Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide BIO_SC 1500 - INTRO BIOL SYSTEMS W/LAB
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Francesca Notetaker on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO_SC 1500 - INTRO BIOL SYSTEMS W/LAB at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by David Schulz in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Science at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 10/28/15
Photosynthesis l The electromagnetic spectrum a Energy from the sun radiates to earth as wave of light b Light is absorbed by the pigments inside the chloroplast c Purple and blue wavelengths shortest contain the most energy d Red longest wavelength has the lowest amount of energy 2 How do we see colors a 3 possible fates for light encountering an object i Absorbed light is taken up by the object it encounters and is thus no longer visible only absorbed light can be used in photosynthesis ii Re ected light is not taken up by the object it is the color you see because it is re ected back to your eyes iii Transmitted light passes through an object If you can see through an object then light also passes through transmitting the same wavelengths that are re ected b Absorption vs Re ection i If object appears white all wavelengths are being re ected ii If object appears black all wavelengths are being absorbed iii If object appears blue blue is re ected and all other colors are absorbed 3 Photosynthesis Plants harness light energy and convert it into usable energy sugar This occurs in the chloroplasts Plants take in C02 water and light and produce sugar and 02 Pigments molecules within the chloroplast that absorb energy at up 0399 speci c wavelengths e Chlorophyll is the main pigment it gives chloroplasts their green color f Accessory pigments i Absorb light energy and pass this energy on to chlorophyll ii Allow the plant to utilize the full range of the visible light spectrum g Each pigment s energy absorption is illustrated in an absorption spectrum h Photosynthetic activity can be detected by measuring oxygen production in an action spectrum 4 Chromatography a Thin layer chromatography method of separating major plant pigments based on differential solubility b Pigments visible on our TLC strips i Carotenoidsyelloworange ii Chlorophyll bluegreen 5 Leaf Structure a Cuticle thin wax outer layer protects inner parts of the leaf and prevents water loss through evaporation b Epidermis upper and lower surfaces of leaf contain no chloroplasts c Palisade layer in upper portion of leaf interior contains many chloroplasts and is the site of most photosynthesis d Spongy layer lower portion of leaf interior large air spaces allow gases to pass freely intoout of leaf interior e Guard cells regulate opening and closing of stomata via osmosis f Stomata tiny pores in the epidermis surrounded y guard cells when open the stomata allows gas to enter the leaf g Guard Cells i Open and close the stomata by osmosis h Stomata opened i Water moves into guard cells causing the cells to swell ii Process happens during the day i Stomata closed i Water moves out of guard cells causing the cells to shrivel ii Process happens at night Metabolism 1 What is metabolism a Collection of chemical reactions that occur in an organism that are necessary to maintain life i Construction and breakdown of molecules b Usually facilitated by enzymes c Measured in terms of oxygen consumption ol Depends on body mass and thermal strategy 2 Metabolism in germinating plants a Boiling the corn did not remove the starch from the endosperm but boiling did denature the enzymes in the embryo so that metabolism was halted 3 Measuring metabolism in animals a Oxygen consumption can be measured in two ways i Regular mlmin ii Weightspecific mlgmin b Pay attention to units both may be referred to as quotoxygen consumptionquot 4 Effect of temperature on insect metabolism a Metabolism increases with temperature in ectotherms to a point and then it decreases 5 Factors that affect metabolic rate a b C Thermal strategy i Predictions are different for ecto and endotherms Body mass OXYGEN CONSUMPTION RATE METABOLIC RATE 6 Insect respiratory system goo9 Spiracles are the holes on the outside of the body Tracheae are the tubes on the inside of the body Trachea connect to individual calls Same general function as lungs i Distribute oxygen to body ii Take carbon dioxide away Different than human lungs because gasses diffuse between trachea and individual cells 7 Human respiratory system a b Gases exchanged oxygen in carbon dioxide out are similar to insects In humans gas exchange occurs between alveoli in the lungs and blood for circulation throughout the body Lungs are subdivided into tiny quotairsacs alveoli to increase the surface area for gas exchange Oxygen enters the capillaries by diffusion and carbon dioxide leaves the capillaries to enter the alveoli by diffusion 8 Air flow pathway j quotP EQ39TWDRDP Q Oxygen in carbon dioxide out Nose Esophagus Trachea Bronchi Bronchioles Alveoli Capillaries When the diaphragm contracts it moves downward increasing the volume within the chest activity i This reduces the air pressure within the lungs and allows oxygen to come rushing in When the diaphragm relaxes the volume of the chest cavity is reduced i This causes carbon dioxide to move out of the lungs 9 What is the epiglottis for a Flap of cartilage that covers the trachea when you swallow i This helps stop food from quotgoing down the wrong pipequot 10 ECTOTH ERM a b c d ECTO outside THERM heat Advantage requires less energy i Ex izard Disadvantage cannot survive at extreme temperatures i Ex snake 11 ENDOTHERM a ENDO inside b THERM heat C Advantage can live anywhere independent of environment i Ex Polar bear 0 Disadvantage extremely costly have to eat a lot i Ex Cat 12 Why aren t all animals endotherms a Weightspeci c oxygen consumption mlghr b Gram for gram it s more expensive to be small Cell Division 1 All life starts from a singlecelled zygote 2 Many more cells form through cell division a Oldinjured cells die and must also be replaced 3 2 types of nuclear division a Mitosis produces many kinds of cells b Meiosis produces gametes 4 De nitions a Chromatin the physical condition of DNA in a cell that is not dividing interphase b Chromosome physical condition of condensed chromatin during nuclear division c Chromatid the replicated pieces of chromosomal material i Two sister chromatids make up one chromosome and are identical to each other d Centromere the two sister chromatids are joined at the centromere i The centromere is also the point where spindle bers attach 5 Interphase a Normal cells are not continuously dividing b Cells are conducting normal metabolic activity c If the DNA in a single human cell were stretched out and laid endto end it would measure 65 feet d The average human body contains 10 to 20 billion miles of DNA distributed among trillions of cells 6 Phases of Mitosis a Prophase i Appearance of chromosomes condensation of chromatin into chromosomes ii Disappearance of the nuclear membrane iii Disappearance of the nucleolus iv Formation of spindle bers and attachment of bers to centromeres v This phase lasts the longest b Metaphase i Positioning of the chromosomes at the quotequatorial planequot c Anaphase i Separation of chromatids to opposite quotpolesquot d Telophase i Disappearance of chromosomes decondensation to the diffuse chromatin condition ii Reappearance of the nucleolus iii Reappearance of the nuclear membrane 7 Mitosis vs Cytokinesis a Mitosis i A process of nuclear division it takes place in a dividing cell and results in the formation of two new nuclei each having the same number of chromosomes as the original nucleus b Cytokinesis i The division of the cytoplasm into two masses When this follows mitosis the result is two cells each with a nucleus The two cells quotdaughterquot cells are identical to one another and to the original cell 8 Comparison of Cell Division in Animals and Plants a Animals i Cleavage furrow but no cell plate b Plants i Cell plate but no cleavage furrow 9 De nitions speci c to meiosis a Homologous chromosomes pairs of chromosomes that physically resemble one another in shape and size b Synapsis joining of homologous pairs of chromosomes in Prophase l c Haploid daughter cells gametes which have half the number of chromosomes of the mother cell N d Diploid cells which have the normal number of the chromosomes 2N e Karyotype a picture of the chromosomal content of a species f Diploid homologous pairs of chromosomes present g Haploid reduced chromosomal content 10 Phase of Meiosis l Prophase l as in mitotic prophase chromatin condenses into chromosomes Homologous chromosomes pair up with each other called synapsis b Metaphase l homologous pairs of chromosomes line up on the equatorial plane Anaphase each pair of homologous chromosomes separate and move to opposite poles i Each chromosome is still duplicated consists of 2 chromatids Telophase l two haploid nuclei form Reduction of chromosome number is completed but chromosome are still replicated ll Phases of Meiosis II a b c Prophase ll looks the same as Telophase Metaphase ll chromosomes line up along equatorial plane Anaphase ll the sister chromatids of each chromosome separate and move to opposite poles Telophase ll four haploid nuclei result each with only one copy of each chromosome 12 Mitosis vs Meiosis a b Gene cs Mitosis i Occurs in all cells ii No synapsis iii 2 daughter cells produced iv Original cell is haploid or diploid v Daughter cell is haploid or diploid depending on original cell vi Genetic content of the daughter cells are identical in relation to the original cell vii Genetic content of the daughter cells is identical Meiosis i Occurs in gameteproducing cells ii Synapsis occurs iii 4 daughter cells produced iv Original cell must be diploid v Daughter cell is always haploid vi Genetic content of the daughter cells differ from the original cell vii Genetic content of the daughter cells differs l Allele vs Genotype vs Phenotype a P Allele alternate forms of a gene found on a chromosome diploid organisms have 2 alleles for each gene Dominant allele big letter B at least one dominant allele must be present for organism to exhibit dominant phenotype Recessive allele little letter b both recessive alleles must be present for organism to exhibit recessive phenotype Genotype the genetic description of an individual BB Bb bb Phenotype the physical appearance of an individual blue brown eyes h Homozygous individual with identical alleles BB or bb Heterozygous individual with two different alleles Bb Truebreedingpurebred both alleles are identical synonym to 3quot homozygous i Carrier heterozygous j P generation the rst generation or quotparentsquot in a series of genetic crosses k F1 generation offspring of P generation F2 generation offspring of cross of two F1 individuals 2 Monohybrid Cross a A genetics cross for ONE TRAIT eye color b Monohybrid cross of 2 heterozygotes always yields a 31 phenotypic ratio 3 Dihybrid Cross a A genetics cross of TWO TRAITS eye color and hair type b Dihybrid cross of 2 heterozygotes always yields a 933l phenotypic ratio 4 Rules for Crosses a A cross between two truebreeding parents AA x aa yields 100 heterozygous offspring b In a monohybrid cross between two heterozygotes Gg x Gg there will always be a 31 phenotypic ratio c In a dihybrid cross between two heterozygotes TrRr x TrRr there will always be a 933l phenotypic ratio 5 Ratio vs ProbabilityProportion a Ratio Includes dominant and recessive offspring i 31 means three children will exhibit the dominant phenotype to every one child that exhibits the recessive phenotype b Probability or proportion Only talking about one genotype or phenotype i There is a 25 chance that an offspring will exhibit the recessive phenotype 6 Pedigree Tips a Shaded means that the person has the trait but not necessarily that the trait is dominant b Dominant does not mean most common c Wildtype does not mean most common
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