Exam 2 Master Back Exams with Answers by students
Exam 2 Master Back Exams with Answers by students Bio201
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Bio201 at a university taught by Dr. O'Connor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 82 views.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
Muscles Comparisons or General Questions Which of the following is not an important functional difference between smooth and skeletal muscles a actin and myosin are arranged differently skeletal muscle gt linear sarcomere based structure smooth muscle gt network based oth muscle has d Kinases and phosphatases are the major mechanism of controlling myosin ATPase activity in more avenues to get Ca smooth but not in skeletal muscle in Excitationcontraction coupling in smooth muscle differs from that in skeletal muscle in that a CytosolicCa is elevated in smooth muscle b The activation signal reaches myosin rather than actin in smooth muscle c Calmodulin is important in skeletal muscle e B and D are correct Compared to smooth muscle skeletal muscle a is slower to contract in response to a stimulus c sustains contractions longer without fatigue d A and C e A B and C Which one of the following proteins is important for skeletal muscle contraction but not for smooth muscle contraction a Actin b Myosin c Ca ATPase d Myosinadenosine triphosphatase ATPase Which of the following is NOT involved in bringing about muscle relaxation a reuptake of Ca by the sarcoplasmic reticulum b removal of ACh at the endplate by acetylcholinesterase d tropomyosin interference with myosin activity Skeletal muscle is similar to smooth muscle in that both types a show sarcomeric organization of thick and thin laments b contract in response to hormonal stimulation d have troponinlinked regulation of crossbridge cycling e relax in response to ACh Which of the following temporal sequences is correct for excitationcontraction coupling in skeletal muscle a Increased intracellular Ca action potential in the muscle membrane crossbridge formation c Action potential in the muscle membrane splitting of adenosine triphosphate ATP binding of Ca to troponin C d Release of Ca from the SRdepolarization of the Ttubules binding of Ca to troponin C One of the major differences among skeletal muscle ber types is in their resistance to fatigue The bers with the most endurance rely on for energy a lactic acid accumulation b ketone body degradation c anaerobic glycolysis Which of the following is NOT involved in bringing about skeletal muscle relaxation a reuptake of Ca by the sarcoplasmic reticulum b tropomyosin interference with myosin activity c closure of ryanodine receptor Ca channels Smooth Muscle e troponin conformational shifts Within a single skeletal muscle ber the tension developed during a twitch can vary because b the motor neuron releases differing amounts of neurotransmitter into the synapse c Calcium induced calcium release can vary with the strength of the stimulus d stimuli vary in intensity e all of the above Suppose that you measure the velocity of contraction of a particular muscle as it lifts a certain mass Adding additional mass would the velocity of contraction a increase c not affect Which of the following is involved in the gradation of muscle contraction a variation in the number of motor units activated b variation in the frequency of action potentials initiated in each muscle ber c variation in the size of the action potentials initiated in each muscle ber 39 Both A and B above e All of these answers Within a single ber the tension developed during a twitch can vary because b the motor neuron releases differing amounts of neurotransmitter into the synapse c stimuli vary in intensity and duration d stimuli vary in intensity e all of the above Smooth Muscle Physiology Ca is important in the contraction of smooth muscle Which of the following is not true about smooth muscle contraction a Ca binds to calmodulin b Ca enters the cytosol from the sarcoplasmic reticulum d MLCK myosin light chain kinase forms a complex to activate myosin e When MLCK activates myosin ATPase activity is high and crossbridge formation is active Ca is important in the contraction of smooth muscle Which of the following is not true about smooth muscle contraction a Ca binds to calmodulin b Ca enters the cytosol from the sarcoplasmic reticulum c MLCK myosin light chain kinase forms a compleX to activate myosin e When MLCK activates myosin ATPase activity is high and crossbridge formation is active The regulation of smooth muscle contraction is mediated by the phosphorylation of in response to calcium binding to b actin calmodulin c troponin calmodulin d myosin troponin e actin troponin Which of the following pairings is correct for smooth muscle a multiunit smooth muscle gut smooth muscle b decreased contraction in response to NE vascular smooth muscle c phosphorylation of myosin increased cAMP levels in smooth muscle e dense bodies organize the array of thick filaments Should be thin laments Cardiovascular Physiology A particular drug acts on the pacemaker cells of the SA node to increase heart rate Which of the following is a possible mechanism of action of this drug a binds to Ltype Ca channels and inhibits their opening b binds to and activates cholinergic muscarinic M2 receptors d binds to and activates phosphodiesterase e binds to Na pacemaker channels and inhibits their opening Which statements best describes the regulation of contraction strength of myocardial cells a The higher the intracellular concentration of Ca the stronger the force of contraction will be b Catecholamines make voltagegated Ca channels more likely to open thus allowing higher concentrations of Ca inside the cell If a drug increases cAMP in SA nodal cells the most likely response is a elevated systolic arterial pressure b decreased systolic arterial pressure d decreased heart rate e norepinephrine release Myocardial contractility is best correlated with the intracellular concentration of a Na b K d Cl e Mg The physiologic function of the relatively slow conduction through the atrioventricular AV node is to allow suf cient time for a runoff of blood from the aorta to the arteries b venous return to the atria d contraction of the ventricles e repolarization of the ventricles Phase 4 voltage in ventricular cells is stabilized by a funny channels b Ltype Ca Channels Ltype Ca channels are trying to keep it up inwardly 1 fast Na channels rectifying K are trying to e acetylcholine counteract Increasing the preload of cardiac muscle a reduces the ventricular end diastolic pressure VEDP b reduces the peak tension of the muscle 0 decreases the initial velocity of shortening 1 decreases the time it takes the muscle to reach peak tension Ventricular end diastolic volume EDV is determined directly by the a cardiac output c venous pressure 1 diastolic blood pressure only The importance of the plateau phase of the action potential of myocardial cells is in a preventing overstretching of the cells b enhancing the efficiency of oxygen use by the cells c preventing brillation e regulating Ca availability to the cells In cardiac muscle tissue a Ca release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum initiates contraction b Ca enters the cell from the extracellular uid directly initiating contraction c Ca enters the cell from the extracellular uid which causes more Ca to be released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum CICR You can increase cardiac output by all of the following EXCEPT a increasing venous return b increasing heart rate d increasing stroke volume If the HR is 72 bpm and the SV is 72 mL the cardiac output would be approximately equal to b 144 mLminute c neither of these choices are correct The steep repolarization to rest potential phase of the action potentials of myocardial contractile cells occurs when conductance to which ions decrease quotSteep repolarization to the rest bK potentialquotif Ca can39t depolarize it CNa any more than what it did then resting CDA and B can be restored Na only causes the eA and C initial repolarization Important effects of events during the plateau phase of the action potential of myocardial cells include a initiating calciuminduced calcium release b enhancing the efficiency of oxygen use by the cells c preventing tetany e all of the above Factors affecting the strength of contraction contractile work in ventricular cells the following except aamount of Ca released by the sarcoplasmic reticulum b preload LVEDP c Myosin light chain kinase activity stimulated by calmodulin d opening of precapillary sphincters in the papillary muscles The force of contraction of the cardiac muscle is affected 1 a the length of the muscle ber at the beginning of contrar b the contractility of the heart c the end diastolic volume d the amount of blood entering the heart e all of these The pulmonary veins b carry relatively deoxygenated blood c BOTH a and b d NEITHER a nor b ons block the calcium channels in the cardiac muscle membrane How would the presence of manganese in the ECF affect the contraction of the heart muscle a the plateau phase of contraction would be longer Would be shorter since Ca in ux lengthens plateau phase b the refractory period would be shorter Definition of Contractility force of beats d the heart rate would increase e the contraction phase would be prolonged Parasympathetic activation slows heart rate by release of the neurotransmitter which then stimulates the opening of a channel The resulting ionic current slows the rise of the potential a NE Na Resting Membrane b NE K Action c NE Na Pacemaker d ACh Na Action selectively blocks If channels in the heart Which statement would be true concerning a patient who is taking this drug b This patient must have been suffering from bradycardia c This drug would decrease the contractility of the patient s heart d This drug would raise the blood pressure of the patient e The amount of calcium entering the patient s heart cells would increase The fibrous skeleton of the heart is important because it b transmits electrical activity from the atria to the ventricles c helps guide the blood into the proper chambers in sequence d directs the ow of blood into the arteries The ventricles are completely depolarized during which isoelectric portion of the electrocardiogram ECG a PR interval b QRS complex c QT interval e T wave The ventricles repolarize during which portion of the electrocardiogram ECG a PR interval b QRS complex c QT interval d ST segment Atrial contraction starts during the bQRS complex of an EKG c Twave of an EKG d None of the above Ventricular contraction is most closely correlated with the aP wave of an EKG c Twave of an EKG d None of the above The bulk of ventricular lling is most closely associated with the a P wave and PR interval b QRS complex c BOTH a and b Filling of the atria with blood a occurs during the P wave of an EKG c BOTH a and b d NEITHER a nor b Scenarios Short Scenarios Joe Average has just been frightened by a very loud noise as he was taking a very difficult physiology exam In response his adrenal glands have released a large amount of adrenaline into his circulation As the adrenaline reaches the heart which of the following effects would you expect to see in cardiac cells b hyperpolarization of pacemaker cells due to increased conductance of G protein activated KJr channels c lower peak sarcoplasmic Ca concentrations due to lower ryanodine receptor opening d A and B e A and C Among the organ level responses expected as the adrenaline has its effect are a decreased heart rate c increased stroke work at a given LVEDP preload d B and C e none of the above Joe inches at the sound jabs his pen into his thumb drawing blood Joe hates blood and his parasympathetic nervous system responds by dumping a signi cant load of acetylcholine in the heart As the acetylcholine affects the heart which of the following effects would you eXpect to see in cardiac cells a increased phase 4 depolarization due to increased funny channel conductance c lower peak sarcoplasmic Ca concentrations due to lower ryanodine receptor opening d A and B e A and C Among the organ level responses eXpected as the acetylcholine has its effect are b increased heart rate with shorter systolic periods c increased stroke work at a given LVEDP preload d B and C e none of the above Long Scenarios Out of this World Scenario Mary has a bacterial infection of the lung pneumonia which is causing some respiratory problems but the immediate concern is that her blood pressure is dangerously low despite the fact that her heart is beating rapidly and strongly Assuming that she had become dehydrated you gave her IV uids without any benefit Confused you measure her central venous blood pressure pressure in the large veins and found it normal to slightly low More uids don t help either Using a special catheter you measure her cardiac output and find it to be quite high 12Lmin instead of the eXpected 5Lmin ACh Increases Bill is having a vasovagal episode which results in acetylcholine being released onto the atria from fibers running in the vagus nerve EdAndy in Sp14 just fell and cut his forehead The cut isn t that bad but like many head wounds it bleeds fairly freely and gaudily although not enough to affect cardiovascular function Unfortunately Ed is one of those folks who gets weak at the sight of blood particularly his own He suffers a diffuse release of acetylcholine from the parasympathetic nervous system He s been spared any respiratory effects and is generally fairly healthy 5 NE Increases Carrie is one of those people who can t eat certain chocolate based sweets because in her body some of the compounds are modi ed into norepinephrine analogues chemicals that act like norepinephrine Unfortunately she fell off the wagon and just ate some of those candies and the norepinephrine analogues are now reaching her blood stream Angela is one of a minority of people in whom some chocolate based sweets are largely metabolized to norepinephrine analogues chemicals that act like norepinephrine She unwittingly just ate several of those confections She is otherwise healthy Tom has taken a dose of cocaine One of the actions of cocaine is to block the reuptake of norepinephrine and related catecholamines into the synaptic bulbs that released them Re uptake is the normal mode of limiting the effect of norepinephrine at synapses Thus the effect of any norepinephrine released is magnified Frodo has been taking a new diet pill that acts in two ways First it mimics norepinephrine at most sympathetic postganglionic synapses second it prevents the reuptake of norepinephrine at the same synapses by competitively inhibiting thereuptake system Reuptake is the normal mode of limiting the effect of nor epinephrine at synapses Thus the effect of any norepinephrine released is magnified Vt Decreases Mort has had a viral gut infection leading to substantial diarrhea and because he hasn t felt like eating or drinking dehydration In toto his total body uids are about 4 L below their usual levels of which 15 L come from the extracellular uid 450 ml from the blood Such diarrhea can sometimes be associated with significant changes in the concentrations of ions in body uids like Na K Ca HCO3 but that does not seem to be the case with Mort Gimli has been working hard in a desert environment but has neglected to drink any water to replace the 2L of uid lost via sweat and respiratory losses think 600 ml lost from the blood volume He had to stop working because he felt weak but still feels poorly after a few minutes of rest Mary fell experiencing a deep cut that lead to the loss of around 500 ml of blood The bleeding has been stopped but no uids have been given to replace the lost blood BillSp14 is in the process of developing Acute Tubular Necrosis ATN a malfunction of the kidneys in this case due to a viral infection ATN can have several effects but most of them have not yet developed What is a problem for now is that due to his disease his kidneys have been producing a large amount of urine Some of that volume has been drawn from the cardiovascular system and his vascular volume is down by about 700 ml Before the viral infection Bill was healthy Curiously enough the viral infection itself is largely resolved Histamine Released into Bloodstream Hank has just been stung by a bee to which he is highly allergic Huge amounts of histamine are being released from a series of mast cells Histamine causes among other things the relaxation of smooth muscles in the
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