exam 3 study guide
exam 3 study guide 86563 - NUTR 2030 - 001
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86563 - NUTR 2030 - 001
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa Sullivan on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 86563 - NUTR 2030 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Deborah Ann Hutcheon in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 105 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Principles of Human Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 10/28/15
NUTR 2030 Principles of Human Nutrition Micronutrients Study Guide Spring 2015 water Mam Main De ciency Toxicity RDA andor Special Soluble SourcesFo Function Disorders Disorders UL ConSIderations Vitamin rms Meat Ener Beriberi porkchicke gy Wernicke39s Transformation Don t Need to Thiamin Bl n Encephalopath CHO Know legumeswh y amp Korsakoff metabolism ole grains Syndrome Energy Ribo avin Milk dairy m9tab quot5m Ar39bO aV39ms39s Don t Need to 32 e s OXIdoreductas amp Oral Know 99 e reactions Abnormalities FMN amp FAD Meat DOUItry39 Peagra leguumes Coenzymes for 4 D s whole metabolism of Liver tOXICIty amp diarrhea Don t Need to Used in treatment of Niacm B3 grains CHO fatty vasodilation dermatitis Know hypercholesterolemia synthe5ized aCIds protein ushing dementia in liver from amp alcohol death AA tryptophan V39rt Pantothenlc I ua y a Don t Need to Don t Need to Don t Need to food ACId Know Know Know sources Biotin Food eggs Macronutrient Lethargy Don t Need to whole metabolism amp anorexia KnOW grains cell synthesis muscle meat amp GI weakness micro ora rash alopecia andness hearing loss neurological impairment 36 Pyridoxine Coenzyme PLP for protein amp AA metabolism Decrease in synthesis neurotransmitt ers depression amp confusion acohoism microcytic anemia Don t Need to Know TH F serves as neural tube defects begin consumption Fruits amp PRIOR to coenzyme In veggies sin Ie C pregnancy Folate forti ed g foate Folate vs folic acid transfers whole defICIency cellular grains anemIa growth macrocytIc megaloblastic acohoics 312 Don t Need to Cobalamin Know Vitamin C Fat Soluble Main Main De ciency Toxicity Special Vitamin soulfrcneSSFo Function Disorders Disorders RDA andor UL Considerations Vitamin A Animal Vision protein Night Problems w Don t Need to origin synthesis cell blindness Active A KNOW foods differentiation skin carotene retinoids skin keratinizatio toxicity red green integrity n yellowing of orange immune skin active vit yellow A birth produce support defects carotenOI antnoxndant teratogenIc ds Bone growth regulates of blood calcium concentration When people down Calcium consume more Northern climates regulation of de ciency than 4000 Adult UL 4000 more likely to have vit Sun dairy body bone disorders lUday IU safe up to D de ciency bc less forti ed processes rickets iver damage 10000 exposure to sun Vitamin D foods fatty immune osteomalacia excess measuring Calcidiol sh system lower osteoporosis calcium in Adult RDA when measuring for mushrooms blood SAD cancer blood stream 600 IU 1850 de ciency pressure T2DM obesity form bone 800 IU gt50 don39t know what is stimulates CKD shards in optimal for health insan ssues secretion cancer prevention Antioxidant reduce cholesterol Plant oils metabolism Skln branwheat suppreSSIon of problems germ leafy tumor growth Don t Need to Vitamin E Increase w green amp cell Know cardiovascul veggies proliferation ar diseases nutsseeds reduce platelet aggression amp promote vasodHa on Vitamin K Green leafy Blood Bleeding Excessive Don t Need to Vit K1 Phylloquinoes Know synthesis by green coagulation ve ies blood plants 99 Vit K2 Menaquinones syntheSIzed clotting bone hemophilia clotting synthe5is by bacteria by bacteria formation Vit K3 Menadiones In GI tract synthe5is of synthetic form bone proteins supplements Minerals FOOd Main Function D c39ency Tox39c39ty RDA andor UL Spec39al Sources Disorders Disorders ConSIderations Bone ChildrenAdolescents 1300mgRDAamp3000 mineralization Dair blood clottin Bone mgwl sardini39s blood VESSE complications Calci cation Adults 1950 Calcium 39 rickets amp of soft tissues 1000mgRDAamp2500 fortified dilationcontracti osteopor05is constipation UL foods on nerve amp muscle muscle tetany Adults gt50 1200mgRDAamp2000 conducUon mgUL Dairy Bone whole mineralization grains forms complexes legumes wcalcium PhOSphoru meats Nucleotidenucle Rememng End Stage Don39t Need to Know 5 syndrome renal disease nuts 05ide phosphates seeds energy chocolate storagetransfer colas ATP Magnesiu Coffee Component of Don39t Need to Know m tea bone tissue chocolate muscle amp nerve nuts function legumes green leafy veggies whole grains Fluid balance extracellular Primarily cation muscle Increased risk from contraction 1500mgday Al Sodlum for hIgh blood added salt nerve ressure NaCl transmission amp p impulse conduc on Grains fruits amp May help to Potassmm veggies reduce HTN 4700 mgday lowfat dairy Heme lron Microcyctic animals Anemia 8mg men hemachromat Iron NonHeme Oxygen Transport Pca craVIng osis 18mg women lron for non food 27mg preggo plants substances Goiter goitrogens Forti ed foods that Component of salt Inhibit Iodine seafood thyro39d hormones Cretinism D n t N d t Iodine 39 thyroxine T4 amp O ee 0 Don t Need to Know food grown mentalphysn Know truodothyronlne In lrich T3 cal soil retardation in infants iodized salt Zinc Red meat Zincdependent Copper UL Don t Need to Know shell sh enzymes de ciency 40mgday whole tissue amp cell from grains growth would supplements 5 heaHng Association w Taste can lead to CelMediated copper Immunity amp de ciency Humoral Immunity Ubiquitous Chromium presence Enhances action Don t Need to Don39t Need to Don Need to Know aIr soH of Insulin GTF Know Know water FluoridatEd Mineralization of Fluoride water amp Dental carries uorosis Don39t Need to Know tea teeth amp bones TERMS AND DEFINITIONS Bioavailability amount absorbed amp useable to body Calcidiol 25OH D3 found in liver Calciferol Vitamin D Calcitriol 125OH2 D3 active form kidneys Carotenoids provitamin A converted to retinol red orange yellow amp green produce Chelation binders of calcium Cholecalciferol Vitamin D3 skin of animals Enrichment Ergocalciferol vitamin D2 FatSoluble Vitamins storage in liver amp body fat require bile amp fat for digestion fat intake greater risk of intoxicity insoluble in water need fat medium Vitamin A D E K Folate Naturally occurring in leafy green veggies legumes citrus 595 bioavailable Folic Acid synthetic added to forti ed foods amp dietary supplements 100 bioavailable Forti cation Heme Iron animals Intrinsic Factor MacrocyticMegaloblastic Anemia Microcytic Anemia needed for synthesis of heme MFP Factor NonHeme Iron plants Pica craving for nonfood substances Precursors Provitamins inactive forms converted to active forms in the body Retinoids primarily foods of animal origin WaterSoluble Vitamins essential to human diet individual units that don39t yield energy B vitamins amp Vitamin C Grouping Nutrients by Similar Functions Energy Metabolism part of coenzyme complex to metabolize macronutrients B vitamins Healthy Red Blood Cell Formation B6 812 Folate Vit K Calcium Cell Health including that of the skin Biotin Vit B7Vit H Folate folic acid vit 89 Vit C Vit A Potassium Zinc Bone MineralizationHealth Vit D Vit K Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Fluoride Nerve Conduction and Muscle Contraction Calcium Magnesium Sodium Antioxidants Vit C Vit A Vit E Electrolytes Bound by Phytates and Oxalates Calcium Iron Requires Adequate Stomach Acid for DigestionAbsorption 312 May be Produced by the Body in small amounts Vit K Risk of De ciency in Vegetarian Diets Vitamin 812 Calcium STUDY QUESTIONS Vitamins minerals and water provide the body with how much energy per gram consumed Why are vitamins and minerals essential to the human body de ciency attributed to multiple disease states How can vitamins be destroyed by light heat oxygen A vitamin or mineral de ciency can occur under what conditions heat light oxygen exposure alcohol consumption poor diet digestive disorder malabsorptive disorder metabolic disorder trauma to the body A vitamin or mineral toxicity can occur under what conditions Compare and contrast the following related to watersoluble and fatsoluble vitamins in general storage in the body fat in cells associated w fat water circulate freely in water lled parts of body excretion from the body fat less readily excreted tend to remain in fatstorage sites water kidneys detect amp remove in excess urine toxicity potential fat higher risk esp when consumed from supplements water possible through supplements minimum frequency of required intake fat periodic doses weeksmonths water frequent doses 13 days What is the relationship between biotin and alopecia What is the difference between folate and folic acid Folate naturally occurring in green leafy veggies legumes citrus 595 bioavailable Folic Acid synthetic added to forti ed foods amp dietary supplements 100 bioavailable What foods are required by the FDA since 1998 to be forti ed with folic acid wheat products rice products not com products Outline the digestive and absorptive pathway of Vitamin 312 particularly related to the secretion binding and function of intrinsic factor List causes of vitamin 312 de ciency and explain ways to correct each cause not eating it veganvegetarian change their diet amp increase consumption of 312 forti ed foods digestionabsorption placed on supplement vit BlZ injections amp it goes straight to blood stream anemia Which digestive enzymes and compounds are required for the digestion of fat soluble vitamins need to be digested in presence of fat lipase amp bile for body to digest fat soluble vitamins Outline the synthesis of vitamin D as obtained from the sun Be sure to include all necessary compounds Vitamin D3 Outline the activation of vitamin D as obtained from the diet Be sure to include all organscompound names Animals Vitamin D3 same as sun Plants Vitamin D2 What are the dietary guidelines related to vitamin K for a person on anti coagulant therapy consistent vitamin K diet reduce blood clotting factors What is the difference between calcium carbonate and calcium citrate What is the maximum amount of calcium that an individual should consume at a time Why 500 mg at a time for calcium bc your body can only absorb so much at one time amp the rest will just be excreted What is the relationship between sodium and salt get sodium from salt they39re not the same thing How much salt is equivalent to 2300 mg sodium 1 tsp 9 What is the relationship between the intake of sodium and the intake of potassium and high blood pressure What substances inhibit calcium absorption oxalatesphytates What substances inhibit iron absorption pytates oxalates vegetable proteins soy calcium tannic acid tea amp red wine What substances enhance iron absorption MFP factor in meat sh poultry amp vit C List the functions of water in the human body digestion absorption metabolism excretion structure of molecules amp cells circulatory system maintain blood volume transport medium for nutrients amp substances lubricant amp cushioning body temp maintenance Distinguish between symptoms of mild moderate and severe dehydration List the ways that uid can be excreted from the body urine skin lungs feces A person who consumes a 2000 kcal diet should consume how many cups of uid daily 8 cups What beverages count toward a person39s daily uid intake needs Which types of foods contain the most water Which types of food contain the least amount of water strawberries watermelon lettuce cabbage celery spinach broccoli grapes carrots apples Which body organ is responsible for maintaining the body39s uid homeostasis kidneys What is a dietary supplement vitamin mineral herb other botanical amino acid enzymes Not meant to replace dietary intake Used to supplement if someone has a de ciency there are times when they can be helpful iron preggo women vegetarians only to be used for a short duration How are dietary supplements regulated in the US are they they are only trying to sell the products don39t care too much if they help you or not They aren39t tightly regulated quotloosely regulatedquot by FDA What is DSHEA of 1994 How does this relate to dietary supplements food regulation that started in 1994 up to consumers to share info wothers because companies can put whatever they want in their products in 1999 mandated that supplements need to be labeled 10 Be able to identify and interpret key information on a dietary supplement label proprietary blends listing of ingredients amp how much active vs inactive expiration dates structurefunction claims directions for use name of distributer amp contact info of company What disclaimer must be present on dietary supplements that contain a structurefunction claim statement tells you what that nutrient does in the body normally how it effects your body structurefunction NOT how it will improve help amp cant guarantee that its safe found above directions amp supplement facts panel Also need a label disclaimer statement if they have a structurefunction claim Who is responsible for ensuring the safety of dietary supplements the consumer What safety concerns should be considered when choosing a dietary supplement potential for contamination amp unsafe ingredient levels drugnutrientnutrientnutrient interactions steroids doses quotstackingquot How can one identify the likelihood that a supplement is safe USP NSF etc USP United States Pharmacopeial amp NSF they test dietary supplements can say there39s no contamination test for safety from purity standpointamp ingredients certify potency but cant certify if its safe for you to take on health standpoint 11
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