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Chapter 4 Study Guide Mental Imagery Why representation 1 How to define representation as opposed to perception O representation unavailability of physical stimulus O abstract thoughts 0 interpretation O is a format to describe depict knowledge not a copy of objects but carrying information about the object ideas events etc perception O Perception physical stimulus Verbal and Visual Imagery 1 Explain the dual code theory How does concrete information differ from abstract information according to this theorv 0 claims that we represent information in combined verbal and visual codes Paivio suggested that when we hear a sentence we also develop a visual image of what it describes if we later remember the visual image and not the sentence we will remember what the sentence was about but not its exact words if we see a pic we might describe to ourselves the significant features of that picture if we later remember our description and not the picture we will not remember details we did not think important to describe separate imageries for verbal and visual information Q concrete information dual code both visual and and verbal i ex The dog chased the cat ii visual and language O abstract information single code only verbal no visual i ex Cognitive Psychology is complicated ii language O The theory assumes that there are two cognitive subsystems one specialized fo the representation and processing of nonverbal objectsevents ie imagery and the other specialized for dealing with language 2 Explain Santa s experiment the results and implications O Santa s experiment 1977 demonstrated the functional consequence of representing information in a visual image vs representing it in a verbal image O two conditions in experiment i Geometric condition participants studied an array of three geometric objects arranged with one object centered below the other two after studying array it was removed and they had to hold info in minds they were presented with one of several different test arrays and had to verify that the test array contained the same elements of the study array though not necessarily in the same spatial configuration 0 Santa predicted that participants would make a positive identification more quickly in the first case where the configuration was identicalbecause he hypothesized the mental image for the study stimulus would preserve spatial information Q the results of the geometric condition confirmed this participant made positive identification more quickly when the configuration was identical than when it was linear because the visual image of the study stimulus would preserve spatial information ii Verbal Condition participants studied words ranged exactly as the objects in teh geometric condition were arranged because it involved words however the study stimulus did not suggest a face or have any pictorial properties 0 Santa speculated that participants would read the array left to right and top to bottom and encode a verbal image with the information 0 results participants made a positive identification more quickly when the configuration was linear than when it was identical because participants had encoded the words from the study array linearly in accordance with normal reading order in English iii Experiment results demonstrated that visual and verbal information are represented differently in mental images iv different parts of the brain are involved in verbal symbolic and linear and visual imagery 3 What are the characteristics of visual imagery and verbal imagery O Visual imagery i preserves spatial configuration just as visually perceived materials ii analogous to actual objects iii simultaneously available iv better at representing concrete spatial information mental rotation O Verbal imagery i symbolic arbitrary relationship with the idea that is represented ii rules are necessary iii serially available iv can represent abstract categorical ideas Mental Imagery versus Perception 1 What does it mean that there is functional eguivalence between mental imagery and perception i it means that the same brain structures are active in both processes ii neural evidence for this 0 O39Craven amp Kanwisher Q FFA face specific area was active in perception and imagery Q PPA place specific area was active in perception and imagery EXAMPLES iii Parietal amp temporal activation during perception and imagination EPA is temporal and PPA is parietal iv primary visual cortex is recruited during imagery v FFA a face specific response during perception and imagination vi PPA house specific response during perception and imagination 2 mt does it mean that there is functional inequality between mental imagery and perception i iT MEANS THAT Not all the same questions can be answered between mental imagery and perception thus they are not the same 0 example If you imagine a tiger you should be able to count each individual stripe otherwise it isn39t a real perception 0 class example star of david only if you see it 0 another example Reversible images can swap precepts in their mind Mental Rotation Shepard amp Metzler 1971 Q What are the main results I data seem to indicate that participants rotated the object in a 3D space within their heads the greater the angle of disparity between the two objects the longer participants took to complete the rotation though the participants were obviously not actually rotating a real object in their heads the mental process appears to be analogous to physical rotation 0 2D versus 3D I faster to rotate in 3D but not by much more than 2D 3D not necessarily more difficult than 2D 0 implications I physical and mental imagery same I when people must transform the orientation of a mental image to make a comparison they rotate its representation through the intermediate positions until they achieve the desired orientation O Neural evidence with humans imaging studies I parietal and motor regions are activated for both physical and mental rotation I participants rotated the object in a 3D space within their heads the greater the angle of disparity between the two objects the longer participants took to complete the rotation the participants were not actually rotating a real object in their heads the mental process appears to be analogous to physical rotation O Neural evidence with monkevs cell recording by Georgopoulos I single cell recording in monkey motor cortex I monkeys learn to turn dial to get reward I actual imagined movement I similar neural activity physical rotation motor cortex physical rotation I when monkey has to wait until it can turn dial to get reward the neural activity in imagining amount of rotation same cells in motor cortex produce same pattern same same brain part used to execute physical and mental Image Scanning Brooks 1968 0 Explain the design of the study O Visuospatial vs Verbal imagery O 3 response modes I pointing visuospatial I taping Manual I Vocal Verbal Q What are the results O Codespecific interference between physical stimulus and imagery O just like real perceptual stimulus Q In what wavs does evidence from mental rotation support the functional equivalence of perception and imagery O Neural evidence I parietal amp temporal activation during perception and imagination O Kosslyn I primary visual cortex is recruited during imagery processes O O Craven amp Kanwisher 2000 I FFA face specific response during perception and imagination O Craven amp Kanwisher 2000 Q What neural evidence of functional equivalence is available O as discussed in earlier chapters the fusiform face area FFA in the temporal cortex resonds preferentially to faces and another region of the temporal cortex the parahippocampal place area PPA responds preferentially to pictures of locations O asked participants either to view faces and scenes or to imagine faces and scenes teh same areas were active wehn teh participants were seeing as when they were imagined I every time the participants viewed or imagined a face there was increased activation in the FFA and this activation went away when they processed places I hen they viewed or imagined scenes there was activation in the PPA that went away when they processed faces 2 different kinds of stimulus House v Face 2 mode perception vs imagery perception gt face stimulus FFA increases activity for face and quite for House PPA increases house more activity and decrease in face activity I same areas of activation but just different levels O Results from the study showed that visual images are processed in the same way as actual perceptions and by many of the same neural structures I the responses during imagery were very similar to the responses durign perception through a little weaker I the fact that the response was weaker during imagery is consistent witht eh beavioral evidence we have viewed suggesting that it is more difficult to process an image than a real perception I location of ffa and ppa Functional Inequality versus Equivalence 0 Examples of functional inequality 0 Equivalience the fffa and PPA experiment metnal rotation with monkesy and humans O Inequality 7777 Where and What 0 Describe Farah et al s patient study O Farah and colleagues showed that unilateral damage to the parietal lobe impairs reaction time performance in a spatial cueing task involving spatially non predictive auditory cues O traditionally imagery has been viewed as being a right hemisphere function Farah challenged this view in arguing that at least one component the imagery generation component appears to be a left hemisphere function 0 in a study involving splitbrain patients show that the disconnected left hemisphere could perform a task requiring image generation when the right hemisphere could not and that the right hemisphere could be shown to have all the components of the imagery task except for image generation O compared two patients with temporal damage comparing his performance on a wide variety of imagery tasks to that of normal participants they found that he showed deficits in only a subset of these tasks one sin which he had to judge color sizes lengths of animals tails and whether two US states had similar shapes in contrast he did not show any deficit in performing tasks that seemed to involve a substantial amount of spatial processing mental rotation image scanning letter scanning or judgments of where one stat was relative to another state O thus temporal damage seems to affect only those imagery tasks that required access to visual detail not those that required spatial judgments 0 Describe what we know about the what pathway and the where pathway What different information does each pathway process How are they identified in the brain Cognitive Maps 1 3 4 Q Where Pathway Dorsalsuperior path from occipital includes parietal motor cortices spatial informationlocation orientation basal ganglia Q What Pathway ventral inferior stream from occipital including temporal cortex visual information color shape etc hippocampal Differences between route map and survey man i Route map Pointtopoint knowledge of two locations actionoriented procedure perspective specific egocentric ii Survey map 0 perspectivefree knowledge of relations among multiple locations 0 allocentric Developmental differences i Route to survey experience based with development and learning 0 Routetosurvey change involves practice familiarity Differences with practice and familiarity i Experiment with Thorndvke and HavesRoth Q Rand corporation building they had to have years of exp before making survey map determination of getting around from snack bar to administrative conference room Egocentric versus allocentric representation of spatial information i Egocentric Q The representation of space as we perceive it Q readily available for action 0 we often need to relate the way space appears as we percieve it to some other representation of space such as a cognitive map 0 Allocentric route map ii environment oriented perspective free often times requires alignment for action survey map iii Hippocampus forming new associations spatial associations ask if hippocampus is allocentric or egocentric allocentric representation ex taxi drivers have bigger hippocampus as they practice drive more Stevens and Coupe study a How do you characterize the map distortion theV found i relative relations of regions represented at a higher level affects the judgment of relations of regions represented at a lower level b Explain their study and results i sought to demonstrate map distortion confusion with experimentercreated maps ii different groups of participants learned the pas the important feature of the incongruent maps is that the relative location of the alpha and beta counties are inconsistent with the location of the X and Y cities after learning the maps participants were asked a series of questions about the locations of cities including is X east or west of Y for the left hand maps and is X north or south of Y for the right hand maps participants made errors on 18 of the questions for the congruent maps 15 for the homogenous aps but 45 for the incongruent maps 0 participants were using information about the locations of the counties to help them remember the city locations this reliance on higher order information led them to make errors just as similar reasoning can lead to errors in answering questions about North American Geography iii when people have to work out the relative positions of two locations they will often reason in terms of the relative positions of larger areas that contain the two locations hierarchal representation Conclusion lower level generation perception higher level generation imagery damage to high levelgt damage to imagery damage to lower levelgt perceptual Chapter 5 Study Guide Meanings from verbal and visual information Q Wanner 1968 Q What is the critical manipulation of this study I Manipulation warning vs no warning about instructions in the lab experiment to recall particular sentences in the instructions He looked at pt ability to discriminate different pairs of sentences and measure their ability to remember the meaning versus the style of the sentence I this study illustrates circumstances in which people do and dont remember information about exact wording asked participants to come into the lab and listen to taperecorded instructions for one group of participants the warned group the tape warned them of a memory test the participants in the second group received no warning and had no idea that they would be responsible for the verbatim instructions after this point the instructions were the same for both groups I some sentences differ in style but not meaning and other sentences differ in meaning but not in style 0 Results and implications I the data shows that the of correct identification of sentences heard is displayed as a function of whether participants had been warned an for pt who were asked to discriminate later I Implications O 1 memory is better for changes in wording that result in changes of meaning vs changes in wording that result in changes of style superiority of memory for meaning is good whether ppl are warned or not 0 pt retained meaning of message as normal part of comprehension process Q 2 ppl are capable of remembering exact wording if that is their goal and the warning did have an effect on memrory for stylistic change the unwarned pt remembered stylistic change at about level of chance vs warned pt remembred it almost 80 of the time I after processing a linguistic message ppl remember its menaing and not exact wording I memory prefers higher level organization I when permitted meaningful information is remembered better I with extra effort lower level organization is also available for memory 0 Memory for Visual Shepard 1971 sentences and visual so memory for verbal but perfect for visual picture recognition better 0 Mandler amp Ritchey 1977 0 Critical manipulation results and implication I participants studied pics of scenes and after studying eight pics they were rpesented with a series of pics and asked to identify the pics they had studied 0 included target pics and distracter pics which had token changes and type change token change differed from the target only in an unimportant visual detail and type change differed in an important visual detail that alters the semantic meaning I participants recognized the original pictures 77 of the time and rejected the toke distractors only 60 of the time but they rejected the type distractors 94 of the time I manipulation token vs type change in picture I Findings just like participants were much more sensitive to meaningsignificant changes in a sentence in the Wanner study in this study participants were more sensitive to meaningsignificant changes in a pic and not for the details 0 when people see a pic they attend to and remember best those aspects that they consider meaningful as opposed to type changes Retention of Meanings memory is better for material if we are able to meaningfully interpret it it is easier to commit arbitrary associations to memory if they are converted into something more menaingful O Gernsbacher 1985 Q What materials did she use I Visual Picturesduration of perceptual memory 0 Manipulations results implications I retention of meanings based on whether semantic information change or perceptual information change ie picture orientation I accuracy for semantic information did not differ by retention periods implying that semantic information stays longer not affected by duration semantic meaning didnt change but stylistic nonsemantic longer retention the more they forgot or didnt attend too after 10 sec 79 10 mins 57 longer retention the less accuracy about orientation and perception but not for semanticit was strong throughout as long as you understand meaning of stimulus you are more likely to remember it longer 0 Anderson 1974 Q What materials did he use I voice sentences O Manipulations results implications I showed sentences and participants had to identify semantic vs voice change if sentence had action or detailed physical info I 2 min retention low accuracy for voice change accuracy for semantic information did not differ by retention periods I memory for detailed physical information does not last long as opposed to meaningful information I longer waiting lower accuracy I accuracy for semantic didnt change Propositional representations Define proposition O propositions are borrowed from logic and linguistics because it is the smallest unit of knowledge that stand as a separate assertion the smallest unit one can meaningfully judge as true or false O proposition analysis applies most clearly to linguistic information I people remember a complex sentence as a set of abstract meaning units that represent the simple assertions in the sentence Can you extract propositions from a complex sentence m O each proposition is needed from the complex sentence in order to tell the meaning O theory of propositional representation is that does not claim a person remembers simple sentences like when encoding the meaning of a complex sentence it claims that material is encoded in a more abstract way How does the Bransford amp Franks 1971 studv support the propositional network O They provide a demonstration of psychological reality of propositional units by participants studying 12 sentences and the propositional units come from sets of 4 propositions O 1st sentence studied 2nd sentence not studied but combination of propositions that occurred in studied sentence 3rd sentence words that were studied but not composed from studied propositions O participants had almost no ability to discriminate bw first two kinds of sentences and likely to say they had heard either participants were very confident they did not hear the 3rd sentence O experiment shows that although people remember the propositions they encounter they are quite insensitive to the actual combination of propositions participants were most likely to say that they heard a sentence consisting of all four propositions even though they had not in fact studied the sentence How does the Weisberg 1969 studv support the view that spatial lavout may be better at capturing essence of the propositional network O he s saying that words closer in propositional networks are closer in meaning than when closer in sentences Conceptual Knowledge Semantic network model proposed by Quillian people store information about various categories like canaries robins fish etc in a network structure I if a fact about a concept is encountered frequently it will be stored with that concept even if it could be inferred from a higher order concept I the more frequently a fact about a concept is encountered the more strongly that fact will be associated with the concept the more strongly fact are associated with concept the more rapidly they are verified I inferring facts that are not directly stored with a concept takes a relatively long time I ex represent a hierarchy of categories such as that a canary is a bird and a bird is an animalby linking nodes for the two categories with isa links properties that are true of the categories are associated with them properties that are true of higherlevel categories are also true of the lower level categories thus because animals breathe it follows that birds and canaries breathe isa links PEI Emma s aJ39mmd 0 vehicle 5 nwd m O Hierarchical 75 a 1 H representation 39I r g r5 was i39aE39L Truizk v HEM33933 hail g 39 I Lima igrnba E i whatl5 ii 1 aimtn baa rm div Earnam averageIlse I Cognitive inheritance inherit the same characteristics as higher level I Cognitive economy using less resources when you associate with a higher level O Collins amp Quillian study What task Results How does the semantic network model eXplain the results I distance between 2 concepts within network determines associative strength I taks 3 sentences and try to group concepts based on semantic networks to understand spatial representation of hierarchy 0 lion mama and lion animal 0 ostrich and bird same distance from 2nd level so it takes equal time Q Describe evidence that supports the semantic network model I Collins and Quillian because for the 3rd sentence to be true the first sentence has to be true I conclusioN sentence 1 verified more quickly than 2 and 3 O Describe evidence that does not support the semantic network model I if the category is canary is a bird and ostrich is a bird then since it is in the same network doesnt mean they are the same thing or that being a canary applies to being an ostrich I like being a canary doesnt apply to being an ostrich I schema theory is an example of an alternative thoery Schemas 0 Define schema O Slots and Values e g House schema l slots are attributes in which members of a category possess Schema House and slots parts materials function shape size I isa equals superset or what it refers to house l default values are aspects of slots that do not exclude the possibilities stones wood brick dont exclude cardboard Q What would be the benefit of schema representation over semantic network representation I schema is more holistic and general knowledge based I semantic network store properties of concepts Q How does false memory occur I when they think something should be there but its not is a false memory cuz they base it off schemas 0 People have default assumptions about types of spaces 0 Brewer amp Treyens Q How does this study support the schematic representation of knowledge I good memory for consistent items thought of in the schema which encodes default assumptions I it found that shcema of an office in uenced recall I ppls memory for property of location strongly in uenced by persons default assumption about what is typcally found Category Membership 0 According to Rosch default value means typical value typicality What evidence did Rosch provide for the idea of representation of typicality O classification ex applegt fruit 0 prediction typicalityapple is sweet 0 reasoningif not in front of you predict shape O economy in communication I The category membership rate typicality of various members of category 17 scale I pt consistently rated members as more typical than others I robin 11 chicken 38 I ppl faster judging picture when presents typical member of category I robins seen as birds more rapidly than chickens I ppl uncertain within themselves that39s where they introduce cup thing I bird generated such as twittering window replaced category with robin and less typical like chicken and ask sensibless 0 sense involving typical members 0 peripheral members lowest rating 0 pt thinking typical members of category 0 if replacing last one bird ew down and began eating which is atypical of eating 0 Labov experiment shows characteristics of category boundary 0 Explain the experiment the results and implication I showed participants cuplike objectsand asked which do you consider to be cups and which do you consider bowls concepts did not have clearcut boundaries increasing ratio of width of the cup to depth I one condition neutral context participants were simply represented with pictures of the objects the percentages of cup responses gradually decreased with increasing width I in other condition food context participants were asked to imagine the object filled with mashed potatoes and placed on a table in context fewer cup responses and more bowl responses were given but the data show the same gradual shift from up to bowl Q What was the effect of context in this experiment I people s classification behavior varies continuously not only with the properties of an object ie cupsbowls but also with the context in which the object is imagined or presented I if presented with cup with no food stimulus participants identified it more as cup vs if food context they identified it as a bowl more often Abstraction and Instances Q What is prototype O People store a single prototype of what an instance looks like for each category and judge other instances based on prototype O prototype has the most characteristic features O abstraction O characteristic features are shared by most but not every category member 0 According to the prototype view how do people make a category decision O People judge new instances against the prototype Q How does the instance view differ from the prototype View especially in making a category judgment O abstraction abstract general proposition of category from specific instances I schema O exemplar stores specific instances we infer general properties I Exemplar Theory is a proposal concerning the way humans categorize objects and ideas in psychology It argues that individuals make category judgments by comparing new stimuli with instances already stored in memory The instance stored in memory is the exemplar I exemplar shows that typicality of an object is not necessarily fixed but can be altered depending on context O no central concept only specific instances we can pair that specific bird to other specific birds and make judgement l Stores all specific instances 0 Smith Patalano amp J onides 1998 duck pic O Critical manipulation I 1 group of participants were told creature from mars venus or they had to guess O Results note that this is an imaging study I Abstractpre frontal cortex I occipitalcerebllum hippocampus instances How do primary school children make category judgment differently between biological and artifact categories O Kids believe that a feature in a member of a biological category has a feature then all instances have that feature humans have a spleen so a dog has a spleen Kids dont believe that features of one instance in an artificial category mean that all instances have that feature the cup is made of ceramic not all cups are made of ceramic O This is the opposite for actions quot cups are used for drinking all cups are used for drinkingquot but quota red apple is used for throwing not all green apples are used for throwingquot Q What neural evidence is available in representing artifacts and living things O Damage to temporal lobe leads to damage in knowledge of biological categories Frontoparietal lesions leads to issues with artifact categories Chapter 6 Study Guide Sensory Memory 0 SQerling 1960 0 Experimental procedure participants were shown arrays consisting of three rows of four letters after the display was turned off they were cued by a tone either immediately or after a delay to recall a particular one of the three rows his method was called the partial report procedure 0 Differences between Whole report and Partial report given the cue right after the visual display was turned off participants could attend to that row in their shortterm visual memory and report the letters in that row in contrast in teh wholereport procedure participants could not report more items because items had faded from this memory before participants could attend to them 0 Results and implications the results show that the number of items reported decreased as the delay in the cuing tone increased as the delay increased participants performance decayed back to what would be eXpected based on the typical results from the wholereport procedure where participants reported 4 or 5 items from three rows in the whole report procedure appears that the memory of the actual display decays very rapidly and is essentially gone by the end of l s all is left is what the participant has had time to attend to and convert to a more permanent form gt ltstudy indicate the eXistence of a brief visual sensory store sometimes called iconic memory a memory system that can effectively hold all the information in the visual display while information is being held in this store a participant can attend to it and report it but any of this info that is not attended to and processed further will be lost this sensory store appears to be particularly visual in character 0 Averbach amp Coriell 196 0 Experiment and Results I 16 letters presented encode as many as possible I predicted that there d be 75gt lt l6 12 accuracy I the duration is short and stimulus adutiroy phonemes acoustic code 7 0 Implications in terms of capacity Atkinson amp Shi Wn model 0 Explain how information is transmitted from Sensory to STM to LTM O this theory of shortterm memory postulated that as information is rehearsed in a limitedcapacity shortterm memory it is deposited in longterm memory but what turned otu to be important is how deeply the material is processed O the model asserts that human memory has three separate components 1 sensory register where sensory information enters memory 2 short term store also called working memory or short term memory which receives and holds input from both the sensory register and the longterm store 3 longterm store where information which has been rehearsed transfer from the shortterm store to the longterm store is occurring for as slong as teh information is being attended to in the shortterm store In this way varying amounts of attention result in varying amounts of time in shortterm memoryThe longer an item is held in shortterm memory the stronger its memory trace will be in longterm memory 0 How does forgetting occur in each different stage of memory 0 forgetting mechanism in sensory memory if you are not paying attention sensory info does not go to short term O forgetting mechanism in short term memoryamount of information can hold without reheearsing or applying other processes basically our decay of awarenesscurrently O forgetting mechanism in long term memory either by decay or interference can t really measure this so assumption is there is limitless capacity you don t lose info just interference makes it harder to retrieve ShortTerm Memory 0 What is the memory span of STM O The number of elements you can store and immediately repeat back 78 Q What does the Shepard amp Teghtsoonian study suggest regarding the retention of information in STM O results from this experiment demonstrated that information cannot be kept in shortterm memory indefinitely because new information will always be coming and pushing out old information Q As the lag amount of intervening numbers increases the reaction accuracy significantly drops down until lag is just under 10 then starts to plateau this drop shows the decreasing likelihood that an object is in the short term memory 0 0 Levels of Processing 0 The level of processing View Craik amp Lockhart suggests an alternative View on rehearsal Explain Q How does Glenberg et al study support the level of processing View 0 Depth of processing rehearsal only improves memory is done in a deep and meaningful way 0 What does Kapur et al study add to the level of processing View 0 participants remembered more words that required deep processing is it alive versus shallow does it contain a certain letter There was a greater activation in the left prefrontal regions Working Memory 0 Baddeleys WM model denies the necessity of STM Explain this alternative View O He hypothesized that there are two systems a visuospatial sketchpad and a phonological loop which he called slave systems for maintaining information Q proposed that we have a phonological loop and a visuospatial sketchpad both of which are controlled by a central executive which are systems for holding information and are part of working memory I systems compose part of what he calls working memory which is system for holding information that we need to perform a task ex try multiplying 35 by 23 in your head you may find self developing a visual image of part of a written multiplication problem visual sketchpadand you may find yourself rehearsing partial products phonological loop his theory of working memory portrays one where a central executive coordinates a set of slave systems 0 How does this model suggest that human memory maintains visual and verbal information Q the phonological loop consists of multiple components including n articulatory loop and a phonological store I the articulatory loop functions as an inner voice that rehearses verbal information as when we re told a phone number and we rehearse it over and over again while trying to dial it I the phonological store is an inner ear that hears the inner voice and stores the information in a phonological form 0 Components of working memory and proposed brain regions corresponding to these components 0 many brainimaging studies have found activation in Broca s area when participants are trying to remember a list of items like the digits making up a phone number and activation occurs even if the participants are not actually talking to themselves O the phonological store has been proposed to be associated with the parietal temporal region of the brain O a number of brainimaging studies have found activation of this region during the storage of verbal information 0 Explain wordlength effect in a WM task O one of the most compelling pieces of evidence for the existence of the articulatory loop 0 in an experiment where participants were asked to read and remember five 1 syllable words v 5 five syllable ones they were able to recall only an average of 26 words out of the 5 five syllable words O the crucial factor appeared to be how long it takes to say the word O Baddeley proposed that if we try to keep too many items in working memory by the time we get back to rehearse the first one it will have decayed to the point that it takes too long to retrive and rerehearse O GoldmanRakic experiment Q What is delayed matching task I a study of workingmemory task I monkey shown an item of food that is placed in one of two identical wells he wells are then covered and the monkey is prevented from looking at the scee for a delay period usually 10s Finally the monkey is given the opportunity to retrieve the food but it must remember in which well it was hidden Q How does a monkey subiect perform this task I When a monkey must remember were a food item has been placed a region called Brodmann area on the side of the frontal cortex is involved monkeys with lesions in this region of the frontal cortex cannot perform this task Q How do human infants perform this task I a human infant cannot perform similar tasks until its frontal cortex has matured usually around age one Q What does the result mean I different areas of the frontal and parietal cortex appear to be responsible for maintaining different types of information in working memory 0 Whv do people sav that WM is implicated in the prefrontal lobe delayed matching tasks Activation and LongTerm Memory 0 Activation equation of ACT theory Q What is base level activation Is the probability that a piece of information will be retrieved from long term memory base level activation of the potential response before priming some concepts are more common than others and so would have greater baselevel activation Q What is the associative strength strength of the association between any potential prime and any potential response the closeness of two items 0 Explain the Noah example in the textbook usingJ these concepts some concepts like Jesus and Mississippi are more common than others such as Noah and so we would have greater baselevel activation the baselevel activation for Jesus and Mississippi is assumed to be 3 and for Noah is assumed to be 1 we assume that the strength of association is 2 in the case of related pairs such as bible jesus and oodmississippi and O in the case of unrelated pairs such as BibleMississippi and oodjesus O Spreading activation Q How does Meyer amp Schvaneveldt study support the spreading activation I spreading activation refers tothe process by which currently attended items can make associated memories more available I in the Meyer study participants were asked to judge whether or not both items in a pair were words items were presented one above the other and if either item was not a word participants were to respond no judgment times for the negative paris suggest that participants first judged the top item and then the bottom item 0 when the top item was not a word participants were faster to reject thee pair than when only the bottom item wa not a word 0 results can be explained by a spreading activation analysis when the participant read the first word in the related pair activation would spread from it to the second word making that word easier to judge the implication of this result is that the associative spreading of information activation through memory can facilitate the rate at which words are read thus we can read material that has a strong associative coherence more rapidly than we can read incoherent material where the words seem unrelated Practice and Strength 0 Power law of learning O According to this view how does the effect of practice change over time I we achieve most of our learning in the beginning of practice period eventually even if we put in more effort into it learning rate decreases and levels regardless of how much you practice 0 You get logarithmically better at learning with time practiced steep learning curve with slowly decreasing slope Q What happens if you transfer a power function into logarithmic function I it portrays a more linear portrayal with a steeper slope O According to the power function of learning how does the strength of memory trace change over the duration of practice period I gradual increase in memory trace strength with practice Q How does the change of longterm potentiation support the power function W I LTP means once a pathway has been stimulated by a high voltage current it shows increased sensitivity to further stimulation So this shows these pathways become easier and easier to use Q How do Wagner et al and Brewer et al studies support the view that the prefrontal cortex is critical for learning and memory Though very similar these studies are different from each other What can we say from the differences between these studies I Wagner and Brewer s studies showed that the more brain resources that are recruite during a task the higher the chance you will remember I Brain activation in prefrontal corteX proved to be greater when people studied items tht they would later remember than for items they would later forget I The only difference between their studies was the stimulus used Wagner used verbal items and Brewer used pictures Factors In uencing Memory 0 Elaborative processing O Various studies showed importance of elaboration Describe effectiveness of self generated elaboration and experimenter generated elaboration What is critical in elaboration I Self generated is very effective shown in sentence elaboration then detail recall the doctor hated the lawyer quotbecause of the malpractice suitquot I Experimenter elaborations that are incorrect are detrimental to recall but accurate elaborations are the most effective I experimentergenerated elaboration can be as good as self generated elaboration I contextrelevant elaboration helps more meaningful and more selfreferential increases retention I In addition to meaningful factors extensive processing also matters in in uencing memory I semantic and elaborative processing are both beneficial in in uencing memory 0 Important experiments I Anderson amp Bower I Stein amp Bransford 0 presented two groups with sentence 0 control group come up with reason fro sentence ex doctor hated lawyerbecause of lawsuit 0 other group did not have any instruction 0 results showed that the group that had the manipulation of effort used by making associations with what they knew had better memory of original sentence I Kolers 0 showed participants upside down sentences and upright sentences 0 upsidedown sentences were better remembered than normal because of more processing 0 this showed that extracting semantics from things was not the only thing that in uenced emory but also extensive processing 0 Slamecka amp Graf 11978 O Design Results and Implication I semantic elaboration and perceptual elaboration I showed participants words in two conditions 1 determine synonym for word beginning with certain letter and 2 determine a word that rhymes with stimulus with a given letter f O Synonym SEA 0 O Rhyme SAVE C I semantic and elaborative processing are both beneficial but semantic proved to be a be a little better in in uencing memory 0 Incidental Learning O Hyde amp Jenkins 1 1973 2 Design Results and Implication I 2 groups participants asked to perform an orienting task while studying a list of words 0 group 1 orienting task was to rate the pleasantness of the word like word happy is pleasant vs darkgt have to access meaning so increases memory strength 0 group 2 check letter condition say yes if there is a letter p etc 0 half knew about memory test and other half did not I it is reasonable to assume the pleasantness rating involved more meaningful and deeper processing than the letter verification task received pleasantness rating task I incidental vs intentional learning does not necessarily increase strength of memory I deeper processing better memory performance in this case the group that had to rate pleasantness performed better on memory whether learning was intentional or incidental I it does not seem to matter whether peple intend to learn the mateiral what is important is how they process itgt ltgt lt Q Flashbulb Memory Q What are the proposed characteristics of ashbulb memory I events so important that they seem to burn themselves into memory forever I vivid detailed memory of a specific event over a long period of time I emotionally charged highly surprising personal significance Q What did McCloskey et al find out about ashbulb memory I determine what participants remembered about a traumatic event immediately after it occurred and what they remembered later I they did a study involving the 1986 space shuttle challenger explosion interviewed participants 1 week after the incident and then again 9 months later found that although participants reported vivid memories 9 months later after the event their reports were often inaccurate 0 ex participants first quoted had actually learned about the challenger explosion in class a day after it happened and then watched it on television I FOUND These memories while felt to be accurate become inaccurate Q What is Palmer et al s view on the ashbulb memory I People who experienced it first hand had far superior long term memory Flashbulb only matter if it was consequential to the observer I compared participants who had actually experienced the earthquake first hand with those who had only watched it on tv those who had experienced it in person showed much superior longterm memory of the event I argued that McCloskey failed to find a memory advantage in the challenger study because their participants did not have true ashbulb memories I contended that ashbulb memories are produced only if the event was consequential to the individual remembering it Hence only people who actually experienced the San Francisco earthquake and not those who saw it on TV had ashbulb memories of the event Q How does the biological importance view explain the ashbulb memory I study of brain responses while they were recalling events evidence that amygdala activity enhances retention in state of arousal the amygdala releases hormones that in uence the processing in the hippocampus that is critical in forming memories I Rich encoding hypothesis I Heightened arousal helps memory Increases prefrontal and hippocampus Q How does the rehearsal view explain the ashbulb memory I the reason why people close to a traumatic event sometimes show better memory may be because it continues t9 be replayed in the media and rehearsed in conversation I relationship between how much people remembered and how often they talked about specific events suggest that to the extent there is improved memory for ash events it may be produced by rehearsal of the events in the media and in conversation I Rehearsal hypothesis 0 We retell overtly or covertly those events that are significant 0 may not be more accurate than any other not so interesting events that are successfully recalled I selfreference effect 0 elaboration related to oneself is easier and can be more meaningful class addons generally speaking memory has stronger memory trace old memories longer time to decay or to get interfered with newer information ashbulb memories survive longer retention periods because they are unique and encounter less interference by any other events unique nature nothing to associate with in lonterm memoryhard to encode in memory requires more effort to make association Encoding ashbulb memory biological importance during encoding if we recruit emotional resources it increases encoding which leads to better memory rehearsal hypothesis the more practice the more likely you can retrieve it later selfreference effect has to be something important to you or crucial in general
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