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exam 2 study guide

by: Alyssa Sullivan

exam 2 study guide 86563 - NUTR 2030 - 001

Alyssa Sullivan
GPA 3.0
Introduction to Principles of Human Nutrition
Deborah Ann Hutcheon

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Introduction to Principles of Human Nutrition
Deborah Ann Hutcheon
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa Sullivan on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 86563 - NUTR 2030 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Deborah Ann Hutcheon in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Principles of Human Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Clemson University.

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Date Created: 10/28/15
NUTR2030 Nutrition Study Guide Spring 2015 Module 2 Exam Macronutrients 90 Points 60 multiple choice and matching questions each worth 15 points Carbohydrates Main function of carbohydrates in the body 0 give us energy 0 Food sources of carbohydrates 0 Grains fruit starchy vegetables legumes milk 0 How many kcalgram o 4 kcalgram What is the AMDR 0 4565 0 Be able to calculate recommended intake levels 0 2000 kcals x 50 0 Names composition and food sources of the o Monosaccharides don39t require digestion in simplest form Glucose Fructose Galactose o the disaccharides simple sucrose table sugar glucosefructose lactose milk sugar glucosegalactose maltose o the oligosaccharides complex 0 the polysaccharides complex Starch from plant sources Glycogen from animal sources Cellulose indigestible from plant cell wall 0 The difference between a simple carbohydrate and a complex carbohydrate 0 Simple made of just 1 or 2 sugar molecules quickest source of energy easily digestible ie sugar candy soft drinks 0 Complex sugar molecules strung together rich in fiber found in whole plant foods a lot le whole grains green vegetables ect The difference between a refined grain and a whole grain o Refined grain after the bran amp germ are removed longer shelf life 0 Whole grain contains bran sperm amp endosperm very nutritious The difference between lactose intolerance and a milk allergy o Lactose intolerance not having enough of the enzyme lactase needed to break down lactose 0 Milk allergy allergic reaction to protein in milk What foods could a person consume with lactose intolerance vs a milk allergy o Lactose intolerance small amounts of dairy dairy free foods 0 Milk allergy avoid all dairy casein whey lactulose lactalbumin ghee Know the difference between starch glycogen including where is it stored amp what is does for the body and cellulose as well as food sources of each 0 Starch a carb rice potatoes wheat power brain give you energy digested into blood stream blood glucose then stored o Glycogen storage form of glucose located in liver amp muscles carbs o Cellulose dietary fiber plant wall fiber supplement Know the difference between soluble and insoluble fiber including physiological benefits of each weight loss reduce cardiovascular disease prevent constipation etc as well as some good food sources of each type 0 Soluble slow down digestion oatmeal lentils apples carrots Can lower LCL cholesterol good effect on insulin sensitivity 0 lnsoluble decrease transit timeincrease fecal bulk help w constipation whole wheat whole grains seeds nuts Know the Al for fiber in general as well as average amount for women vs men 0 14g1000kcalday men3138 women 21 25 What is high fructose corn syrup It39s a sugar made from corn 0 What is its monosaccharide composition 55 fructose 45 glucose 0 What disaccharide is it compositionally equivalent to Table sugar o Is it good or bad Bad 0 Why or why not It39s a sugar What is sugar What are different types of sugar ls sugar bad Why or why not How does sugar intake relate to obesity 0 What is a nonnutritive sweetener vs nutritive sweetener What are some examples of each Be familiar with the names of the most common nonnutritive sweeteners but you do not need to know all of the differences between them 0 Saccharin sweet n low aspartame sucralose neotame stevia truvia monk fruit extract nectresse Lipids Functions of lipids in the human body 0 Provide energy for muscles amp body processes 4 classes of lipids in the human body amp basic compositionfunction of each class 0 Triglycerides important for metabolism amp production of energy 0 Fatty acids source of fuel yield large quantities of ATP 0 Phospholipids building blocks of cellular membranes form lipid bilayers o Sterols cholesterol vital to animal cell membrane structure amp function How many kcalgram 1 gram 9 calories What is the AMDR Be able to calculate recommended intake levels 0 2035 Know differences between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in terms of structure food sources names and recommended amounts 0 Saturated single bond solid butter peanut butter fried foods no more than 10 a lot is bad for heart 0 Unsaturated double bond liquid avocado olive oil good if you are watching cholesterol no more than 30 Know what essential fatty acids are names functions food sources 0 Omega 3 flax seeds pumpkin seeds soybeans Oil reduces blood clotting lower blood fat help w arthritis adhd alzheimers 0 Omega 6 nuts seeds grains legumes dairy encourage blood clot formation cell growth hormones Know what trans fatty acids are how they are formed partial hydrogenation how they affect lipid profile ie impact on LDL and HDL food sources and how one can identify them in a food 0 partially hydrogenated oils on ingredient list 0 raise LDL bad amp lower HDL good cholesterol levels increases risk of developing heart diseasestroke risk of developing type 2 diabetes 0 fried foods baked goods margarines spreads frozen pizza 0 made from turning liquid oils into solid fats Know the functions of cholesterol in the body and food sources 0 Cell walls need it to produce hormones vitamin D amp bile acids that help digest fat 0 Animal products meat amp dairy eggs beef chicken cheese burgers Know the relationship between fatty acid intake amp risk of CVD good vs bad fats o Decrease risk of heart problemsheart disease 0 Fish oils increase risk of mercury contamination Be able to explain why a lowfat food might not be healthier than a fullfat food 0 Some could have a lot of additives processed amp have more sugat Proteins Functions of proteins in the human body 0 Building blocks of all body cells How many kcalgram 1 gram 4 cal What is the AMDR 1035 Be able to calculate recommended intake levels What makes proteins structurally different from CH0 and lipids o Polymer of monomers amp contains nitrogen What are the building blocks of proteins How many are there 0 Amino acids 2021 Know the difference between an essential amino acid and a nonessential amino acid as well as how many of each exist 0 Essential 9 needed for survival body cant produce them required to build repair amp heal the body 0 Nonessential 11 body can create these on its own Know what is meant by a complete high quality and incomplete low quality protein food and which foods fall under which category 0 Complete provides body w all 9 essential AA in correct amounts meat poultry fish dairy eggs soybeans quinoa animal based 0 lncomplete missing 1 or more of the AA or not in right amounts plant based grains legumes nuts seeds gelatin Understand the concept of protein complementation especially in relationship to legumes and grains 0 Most efficient way to get all 9 amino acids combine 2 vegetable proteins legumes amp grains to get all 9 AA What is protein energy malnutrition types and whenwhy does it occur 0 Marasmus chronic PEM too little protein skin amp bones o Kwashiorkor bloated acute PEM o Sarcopenia muscle loss w aging What are concerns with excessive protein consumption 0 Weight gain reduced liver amp brain function high cholesterol What is creatine and what is its function in the human body 0 Protein supplement Made in kidney amp liver from arginine amp glycine storehouse for high energy phosphate for ATP regeneration in rapidlycontracting muscle What are some considerationsconcerns related to protein powders 0 Doesn t create muscle 0 Added kcals 0 Possible benefit for athletes o No benefit w AA supplements Alcohol How is alcohol produced 0 Fermentation CHO yeast How is alcohol classified nutritionwise 0 Drug narcotic carcinogen How many kcalgram 1kcaIg How much alcohol is in 1 standard drink 0 14 grams 06 fl oz How is moderate alcohol intake defined How does this differ from heavy or binge drinking 0 2 drinksday for men amp 1 for women heavy 4daymen or 3daywomen amp binge 5 in 2 hoursmen or 4women What are the Dietary Guidelines related to alcohol intake for the general population as well as specifically males and females 0 May have beneficial effects consumed in moderation 0 But NOT recommended for anyone to begin drinking or drink more for possible benefits Where is alcohol digested absorbed metabolized o Digested into blood stream absorption GI tract stomach amp SI 0 Metabolized in liver What are the two pathways by which the body metabolizes alcohol What are key differences between each as discussed in class 0 Absorbed into bloodstream or goes to intestines o Oxidation when its removed from blood Why is alcohol carcinogenic What are some general health consequences from repetitive and highdose alcohol intake 0 Drinking a lot could increase chances of developing alcohol associated cancer 0 Liver problems heart diease other forms of cancer What is a key cause of a hangover How can this be prevented o Dehydration drink water in between drinks Why and how do nutrient deficiencies and kcal excess develop with alcohol intake 0 Alcohol prevents the body from absorbingdigestingusing nutrients o 7 kcalg Digestion Absorption Metabolism What is the difference between digestion absorption and metabolism of nutrients o Digestion process which food is broken down in GI tract releasing nutrients in body 0 Absorption process nutrients are taken into cells lining the GI tract 0 Metabolism sum of number of chemical changes in the cell produces the essential materials necessary for energy tissue building amp metabolic controls What is the primary site of nutrient digestion in the gastrointestinal GI tract 0 Small intestine What is the primary site of nutrient absorption in the GI tract 0 Small intestine What organ is responsible for producing and secreting the primary enzymes used in nutrient digestion within the small intestine o stomach What is bile Where is it produced Where is it stored What is its function in digestion o Fluid produced in liver stored in gallbladder helps digest fats Know the different metabolic pathways for carbs glycogenesis glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis what the functional benefit of each pathways is for the body ie why does it occurwhat triggers it and the key hormones involved in these processes insulin vs glucagon vs epinepherine o Glycogenesis conversion of excess glucose into glycogen prevents excessive osmotic pressure build up in cell 0 Glycogenolysis breakdown of glycogen into glucose provides glucose supply to glucosedependent tissues 0 Gluconeogenesis synthesis of glucose molecules from simple organic compounds convert amino acids from protein to glucose Know the role of the kidneys in protein metabolism amp protein waste excretion o Elimination of the products of protein metabolism 0 Prevent build up of wastes


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