part of reticular formation for cortical arousal axons extend to hypothalamus thalamus basal forebrain which release acetylcholineglutamate produce excitatory effects to areas of cortex stimulation of it awakens sleeping individuals amp increases alertness in those already awake Locus coeruleus inactive during sleep active to meaningfulemotional events strengthens recent memories release norepinephrine for arousalwakefulness Hypothalamus histamineproduce widespread excitatory effects throughout brain antihistamines produce sleepiness orexinresponsible for ability to stay awake Basal forebrain release GABAinhibitory crucial for sleep decrease tempmetabolic ratestimulation of neuron release acetylcholineexcitatory increase arousal Sleep Disorders insomniainadequate sleep epilepsy Parkinson39s disease depression anxiety sleep apneainability to breathe while sleeping consequencessleepiness attention depression heart problems causesgenetics hormones age brain mechanisms that control breathing amp obesity cognitive impairment narcolepsysudden periods of sleepiness no gene identi ed lack of hypothalamic cells that produce amp release orexin treatmentstimulant drugs Functions of Sleep energy conservation restoration of brainbody strengthens memory function of REM sleep strengthen new motor skills Biological Perspectives on Dreaming activationsynthesis hypothesisdreams begin w spontaneous activity in the pons which activates many parts of the cortex clinicoanatomical hypothesissuggests that dreams are similar to thinking just under unusual circumstances less emphasis on pons PGO waves REM sleep DT LB Em 1 H aw aka mnrmai 2min E i l Nipha EH 4 H iax a Ealr i me i39taijan are ative visualisatim Th a AME Hi Deer rlan39lazcaiii n and mwe i tati m D39F lj m wlving D39EI39EEI 13 Isz Elem dimming5 Sleep 1 2 ma 5m FM Midryg ht Malawium Em minim 5121 r35 1112 Er E M DE 9251 Elma WilliID Fr Hughesm EDEN T mgp miu re d 3 l1 AIil Lamalga Easily TEFFNDEII39EIEUEE 6 3 F I39ll v Hug 515E551 Elil d a 39 F1FE 5 5LME 5 EM E AM 5111 PM fE EITES E Eardummmlar tE39 mm cy amd hemEcle EHEHQ LI I r 5145 my Sh mp1 51 Elena Pressure REED 334 P Min F39HEMEII f 39 Fume Fiat M Era in mm SECTE39IJ r i amps 22M WM 8351 Emr maimn 11331113 AH Hignean Are ness 1m M
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