study guide exam 3 (part 2)
study guide exam 3 (part 2) PSYC 2015
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jennifer Gittleman on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2015 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Wu in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see biological psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/28/15
Overview all memory requires operation of 3 mental processes encodinginitial processing of info that leads to representation in memory storage retention over time of encoded info retrievarecovery of stored info at a later time classical conditioningconditioned stimulusCSis paired with an unconditioned stimulusUCSwhich automatically results in unconditioned response UCR after several pairings response can be elicited by CS wo UCS new response conditioned responseCR instrumentaloperant conditioningresponses are followed by reinforcement or punishment that either strengthen or weaken behavior reinforcers events that increase probability that response will occur again punishment decrease probability that response will occur again Hippocampusimportant for contextual learning amp details of an event damage impairs recent learning more than older learning Types of Memory shorttermcontains all data we are thinking about limited capacity temporary storage memory of events that just happened longterm memory of events from a while ago unlimited capacityduration large quantities of info divided into semantic episodic procedural working memory alternative to shortterm temporary storage of info to actively attend to itwork on it tested by delayed response task located in prefrontal cortex episodic memoryability to recall single personal events declarativeability to state a memory into words explicitdeliberate recall of info that one recognizes as a memory implicit memoryin uence of recent experience on behavior wo realizing one is using memory procedurarememberinglearning how to do things Amnesia anterogradeloss of the ability to form new memory after brain damage retrogradeloss of memory events prior to occurrence of brain damage people w amnesia show normal workingprocedural memory dif culty forming new memories some retrograde amnesia better implicit than explicit memory Hebbian Synapse when the successful stimulation of a cell by an axon leads to the enhanced ability to stimulate that cell in the future Aplysia sluglike invertebrate that is often studied due to its large neurons allows researchers to study basic processes habituationdecrease in response to a stimulus that is presented repeatedly and accompanied by no change in other stimuli depends upon a change in the synapse between sensory neurons and the motor neurons sensory neurons fail to excite motor neurons as they did previously can last up to three weeks sensitizationincrease in response to mild stimulus as a result to previous exposure to more intense stimuli interneurons release serotonin which binds to receptors on sensory neuron axon terminalsK channels close action potentials that reach terminal last longer greater in ux of Ca in the sensory neuron terminal more neurotransmitter released by sensory neuron Longterm PotentiationLTP occurs when one or more axons bombard a dendrite w stimulation leaves the synapse potentiated for a period of time and the neuron is more responsive LTP occur at synapse2 types of glutamate receptorsNMDAAMPA receptors NMDA normally blocked by magnesium ions cell needs to be suf ciently depolarized to release the magnesium ions block rst few pulses of stimulation cause Glutamate to be released Glutamate activates AMPA receptors NA enters partially depolarizing the postsynaptic cell LTP and NDMA receptor1 Activation of nonNMDA glutamate receptors causes depolarization of postsynaptic cell membrane 2 When depolarization reaches NMDA glutamate receptor MGZ is expelled from its channel allowed Ca2 to enter Ca2 activates protein kinases 3 Protein kinases in turn may increase the sensitivity of andor increase the number of glutamate receptors They may also activate some type of retrograde messenger 4 LTP occurs both pre and postsynaptic neurons are affected and the synapse is strengthened properties that it is a cellular basis of learningmemoryspeci cityonly synapses onto a cell that have been highly active become strengthened cooperativitysimultaneous stimulation by two or more axons produces LTP much more strongly than does repeated stimulation by a single axon associativitypairing a weak input with a strong input enhances later responses to a weak input changes in presynaptic neuron can cause LTP Lateralization idea that each hemisphere of the brain is specialized for different functions left sidelanguagefocuses on visual details right side perceiving emotionscomprehending spatial relationshipsfocuses on visual patterns corpus callosumallows each hemisphere of brain access to info from both sides each hemisphere of brain gets input from opposite half of visual worldex light from right half of visual eld shines into left half of both retinas Cutting Corpus Callosum epilepsyrepeated episodes of excessive synchronized neural activity bc decreased release of GABA when cor cal ls cut it prevents the seizure from spreading to the opposite side of the body splitbrain peopeuse hands independently in a way others cannot respond differently to stimuli presented to only one side of the body although the person cannot name or describe the objects in the left visual eld she can point to it Nonhuman Precursors of Language chimpanzeesseldom use symbols in new original combinations use of symbols lacks productivity use of symbols is primarily used to request amp not describe pygmy chimpanzeesbonobosbetter comprehension of human languageunderstand more than they can produce use symbolsnames to describe objects request items not seen use symbols to describe past events make original creative requests zebra nchAfrican gray parrot show ability to imitateuse sounds give insight on how best to teach language to those who do not learn it easily ex people w brain damage Humans Evolve Language byproduct of overall brain developmentlanguage de cits of normal intelligence normal language of impaired intelligence brain specializationlanguage acquisition device most children develop language Williams syndrome characterized by mental retardation but skillful use of language mutation on FOXP2 gene can affect language abilities 6msyllables 1ya few words 1y9ma few phrases 2yalmost developed 12yrarely gain uency Brain Damage amp Language Broca s areapart of the frontal lobe of the left cerebral cortex near the motor cortex damage results in some language disability aphasiaa condition in which there is severe language impairment Broca s non uent aphasiaserious impairment in language production have comprehension de cits when sentence structure is complicated omission of most pronouns prepositions conjunctions auxiliary verbs tense and number endings during speech production dif culty understanding the same kinds of words they omit Wernicke s uent aphasiaimpaired language comprehension amp ability to remember the names of objects recognition of items is often not impaired ability to nd word is impaired articulate uent speech except with pauses to nd the right word anomia refers to the dif culty recalling the name of objects poor language comprehension dif culty understanding spoken and written speech Consciousness If a person reports the presence of one stimulus but cannot report the presence of the second they were conscious of the rst amp not the second some experiments use maskingbrief visual stimulus is preceded and followed by longer interfering stimuli Lett Visual lleldl To left hemisphere of brain Right 39VlSLJElI held To right hemisphere of brain Brain Activity Associated w Consciousness stimulus initially activated the primary visual cortex for both the conscious amp unconscious conditions but activated it more strongly in the conscious condition because of less interference consciousness of stimulus depends on the amount amp spread of brain activity conscious stimuli produce more consistent responses from one trial to another increasing attention to a stimulus also increases brain activity a conscious stimulus also induces a precise synchrony of responses in neurons over various areas of the brain binocular rivalryslow amp gradual shifts of the eye sweeping from one to another stimulus seen by each eye evokes a particular pattern of brain responses measured by fMRl switching to each stimulus is accompanied by a shift in a pattern of activity in the brain unconscious activityeven unconscious activity can in uence behavior If a stimulus activates enough neurons to a suf cient extent the activity reverberates magni es and extends over much of the brain if a stimulus fails to reach that level the pattern fades away Attention ability to detect and respond to stimuli psychological eveattention implies a preferential allocation of processing resources and response channels to events that have become behaviorally relevant neural level attention refers to alternations in the selectivity intensity and duration of neuronal responses to such events bottomup processinga reaction to a stimulus starts w unprocessed sensory information and builds toward more conceptual representation top down processingintentional processing in which conceptual knowledge in uences processinginterpretation of lower level perceptual processing depends on prefrontaIparietal cortex stroop effecttask that involves ignoring color words green etcquot amp saying instead what color ink they are in
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