study guide exam 3 (part 3)
study guide exam 3 (part 3) PSYC 2015
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jennifer Gittleman on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2015 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Wu in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see biological psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/28/15
NeurophysiologyBrain Areas of Attention Reticular Activating Systemarousalwakefulness sleepwake cycle damage to RAS can produce reduced attention confusional statecoma Superior Colliculusimportant for directing visual attention to novel39 stimuli saccadeeye movement in which eyes jump from 1 position to next parietal obeimportant for visual amp spatial aspects of attention amp general attentional resources topdown processing frontal obeimportant for complex aspects of attention executive control of attentionacan inhibit more re exive aspects of attention topdown processing Unilateral Neglect inattentionneglect is the opposite of attention spatial neglecta tendency to ignore the left side of the body and its surroundings or the left side of objects damage to SPLneglect the left side of objects damage to PLneglect of everything to the left of their own body Korsakoff s Syndrome severe memory disorder due to thiamine vitamin Bl de ciency causeschronic alcoholism severe malnutrition medical conditions thiamine assists in conversion of glucose to ATP thiamineThiaminepyrophosphatea cofactor for enzymes involved in glucose metabolism Korsakoff s delaysprevents the ability of the brain to metabolize glucose which leads to a loss of or shrinkage of neurons in the brain WernickeKorsakoff Syndrome Phase 1Wernicke s Encephalopathydamage in thalamus amp hypothalamus confusion mild memory impairment ocular motor movement defects ataxialack of muscle coordination Phase 2Korsakoff Syndromedamage in brain areas for memory antero amp retro grade amnesia hallucination confabulationfalse perceptions or memories diagnosesclinica assessmentmental status changeocular motor movement abnormalityphysical assessment for ataxia thiamine blood measurementmeasure thiamine level directly from whole bloodmeasure activity of transketolase from erythrocytes brain imagingMRI treatmenthigh dosage of thiamine IV or lMoral thiamine maintenancenutritional diet requiredalcohol abstinence recoveryrecovery of cognitive function depends on age amp continuous abstinencenutritional educationgetting adequate nutrition importantoutreach programs hunger amp substance treatment Alzheimer39s Disease dementialoss of memory amp cognitive abilities progressive loss of memory incidence50 of people over 85 amp 5 of people 6574 early onset in uenced by genes but 99 of cases are late onset risk factorsgender is not Apolipoprotein E4 cholesterol symptomsbegins w declarative memory loss impaired language trouble remembering events that happened day before forgets names dif culty nding right word in conversation repeats questions amp tells same story over fails to recognize friends amp family members anatomical levelgyri are reduced in size sulci amp ventricles are enlarged damage to cortex hippocampus amp amygdala molecular levelaccumuation amp clumping of following brain proteins amyloid beta protein which produces widespread atrophy of cerebral cortex hippocampus amp other areas abnormal form of tau protein part of intracellular support system of neurons plaquesstructures formed from degenerating neurons tanglesstructures formed from degenerating structures within a neuronal body amyloid plaquesBamyloid buildup occurs when amyloid precursor protein APP is cleaved by two enzymes in cell membrane Apolipoprotein E ApoE normally helps to breakdown Bamyloid which helps to prevent Bamyloid buildup neuro brillary tanglesfrom detachment of tau protein tau holds microtubules in place which maintain neuron s structure wo tau microtubules fall apart amp neuron collapses Cholinergic hypothesis reduction in neurotransmitter Acetylcholine is responsible for Alzheimer s plays important role in perception amp attention damage to cholinergic system was rst implicated w ADrelated memory de cits drug treatmentsAcetylcholinesterase inhibitors drugs that block NMDA Glutamate receptorsin Alzheimer s dying neurons trigger release of glutamateexcess glutamate over stimulates NMDA receptorsCalcium in uxexcitotoxicity Curcuminan Indian spice that has been shown to inhibit amyloidbeta deposits and phosphate attachment to tau proteins a disorder characterized by deteriorating ability to function in everyday life for at least six months amp at least two of such symptoms Symptoms positive symptomsbehaviors that are present that should be absenthallucinations delusions disorganized speechbehavior negative symptoms behaviors that are absent that should be presentweakabsent emotion speech socialization cognitive symptomslimitations of thought amp reasoning Major Types disorganized typeindividual displays inappropriate behavior amp emotions incoherent language thought patterns are grossly bizarre amp show disorganized behavior emotions are attened or situationally inappropriate language is incoherent communications w others break down if present hallucinations amp delusions lack organization around central theme catatonic typeindividual displays frozenrigid or excitable motor behavior major feature is disruption in motor activity extreme negativism amp resistance to all instructions paranoid typeindividuals suffer complex amp systematized delusions focused around speci c theme symptom onset is later in life than in other types of schizo manifestations include Delusions ofpersecution one believes she is being constantly spied upon plotted against or in mortal danger Delusions of grandeur the individual believes heshe is important or exalted being such asjesus Christ Delusionajeaousy one becomes convinced wo due cause that their mate is unfaithful undifferentiated typedescribes the individual who exhibits the following prominent delusions hallucinations incoherent speech or grossly disorganized behavior that t criteria of more than one type or of no clear type a hodgepodge of symptoms that fails to differentiate clearly among the schizophrenic reactions residual typeindividuals w this type have typically experienced a major episode within the past but are currently free of major positive symptoms the ongoing presence of the disorder is signaled by minor positive symptoms or negative symptoms such as at effect diagnosis of residual type may indicate that the individual39s disorder is entering a stage of remission becoming dormant Causes genetic approachesdisorder tends to run in families w increased risk if both parents have disorder probability of identical twins both having disorder is 3x greater than is the probability for fraternal twins diathesisstress hypothesis suggests genetic factors place individual at risk but environmental stressors must impinge for potential risk to be manifested greater similarity bw dizygotic twins than siblings suggests prenatalpostnatal environmental effect brain function amp biological markersMR shows brain structures that are enlarged by up to 50 in individuals w schizo fMRl reveals schizo may result from differing patterns of brain activity compared to normal controls dopamine hypothesis posits an association w excess of neurotransmitter dopamine at speci c receptor sites in central nervous system biological marker is a quotmeasurable indicatorquot that may correlate w disorder no known marker perfectly predicts or brings about schizophrenia have trait quotabnormal eye movementquotshow saccades during smoothpursuit tasks family interaction communication amp environmental stressorshope remains for identi cation of environmental circumstance that increases likelihood of schizo research offers evidence for theoretical position that emphasizes in uence of parental communication deviations on development of schizo research indicates family factors play a role in in uencing functioning after the symptoms appear PrenatalNeonatal Environment dif culties during pregnancybeeding diabetes abnormal fetal developmentow birth weight small head birth complications emergency caesarean section lack of 02 if mother has Rhnegative blood type amp baby has Rhpositive child has 2x probability of getting schizo born in winter neurodevelopmental hypothesisabnormaities in preneonatal development of nervous system leads to mild abnormalities of brain anatomy amp major abnormalities in behavior abnormalities could result from genetics or other in uences environmental in uences later in life aggravate the symptoms Brain Abnormalities larger ventricles differences in lateralization include right planum temporale of the temporal lobe being the same size or larger than the antipsychoticsincrease glutamate downregulate glutamate transporter gene which decreases reuptake of glutamatehas less effect on dopamine D2 receptors ess movement problemeffective for negative symptomsweight gainimmune system impairment
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