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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mr. Furman VonRueden on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to POLI120 at Xavier University taught by TiestSondaal in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see /class/231001/poli120-xavier-university in Political Science at Xavier University.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
Nigeria I PoliticszGovernment The politics of Nigeria take place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic whereby the President of Nigeria Umaru Musa Yar39Adua is both head of state and head of government and of a multiparty system o Executive Branch 0 The president is elected by the people He is both the chief of state and head of government and heads the Federal Executive Council Nigeria has a rotating presidency so that the three major regions of Nigeria the North the East and the West share political control of the country 0 The rest of the executive branch is divided into ministriesthe system is modeled after that of the United States 0 Current President Umaru Musa Yar39Adua 2nd President of Nigeria39s Fourth Republic He was declared the winner of the controversial Nigerian presidential election held on April 21 2007 and was sworn in on May 29 2007 He is a member of the ruling People39s Democratic Party PDP 0 Current V President GoodluckJonathan o Legislative Branch 0 Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of the legislature the House of Representatives and the Senate Together the two chambers make up the lawmaking body in Nigeria called the National Assembly 0 The National Assembly of Nigeria has two chambers The House of Representatives is presided upon by the Speaker of the House of Representatives It has 360 members elected for a four year term in singleseat constituencies The Senate is presided over by the President of the Senate It has 109 members elected for a four year term in 36 threeseat constituencies corresponding to the country39s 36 states and one seat in a singleseat constituency the federal capital Abuja The National Assembly also serves as a watchdog to the excesses of the executive arm of government o Judiciary Branch 0 The highestjudiciary arm of government in Nigeria is the Supreme Court of Nigeria Nigeria also practices Baron de Montesquieu39s theory of the separation of powers 0 The judicial branch consists mainly of the Supreme Court of Nigeria which is the highest court in the land It is presided upon by the Chiefjustice of Nigeria and thirteen associate justices appointed by the President of Nigeria on the recommendation of the National Judicial Council and subject to confirmation by the Senate 0 Political Parties 0 Nigeria has a multiparty system with two or three strong parties and a third party that is electorally successful 0 Fourth Republic 1999present Alliance for Democracy AD 0 A progressive opposition political party in Nigeria It was formed on September 9th 1998 All Nigeria Peoples Party ANPP o Rightwing conservative party with mass appeal The party draws its strength from the predominantly radical region of Northern Nigeria and strives to maintain the status quo of radical politics in the Nigerian polity All Proqressives Grand Alliance APG National Democratic Party NDP People39s Democratic Party PDP currently in power o A centrist political party in Nigeria It won the Presidential elections of 1999 2003 and 2007 and is the dominant party in the Fourth Republic People39s Redemption Party PRP United Nigeria People39s Party UNPP Results of the 29 April 2007 Nigerian National Assembly election results Parties popular vote People39s 545 Democrati c Pa rty All Nigeria 274 Peoples Party Alliance for 88 Democracy United 28 Nigeria People39s My National 19 Democrati c Party i 16 Progressiv es Grand Alliance People39s 08 Redemptio n Pa rty House of Rep 0 0 Seats 223 34 537 97 27 16 15 07 Senate Seats 27 vacant Total turnout 500492 360 109 0 Legal system 0 There are four distinct systems of law in Nigeria English Law common law constitutional law and Sharia law English law which is derived from its colonial past with Britain Common law a development of its post colonial independence Customary law which is derived from indigenous traditional norms and practice including the dispute resolution meetings of precolonial Yorubaland secret societies Sharia law used only in the predominantly Muslim north of the country It is an Islamic legal system which had been used long before the colonial administration in Nigeria but recently politicised and spearheaded in Zamfara in late 1999 and eleven other states followed suit These states are m Katsina Niger Bauchi Borno Kaduna Gombe Sokoto igawa Yobe and Kebbi El ll Identity lssuelsl o Ogoni Conflict or the conflict in the Niger Delta 0 The conflict in the Niger Delta arose in the early 1990s due to tensions between the foreign oil corporations and a number of the Niger Delta39s minority ethnic groups who felt they were being exploited particularly the Ogoni and the Ijaw 0 Ethnic and political unrest has continued throughout the 1990s and persists as of 2007 despite the conversion to O O O O O democracy and the election of the Obasanjo government in 1999 Competition for oil wealth has fueled violence between innumerable ethnic groups causing the militarization of nearly the entire region by ethnic militia groups as well as Nigerian military and police forces notably the Nigerian Mobile Police Ogoniland is a 404squaremile 1050 kmz region in the southeast of the Niger Delta basin Economically viable oil was discovered in Ogoniland in 1957 just one year after the discovery of Nigeria39s first commercial petroleum deposit with Shell and Chevron setting up shop throughout the next two decades The Ogonis a minority ethnic group of about half a million people who call Ogoniland home and other ethnic groups in the region attest that during this time the government began forcing them to abandon their land to oil companies without consultation and offering negligible compensation The 1970s and 1980s saw the government39s empty promises of benefits for the Niger Delta peoples fall through with the Ogoni growing increasing dissatisfied and their environmental social and economic apparatus rapidly deteriorating the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People MOSOP was formed in 1992 MOSOP spearheaded by Ogoni playwright and author Ken SaroWiwa became the major campaigning organization representing the Ogoni people in their struggle for ethnic and environmental rights Its primary targets and at times adversaries have been the Nigerian government and the oil company Royal Dutch Shell Beginning in December 1992 the conflict between Ogonis and the oil infrastructure escalated to a level of greater seriousness and intensity on both sides Both parties began carrying out acts of violence and MOSOP issued an ultimatum to the oil companies Shell Chevron and the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation which demanded some 10 billion in accumulated royalties damages and compensation and quotimmediate stoppage of environmental degradationquot and negotiations for mutual agreement on all future drillingi1 o The Ogonis threatened to embark on mass action to disrupt O O 0 their operation if the companies failed to comply By this act the Ogoni shifted the focus of their actions from an unresponsive federal government to the oil companies engaged in their own region The rationale for this assignment of responsibility were the benefits accrued by the oil companies from extracting the natural wealth of the Ogoni homeland and neglect from central government The government responded by banning public gatherings and declaring that disturbances of oil production were acts of treason Military repression escalated in May 1994 On May 21 soldiers and mobile policemen appeared in most Ogoni villages On that day four Ogoni chiefs all on the conservative side of a schism within MOSOP over strategy were brutally murdered By midJune 30 villages had been completely destroyed 600 people had been detained and at least 40 had been killed An eventual total of around 100000 internal refugees and an estimated 2000 civilian deaths was recorded1 1 In May 1994 nine activists from the movement who would become known as 39The Ogoni Nine39 among them Ken Saro Wiwa were arrested and accused of incitement to murder following the deaths of four Ogoni elders SaroWiwa and his comrades denied the charges but were imprisoned for over a year before being found guilty and sentenced to death by a specially convened tribunal handselected by General Sani Abacha on 10 November 1995 The activists were denied due process and upon being found guilty were executed via hanging by the Nigerian state The executions were met with an immediate international response The trial was widely criticised by human rights organisations and the governments of other states who condemned the Nigerian government39s long history of detaining their critics mainly prodemocracy and other political activists The Commonwealth of Nations which had also plead for clemency suspended Nigeria39s membership in response The United States the United Kingdom and the EU 0 SAP 0 O O O 0 all implemented sanctions however none of these had an impact on oil production As of 2006 the situation in Ogoniland has eased significantly progressed by the transition to democratic rule in 1999 However no attempts have been made by the government or an international body to bring about justice by investigating and prosecuting those involved in the violence and property destruction that have occurred in Ogoniland although a class action lawsuit has been brought against Shell by individual plaintiffs Structural Adjustment Program Term used to describe the policy changes implemented by the International Monetary Fund IMF and the World Bank the Bretton Woods Institutions in developing countries These policy changes are conditions Conditionalities for getting new loans from the IMF or World Bank or for obtaining lower interest rates on existing loans Conditionalities are implemented to ensure that the money lent will be spent in accordance with the overall goals of the loan SAPs are created with the goal of reducing the borrowing country39s fiscal imbalances The bank from which a borrowing country receives its loan depends upon the type of necessity In general loans from both the World Bank and the IMF are claimed to be designed to promote economic growth to generate income and to pay off the debt which the countries have accumulated Through conditionalities Structural Adjustment Programs generally implement quotfree marketquot programs and policy These programs include internal changes notably privatization and deregulation as well as external ones especially the reduction of trade barriers Countries which fail to enact these programs may be subject to severe fiscal discipline Critics argue that financial threats to poor countries amount to blackmail that poor nations have no choice but to comply Since the late 1990s some proponents of structural adjustment such as the World Bank have spoken of quotpoverty reductionquot as a goal Structural Adjustment Programs were often criticized for implementing generic free market policy as well as the lack of involvement from the country To increase the borrowing country39s involvement developing countries are now encouraged to draw up Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers PRSPs These PRSPs essentially take the place of the SAPs Some believe that the increase of the local governments participation in creating the policy will lead to greater ownership of the loan programs thus better fiscal policy The content of these PRSPs has turned out to be quite similar to the original content of bank authored Structural Adjustment Programs Critics argue that the similarities show that the banks and the countries that fund them are still overly involved in the policy making process 0 39Federal character39 0 Giving certain services orjobs to ethnic groups 0 Led to ethnic competition 39rentseeking behavior39 Rent seeking generally implies the extraction of uncompensated value from others without making any contribution to productivity such as by gaining control of land and other preexisting natural resources or by imposing burdensome regulations or other government decisions that may affect consumers or businesses While there may be few people in modern industrialized countries who do not gain something directly or indirectly through some form or another of rent seeking rent seeking in the aggregate imposes substantial losses on society 0 Democratic consolidation 0 The military of Nigeria has played a major role in the country39s history often seizing control of the country and ruling it through major periods of its history ts last period of rule ended in 1999 following the death of the leader of the previous militaryjunta Sani Abacha in 1998 0 Democracy hasn39t been allowed to flourish under such conditions o The process by which a new democracy matures in a way that means it is unlikely to revert to authoritarianism without an external shock The notion is contested because it is not clear that there is anything substantive that happens to new democracies which secures their continuation beyond those factors that simply make it 39more likely39 that they continue as democracies o Unconsolidated democracies suffer from formalized but intermittent elections and clientelism o Longevity of democracy and quality of democray how well democracy is ingrained and the possibility of steady lasting government both required for a smooth transition I Globalization Nigeria is classified as an emerging market and is rapidly approaching middle income status with its abundant supply of resources welldeveloped financial legal communications transport sectors and stock exchange the Nigerian Stock Exchange which is the second largest in Africa Nigeria is ranked 37th in the world in terms of GDP PPP as of 2007 Nigeria is the United States39 largest trading partner in subSaharan Africa and supplies a fifth of its oil 11 of oil imports It has the seventhlargest trade surplus with the US of any country worldwide Nigeria is currently the 50thlargest export market for US goods and the 14thlargest exporter of goods to the US The United States is the country39s largest foreign investor The bulk of economic activity is centered in 4 main cities Lagos Kaduna Port Harcourt and Abuja Beyond these three economic centers development is marginal Previously economic development had been hindered by years of military rule corruption and mismanagement the restoration of democracy and subsequent economic reforms have successfully put Nigeria back on track towards achieving its full economic potential as one of the Major Economies in Africa According to the Economist Intelligence Unit and the World Bank Nigerian GDP at purchasing power parity has nearly doubled from 1707 billion in 2005 to 2926 billion in 2007 The GDP per head has jumped from 692 per person in 2006 to 1754 per person in 2007 During the oil boom of the 1970s Nigeria accumulated a significant foreign debt to finance major infrastructural investments With the fall of oil prices during the 1980s Nigeria struggled to keep up with its loan payments and eventually defaulted on its principal debt repayments limiting repayment to the interest portion of the loans Arrears and penalty interest accumulated on the unpaid principal which increased the size of the debt However after negotiations by the Nigeria authorities in October 2005 Nigeria and its Paris Club creditors reached an agreement in which Nigeria repurchased its debt at a discount of approximately 60 Nigeria used part of its oil profits to pay the residual 40 freeing up at least 115 billion annually for poverty reduction programmes Nigeria made history in April 2006 by becoming the first African Country to completely pay off its debt estimated 30 billion owed to the Paris Club
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