Exam 3 Study Guide
Exam 3 Study Guide HST 122 012
Popular in Survey of the History of the United States since 1877
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Arne on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HST 122 012 at Missouri State University taught by Roggensees in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Survey of the History of the United States since 1877 in History at Missouri State University.
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Date Created: 10/28/15
Emily Arne History 122 Exam 3 Study Guide Essay Questions 1 Describe the major steps in America s move away from neutrality between 1935 and 1941 Answer Between 1935 and 1941 America began to move away from the neutrality laws it has passed upon itself With the evidence of another World War on the horizon America retracted policies in order to help protect its old allies from the German Army which was retracting from peace declarations and re arming itself as a military power President Roosevelt could forsee the forthcoming hostilities against Americas previous allies in Europe and asked congress to revise the Neutrality Act to allow the sale of weapons to France and Britain At this time many Americans were opposed to America joining this new conflict as the consequences of World War I were still remembered and mourned over In April 1940 after a sevenweek onslaught Germany had steamrolled through most of Europe It had taken Denmark Luxemburg Holland Belgium Norway and finally France This left only Great Britain Americas former ally President Roosevelt authorized the dispatch of fifty old US destroyers to help Britain in the war effort against Germany also including a large stock pile of munitions again amending the Neutrality Acts After being elected for the third time in 1940 Roosevelt declared he would aid Great Britain with the US becoming the Arsenal of Democracy t produced weapons on mass for the allies to fight the war These baby steps in aid were slowly bringing the Acts of Neutrality to an end In 1941 congress approved the Lend Lease plan where Britain could lease as much armament and munitions as it wanted and the debt was to be recovered at the end of the war In July of that year Iceland became defended by America and all convoys to the UK were protected up until that point The Atlantic Charter was drawn up in August 1941 it was a statement of principles which was used to determine Americas involvement in the war By the end of 1941 America was essentially but not officially at war with Germany 2 Discuss America s industrial and economic mobilization for World War II How did our mobilization influence the campaigns in Europe and the Pacific Answer Mobilization for World War II affected American society in profound ways Ironically participation in the biggest war in all of human history did more to help American society than to harm it outside of course of trauma suffered by many members of the Armed Forces and the tremendous grief suffered by those who lost loved ones in the war After the US became involved in the war mobilization continued to change the economy One of the most famous ways in which this happened was the movement of women into jobs that had been dominated by men As men left theirjobs because they were drafted into or volunteered for the military women stepped up This changed the role of women in American society at least in the short term While the industrial mobilization plan indirectly influenced rearmament the protective mobilization plan had a more direct impact The latter plan prevented some of the foundering that had taken place in April 1917 by providing the basis for the Army39s initial expansion The Army still saw its role as protecting the United States and the Western Hemisphere from hostile European forces rather than participating in global coalition warfare an assumption that limited and impeded planning But the protective mobilization plan at least gave the Army a starting point in preparing for a hemispheric defense mnssnon 3 Discuss the origins of the Cold War and the sources of growing tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union at the Close of World War II Answer From the most fundamental of positions neither the United States or the Soviet Union really trusted one another Their alliance in World War II was out of convenience Both saw Hitler as a threat and both needed the other the negate it The Soviet Union signed a nonaggression pact with the Nazis and only when Hitler invaded Russia did the Soviet Union ally itself with the United States The mutual need to eliminate Hitler was an excellent source of cohesion When the threat was ultimately eliminated old tensions resurfaced There was considerable mistrust about what a post Hitler Europe would look like Stalin did not want to have another attempted invasion of Russia so his desire to create a series of buffers between it and the rest of Europe was seen as expansionist by the West The threat and use of nuclear weapons enhanced the fundamental mistrust between both nations These tensions which were exacerbated by the peace conferences following the Nazi defeat ended up forming the basis of the Cold War that followed World War II 4 Compare the presidencies of Franklin D Roosevelt and Harry S Truman both Democrats Answer 1 FDR was elected four times while Truman was elected once It is safe to say that FDR was much more popular and that popularity lasted over time 2 FDR had huge national crises to deal with The Great Depression and World War II In part this is what made him a great President that he was able to deal with both of them and bring us through it Perhaps Truman would have been a better President if he had been the leader during those times 3 Truman was the first President to deal with the Cold War and he responded well I believe FDR would have done as well had he been healthy by that time 4 FDR had a popular war World War II while Truman had a much less popular war Korea It made it harder for Truman to do much during his Presidency 5 What were the main goals of the civil rights movement in the 19605 Which of the goals did it accomplish How was the Democratic Party transformed by its association with the movement Answer The goals of the civil rights movement were meaningful civil rights laws a massive federal works program full and fair employment decent housing the right to vote and adequate integrated education The right to vote was passed and placed in the bill of rights 15th amendment in 1870 part of the reconstruction era So during 196039s during the civil rights movement the right to vote was not one of their goals because it was already in effect for African Americans to vote The Democratic Party39s association with the civil rights movement is what has made it into the party that it is today It is in large part why the Democratic Party is the party of nonwhites today and the Republicans always win the white especially the white male vote After the civil rights movement the Republican Party adopted their quotSouthern Strategyquot In this strategy the GOP appealed to whites who were turned off by the gains of the black movement and by the lawlessness of the Vietnam Era As the GOP took these voters away from the Democratic Party the Democrats had to become more liberal and more prominority The GOP turned the opposite way So the Democrats won the liberal and nonwhite vote but they have pretty much lost the conservative and populist white vote for all of my lifetime up to this point 6 What were the main points of Allied military strategy in both Europe and Asia Describe how these strategies were implemented Answer At first the main Allied strategy was simply to keep England from being invaded by Germany After that there were several disputes between England and America about what strategy should be used As it happened there were a few major points of strategy that ended up being used Support the Soviet Union so as to keep many German troops pinned down in the East Attack in Northern Africa and then Italy to get practice with invasions and to divert German strength Stage the main attack on Germany as an invasion of France this is the DDay invasion that ultimately led to the defeat of Germany World War II allied military strategy for Europe Churchill and Roosevelt and their advisers met in Washington in late 1941 They decided that they must fiirst make a big effort at defeating Germany then they would tackle Japan The American army leaders had a tradition of massing manpower and going on the offensive so they intended to do this as soon as they could stabilize the southwestern Pacific They wanted to make a huge crosschannel invasion of Europe from Britain The Allies could not have enough ships to invade Europe before spring of 1942 so they planned to bomb Germany until then and send war materials to the Soviet armies fighting Germany in Russia Shipping proved to be insufficient to simultaneously supply Russia supply British forces fighting German forces in the MiddleEast and also build up an invasion force in Britain sufficient to invade Europe by 1942 so a plan was made to invade North Africa in 1942 and this was done Churchill wanted to keep eating away at Germany from the Mediterranian Africa Sicily Italy and so ona war of attritionunti Germany was weak then invade across the Channel American army commanders wanted to make a huge crosschannel invasion of Europea war of mass and concentrationas soon as possible In 1943 the Allies approved a roundtheclock bombing campaign against Germany but made no definite plan for a crosschannel invasion other than to agree to do it someday At the Tehran Conference between Roosevelt Stalin and Churchill held at the end of 1943 a final blueprint for allied victory in Europe took shape During the summer of 1944 there would be a hugecross channel invasion of Europe and a smaller invasion of southern France and at the same time Russia would launch an all out offensive on its front with Germany Germany would be crushed between the jaws of a gigantic vice applied from west and east VOCAB TERMS Chapter 25 1 2l 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The Atlantic Charter was a joint declaration released by US President Franklin D Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill on August 14 1941 following a meeting of the two heads of state in Newfoundland The battle of the Bulge The Battle of the Bulge 16 December 1944 25 January 1945 was a major German offensive campaign launched through the densely forested Ardennes region of Wallonia in Belgium France and Luxembourg on the Western Front toward the end of World War II in Europe Operation Torch was theBritishAmericaninvasion ofFrench North Africaduring the North African Campaign of the Second World War which started on 8 November 1942 The Soviet Union had pressed the United States and United Kingdom to start operations in Europeand open a secondfront to reduce the pressure of Germanforces on the Soviet troops Island hopping was a military strategy employed by the Allies in the Pacific War against Japan and the Axis powers during world war II Josef Stalin was the leader of theSoviet Union from the mid19205 until his death in 1953 Holding the post of theGeneral Secretary of theCentral Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union he was effectively the dictator of the state Hiroshima The United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities oinroshimaandNagasakiin August 1945 during the final stage of theSecond World War The two bombings which killed at least 129000 people remain the only use of nuclear weaponsfor warfarein history Chester Nimitz was a fleet admiral of the US Navy He played a major role in the naval history of World War II as Commander in Chief US Pacific Fleet for US naval forces and commander in chief for US and Allied air land and sea forces during World War II The neutrality act of 1939 This act lifted the arms embargo and put all trade with belligerent nations under the terms of quotcash and carry The ban on loans remained in effect and American ships were barred from transporting good to belligerent ports Operation overlord code name for the battle Normandy the allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German occupied western Europe during World War II The operation commenced on 6 June 1944 with theNormandy landings Operation Neptune commonly known asDDay A 1200plane airborne assault preceded anamphibious assault involving more than 5000 vessels Nearly 160000 troops crossed the English Channel on 6 June and more than three million Allied troops were in France by the end of August 10 Adolf Hitler was an Austrianborn German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party NSDAPChancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Fiihrerquotleaderquot of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945 He was effectivelydictator of Nazi Germany and was at the centre of World War II in Europe and the Holocaust Hitler was adecorated veteran of World War He joined the precursor of the NSDAP theGerman Workers39 Party in 1919 and became leader of the NSDAP in 1921 11 The Manhattan project Manhattan Project was a research and development project that produced the first nuclear weapons during World War II It was led by the United States with the support of the United Kingdom and Canada From 1942 to 1946 the project was under the direction of Major General Leslie Groves of the US Army Corps of Engineers physicist J Robert Oppenheimerwas the director of the Los Alamos National Laboratory that designed the actual bombs The Army component of the project was designated the Manhattan District quotManhattanquot gradually superseded the official codename Development of Substitute Materials for the entire project Along the way the project absorbed its earlier British counterpart Tube Alloys The Manhattan Project began modestly in 1939 but grew to employ more than 130000 people and cost nearly US2 billion about 26 billion in 2015 1 dollars Over 90 of the cost was for building factories and producing the fissile materials with less than 10 for development and production of the weapons Research and production took place at more than 30 sites across the United States the United Kingdom and Canada 12 Dwight Eisenhower was the34th President of the United Statesfrom 1953 until 1961 and the last US President to have been born in the 19th century He was a fivestar general in theUnited States Army duringWorld War II and served asSupreme Commander of the Allied Forcesin Europe He was responsible for planning and supervising the invasion of North Africa inOperation Torchin 1942 43 and the successfulinvasion of France andGermany in 1944 45 from theWestern Front In 1951 he became the first Supreme Commander of NATO Eisenhower was of Pennsylvania Dutch ancestry and was raised in a large family in Kansas by parents with a strong religious background He graduated fromWest Point and later married and had two sons After World War II Eisenhower served as Army Chief of Staffunder PresidentHarry S Trumanand then accepted the post of President atColumbia University39 Chapter 26 1 The Berlin Airlift At the end of the Second world war the US British and Soviet military forced divided and occupied Germany Also divided into occupation zones Berlin was located far inside Soviet controlled eastern Germany 2 3 4 5 6 7 The Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Blocthe United States its NATO allies and others and powers in the Eastern Bloc the Soviet Union and its allies in theWarsaw Pact Historians have not fully agreed on the dates but 1947 1991 is common The term quotcoldquot was used because there was no largescale fighting directly between the two sides although there were major regional wars known asproxy wars in Korea Vietnam and Afghanistan that the two sides supported The Cold War split the temporary wartime alliance against Nazi Germany leaving the USSR and the US as two superpowers with profound economic and political differences the former being a singleparty Marxist Leninist state operating planned economy and controlled press and owning exclusively the right to establish and govern communities and the latter being a capitalist state with generally free elections and press which also granted freedom of expression and freedom of association to its citizens Dixiecrats any of the Southern Democrats who seceded from the party in 1948 in opposition for its policy of extending civil rights HUAC The House UnAmerican Activities Committee HUAC was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives It was originally created in 1938 to uncover citizens with Nazi ties within the United States The United nations anintergovernmental organization to promote international co operation A replacement for the ineffectiveLeague of Nations the organization was established on 24 October 1945 after World War in order to prevent another such conflict At its founding the UN had 51member states there are now 193 Theheadquarters of the United Nations is inManhattan New York City and experiencesextraterritoriality The Marshall Plan was an American initiative to aidWestern Europe in which theUnited States gave 13 billion approximately 130 billion in current dollar value as of August 2015 in economic support to help rebuild Western European economies after the end ofm w The plan was in operation for four years beginning in April 1947 The goals of the United States were to rebuild wardevastated regions remove trade barriers modernize industry make Europe prosperous again and prevent the spread of communismm The Marshall Plan required a lessening of interstate barriers a dropping of many petty regulations constraining business and encouraged an increase in productivity labour union membership as well as the adoption of modern business procedures The national security council The National Security Council NSC is the President39s principal forum for considering national security and foreign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials Since its inception under President Truman the Council39s function has been to advise and assist the President on national security and foreign policies The Council also serves as the President39s principal arm for coordinating these policies among various government agencies The NSC is chaired by the President Its 8 9 regular attendees both statutory and non statutory are the Vice President the Secretary of State the Secretary of the Treasury the Secretary of Defense and the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the statutory military advisor to the Council and the Director of National Intelligence is the intelligence advisor The Chief of Staff to the President Counsel to the President and the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy are invited to attend any NSC meeting The Attorney General and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget are invited to attend meetings pertaining to their responsibilities The heads of other executive departments and agencies as well as other senior officials are invited to attend meetings of the NSC when appropriate NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization is an intergovernmentalmilitary alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949 The organization constitutes a system of collective defencewhere by its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party NATO39s headquarters are located in HarenBrusselsBelgium where the Supreme Allied Commander also resides Belgium is one of the 28 member states across North America and Europe the newest of which Albania and Croatia joined in April 2009 An additional 22 countries participate in NATO39s Partnership for Peace program with 15 other countries involved in institutionalized dialogue programmes The combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70 percent of the global total4 Members39 defense spending is supposed to amount to 2 percent of GDP IMF The International Monetary Fund is an international organization headquartered in Washington DC of quot188 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation secure financial stability facilitate international trade promote high employment and sustainable economic growth and reduce poverty around the worldquot2Formed in 1944 at the Bretton Woods Conference it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system Countries contribute funds to a pool through a quota system from which countries with payment imbalances can borrow As of 2010 the fund had XDR4768 billion about USS7557 billion at thencurrent exchange rates Chapter 27 1 2 The Alliance for Progress The Alliance for Progress Spanish Alianza para el Progreso initiated by US President John F Kennedy in 1961 aimed to establish economic cooperation between the US and Latin America The bay of pigs was a failed military invasion ofCubaundertaken by the CIAsponsored paramilitary group Brigade 2506 on 17 April 1961 A counterrevolutionary military trained and funded by the United States government39s Central Intelligence AgencyCA Brigade 2506 fronted the armed wing of the Democratic Revolutionary FrontDRF and intended to overthrow theincreasingly communist government of Fidel Castro Launched from Guatemala the invading force was defeated within three days by the Cuban 3 4 5 6 Revolutionary Armed Forces under the direct command of Prime Minister Fidel Castro The Cuban Revolution of 1952 to 1959 had forced dictatorFulgencio Batista an ally of the United States into exile He was replaced by the 26th July Movement led by Castro which severed the country39s formerly strong links with the US after expropriating the assets of US corporations and mobsters and developing links with the Soviet Union with whom at the time the United States was engaged in the Cold War US PresidentDwight D Eisenhower was concerned at the direction Castro39s government was taking and in March 1960 Eisenhower allocated 131 million to the CIA to plan Castro39s overthrow The CIA proceeded to organize the operation with the aid of various Cuban counterrevolutionary forces training Brigade 2506 in Mexico The New Frontier was used by liberal Democratic presidential candidate John F Kennedy in his acceptance speech in the1960 United States presidential election to the Democratic National Convention at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum as the Democratic slogan to inspire America to support him The phrase developed into a label for his administration39s domestic and foreign programs Betty Friedan was an American writeractivist andfeminist A leading figure in the women39s movement in the United States her 1963 book The Feminine Mystique is often credited with sparking thesecond wave of American feminism in the 20th century In 1966 Friedan co founded and was elected the first president of theNational Organization for Women NOW which aimed to bring women quotinto the mainstream of American society now in fully equal partnership with menquot In 1970 after stepping down as NOW39s first president Friedan organized the nationwide Women39s Strike for Equality on August 26 the 50th anniversary of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution granting women the right to vote The national strike was successful beyond expectations in broadening the feminist movement the march led by Friedan in New York City alone attracted over 50000 women and men In 1971 Friedan joined other leading feminists to establish theNational Women39s Political Caucus Friedan was also a strong supporter of the proposed Equal Rights Amendment to the United States Constitution that passed the United States House of Representatives by a vote of 354 24 and Senate 84 8 following intense pressure by women39s groups led by NOW in the early 19705 Following Congressional passage of the amendment Friedan advocated for ratification of the amendment in the states and supported other women39s rights reforms she founded the National Association for the Repeal of Abortion Laws but was later critical of the abortioncentered positions of many liberal feminists The Test Ban Treaty On August 5 1963 representatives of the United States Soviet Union and Great Britain signed the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty which prohibited the testing of nuclear weapons in outer space underwater or in the atmosphere NASA The national aeronautics and space administration is the US government agency responsible for the civilian space program as well as aeronautics and aerospace research President Dwight D Eisenhowe restablished the National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA in 19585with a distinctly civilian rather than military orientation 7 8 encouraging peaceful applications inspace science The National Aeronautics and Space Act was passed on July 29 1958 disestablishing NASA39s predecessor theNational Advisory Committee for AeronauticsNACA The new agency became operational on October 1 1958 Since that time most US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA including the Apollo moonlanding missions the Skylab space station and later the Space Shuttle Currently NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle the Space Launch System and Commercial Crewvehicles The agency is also responsible for the Launch Services Program LSP which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA launches John F Kennedy was an American politician who served as the35th President of the United Statesfrom January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963 The Cuban Missile CrisisThe Bay of Pigs Invasion theNuclear Test Ban Treaty the establishment of the Peace Corps developments in the Space Race the building of theBerlin Wall theCivil Rights Movement the quotNew Frontierquot domestic program abolishment of the federal death penalty in the District of Columbia and increased US involvement in the Vietnam Warall took place during his presidencyKennedy39s time in office is also marked by high tensions with communist states Cuba in particular Anattempt in April 1961 at the Bay of Pigs to overthrow the country39s dictatorFide Castro was thwarted by armed forces within three days His administration subsequently rejected plans by the Joint Chiefs of Staff toorchestrate falseflag attacks on American soil in order to gain public approval for a war against Cuba In October 1962 it was discovered Sovietballistic missileshad been deployed in Cuba the resulting period of unease often termed the Cuban Missile Crisis is seen by many historians as the closest the human race has ever come tonuclear war Jonas Salk was an American medical researcher andvirologist He discovered and developed the first successfulpolio vaccine Born in New York City he attendedNew York University School of Medicine later choosing to do medical research instead of becoming a practicing physician Until 1957 when the Salk vaccine was introducedpoio was considered one of the most frightening public health problems in the world In the postwar United States annual epidemicswere increasingly devastating The 1952 US epidemic was the worst outbreak in the nation39s history Of nearly 58000 cases reported that year 3145 people died and 21269 were left with mild to disabling paralysis1 with most of its victims being children The quotpublic reaction was to a plaguequot said historianBill O39Neal2 quotCitizens of urban areas were to be terrified every summer when this frightful visitor returnedquot According to a 2009 PBS documentary quotApart from the atomic bomb America39s greatest fear was polioquot3 As a result scientists were in a frantic race to find a way to prevent or cure the disease In 1938 US President Franklin D Roosevelt the world39s most recognized victim of the disease had founded theNational Foundation for Infantile Paralysis known as March of Dimes Foundation since 2007 an organization that would fund the development of a vaccrne
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