BB Exam 2 study Guide
BB Exam 2 study Guide Nsci3300
Popular in Brian and behavior
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 26 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caoimhe Notetaker on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Nsci3300 at Tulane University taught by Paul Colombo in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Brian and behavior in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
Reviews for BB Exam 2 study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/29/15
Study guide exam 2 10292015 CHAPTER FIVE Manipulating the body may affect behavior Somatic interventions behavior affect o Administer a hormone strength of mating behavior 0 Stimulate brain region electricallyl movement to goal object 0 Cut connections between parts of nervous systeml recognition of stimulus Or manipulating behavior may affect the body Behavioral interventions somatic effect 0 Put male in presence of femalel change in hormone level 0 Present a visual stimulusl changes in electrical activity of the brain 0 Give training anatomical changes in nerve cells Correlations between body and behavioral measures 0 Brain size ll learning scores Hormone leves strength of mating behavior Enlarged cerebral ventricles schizophrenic symptoms Methods of visualizing the Brain 0 Contrast xrays o Inject something that absorbs x ray less than surrounding Ussues 0 Shows different densities in brain BUT there isn t much variation O 0 Good for contrast bad for resolution Cerebral angiography uses infusion of radioopaque dye into a cerebral artery to visualize the cerebral circulatory system 0 Xray computed tomography CT scan 0 O O O Computerassisted Xray procedure Provide 3D representation of the brain Cheaper Revolutionized study of brain Xray tube and detector rotate around head at each level of brain horizontal sections computer combines each individual x ray to create CT 0 Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI 0 O 0 High resolution images Constructed from measurement of waves emitted by hydrogen atoms that have been activated within a magnetic eld Replaced CT higher resolution High spatial resolution Produces 3D images Static picture 0 Function MRI fMRI O O O O 0 Provides images of brain structure and activity Like the MRI uses strong magnetic eld Structure is imaged using waves emitted by hydrogen IONS lmaged using signal created by interaction between oxygen and iron in the blood BOLD signal Pictures are created using subtraction technique Take many images over and over and bin them Have a control and manipulated condition subtract all control activity from manipulated to determine the reaction to manipulation 0 Poor temporal resolution 0 Advantages over PET scan 0 Nothing needs to be injected Provide structural AND functional imaging Better spatial resolution Provide 3D activity over entire brain NOT a picture of neural activity 0 Positron Emission Tomography PET scan 0 0 00000 0 Provides images of brain ACTIVITY Scan is an image of levels of radioactivity in various parts of one horizontal level of the brain A radiolabeled substance is administered prior to scan First method to measure FUNCTION Subtraction technique Extremely expensive Need a physicist on hand Not very resolute o Diffusion Function MRI DfMRI o A form of diffusion tensor imagining DTI Identi es pathways along which water molecules rapidly diffuse Provide image of major tracts 0 Measures Fractional anisotropy 0 Functional imagery of the ber systems of the brain 0 Talking about relationships BETWEEN active regions of the brain New phenomena 0 Transcranial Magnetic stimulation 0 Noninvasive method used to stimulated small regions of the brain 0 Until now all behavioral interventions looking at somatic reaction 0 Transcranial magnetic stimulation SOMATIC intervention 0 Magnetic stimulator is place on region of cortex and either inhibits or enhances neural activity in that region 0 You can then use other methods to look at the effects of neural activity 0 Helps determine causation Recording Human psychophysiological activity 0 Electrophysiological measurement of brain activity 0 Scalp electroencephalography EEG Measure of gross electrical activity of the brain Uses electrodes attached to the scalp Eventrelated potential ERPs a Measure activity accompanying psychological events 0 Positive or negative and occur at different times Exquisite TEMPORAL resolution great for timing can measure changes in milliseconds Bad for spatial resolution a Can tell you that something happened but can t tell you where it happened Electrodes measure activity place on scalp electroencephalogh Lots of neurons need to re for EEG to give a signal Very sensitive but to get a signal that isn t just noise many neurons need to work synchronically average signals to decrease noise EEG measure wavelength of all the different neurons summed together Neuropsychological Test battery Assists in diagnosing neural disorders Serves as a basis for therapeutic intervention customized test battery 0 Intelligence Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale WAIS and IQ test 0 Memory Digit span subtest 0 Language Problems of phonology syntax or semantics 0 Language ateraization Used to identify language dominant hemisphere Sodium amytal used to anesthetize one hemisphere Dichotic listening ear contralateral to dominant hemisphere shows superior hearing ability o Frontal lobe Wisconsin card sort Stereotaxic surgery 0 Experimental device positioned in depth of brain 0 Stereotaxic atlas located brain structure frontal slice 0 Records from a speci c region of the brain NOT EEG Records in a variety of ways 0 Usually intracellular unit recording moment by moment record of graded uctuations in a neurons membranes potential 0 Extracellular unit recording Provides record of a ring of a neuron but no info about membrane potential 0 Multi unit recording Picks up signal from many neurons Invasive EEG recording n In lab animals large implanted electrodes Tracers o Fluorogold retrograde tracer when injected into an area of the brain it is absorbs back to cell body taken up by terminal buttons 0 Biocytin anterograde tracer taken up by the cell body and transported down to the terminals 0 HRP retrograde tracer shows whole projection o Myelin stain selectively stains myelin Doesn t show direction of connections but shows what is connected to what Pharmacological Research Methods 0 Administering drug through canula that has been stereotaxically implanted in brain allows drugs to pass blood brain barrier 0 Increase chemical activity n the brain 2 deoxyglucose technique Cerebral dialysis o lmmunochemistry Locate particular neuroproteins in brain by labeling their antibodies and then exposing slices of brain to the antibodies 0 lnsitu hybridization Obtain RNA label them and expose brain slices to RNA a Measure RNA and indirectly measure gene expression Genetic Engineering 0 Gene knockout techniques Create organisms that lack gene under investigation Clarify neural mechanisms for behavior a Win shift test to nd food must go down different paths after eating food of the path you are in requires hippocampus a Win stay only go down path with light proved there was food their continue to nd food there requires basal ganglia 0 Gene replacement techniques Replace one gene with another Transgenic mice 0 Viral Vectors virus is still alive but remove viral part and inject the material you want to study 0 Chapter 6 the visual System 0 Vision is the light re ected into your eyes from the objects around you Can be thought of as photons discrete particles of energy or waves Evolved to see only limited range of wavelengths Why two eyes 0 Two sides of body 0 Both in front so we can see and perceive 3 dimension from 2 dimension 0 Binocular disparity different in position of some images on the two retinas greater for close objects Eyes move continuously to enable us to see during xation o Keeps image moving on retina otherwise image would fade Wavelength o Involved in perception of color Intensity o Involved in perception of brightness lrises o Regulate amount of light reaching the retinas 0 Give eye color Light enters through pupil hole in the iris o Adjustment in pupil size in response to change in illumination compromise between sensistivity and acuity Pupil constricted high illuminations sharper more focused image Pupil dilated let more light in sacri ce acuity Behind pupil is the lens focuses image 0 Accommodation process of adjusting con guration of lens to focus image 0 After passing through pupil and lens light image reaches the retina o Retina converts light to neural signals 0 Conducts signals toward CNS and participates in processing of the signals 0 Composed of 5 layers Communicate chemically via synapses Communicate electrically via gap junctions Light reaches receptor layer after passing through other 4 Once receptors are activated neural message is transmitted back out through retinal layer to ganglion Two problems of inside out arrangement Incoming light distorted Blind spot exists 0 Fovea works to decrease problem 1 Specialized for high acuity Decreases distortion of incoming light Highest concentration of cones 0 Completion targets problem 2 Filling in visual systems lls in gap of blind spot Completion used commonly in visual system surface interpolation n Extract key info edges and infer rest Duplexity theory of vision 0 Cones and rods mediate different kinds of vision Cones n Photopic day time a High acuity color information in good lighting a Only a few cones converge to receive info from a few cones n Scotopic nighttime a High sensitivity allowing for lowacuity vision in dim light but lack detail and color information a Output of several rods converge on a single ganglion cell There is more convergence in the rod system a Increasing sensitive while decreasing acuity Only cones are found at the fovea Spectral sensitivity 0 Lights of same intensity but different wavelengths may not look equally bright 0 Spectral sensitivity curve shows relationship between wavelength and brightness Different for photopic cone vision and scotopic rod vision Test photopic at retina Test scotopic at peripherals n Purkinje effect interesting visual effect during transition between sensitivities comparative brightness changes 0 Visual transduction 0 Convergence of light to neural signals Rhodopsin n Pigment found in rods Absorptions of light 1St step in rod mediated vision a Gprotein coupled receptor that responds to light a In dark 0 Open sodium channels keeping rods depolarized glutamate Light Bleaches receptors closing channels hyper polarizes rods decreases glutamate release 0 For most neurons at rest sodium channels at closed and when excited they open However when in the dark in this system the sodium channels are open at rest releasing exhibitory glutamate when light hits lt inhibits Retina Geniculate Striate pathways 0 Conduct signals from each retina to the primary visual cortex striate via lateral geniculate nuclei of the thalamus Visual information o Signals from left visual eld reach the right primary visual cortex either ipsilaterally from temporal hemiretina of right eye or contralateraly from nasal hemiretina of left eye lF l minp magi Er ili I f l r 39ll 0 When info enters layer of lateral geniculate stays segregated so visual system knows where info came from o The retinageniculate striate systems is retinotopic each level of the system is organized like a map of the retina 0 At least 2 parallel channels of communication ow through each lateral geniculate nucleus 0 Parvocellular layers top 4 cones Responsive to colors details slow still objects Small cell bodies Input primarily from cones photopic system 0 Magnocellular layers bottom 2 rods Responsive to movement Big cell bodies Input primarily from rods scotopic system Property photopic p scotopic m Receptors cones rods Number per eye 6 mil 120 mil Pigment 3 opsins rhodopsin Sensitivity low 11 conversion high lots of cells Acuity high low bc lots of cell don t know origination Size small large 0 Contrast enhancement highlights edges 0 Receptive eld of visual neurons area of visual eld within which it is possible for a visual stimulus to in uence the ring of the neuron 0 Record the responses of neurons to various simple stimuli with in receptive eld in order to characterize the types of stimuli that most in uences activity 0 Center surround Onoff cells simpe cells 0 On center cells respond to light shone in the central region of receptive eld with quotonquot ring and light shone in peripherals with quotoffquot Direct connection exhibitory GLUTAMATE horizontal inhibitory GABA 0 Off center opposite reaction 0 Both respond best to contrast Increase contrast increase in uence of ring rate 0 Taking and overlapping center surround cells give you line orientation When you change the receptive orientation you also change line orientation Hubel and Wiesel Found 0 At each level the receptive elds in foveal area less than peripheral area Consistent with the fact that fovea mediates high acuity vision All neurons had circular receptive elds All neurons were monocular 0 Many neurons at each level had receptive elds that comprised an excitatory area AND an inhibitory area separated by a circular boundary Functional vertical columns right angles to cortical layer 0 Location is in uenced by location on retina of columns visual eld 0 Preferences of neurons increase complexity from retinal thalamus lower level lV simple cortical ces complex cells because neurons with simple preferences converged on neurons with more complex preferences 0 Seeing color 0 Component trichromatic theory Thomas young 1802 3 cones with different spectral sensitivity 0 Opponent process theory Ewald Hering 1878 2 classes of cells for color and brightness Hyperpolarized hypopolarized Red or green Blue or yellow Complementary colors ie redgreen produce white gray when combined equally 0 Neither theory can account for color constancy The tendency of an object to stay the same color despite major changes in wavelengths of light that it re ects OO O o Retinex theory of color vision the color of an object is determined by re ection 0 Primary visual cortex located in posterior region of occipital lobe Damage produces scotoma area of blindness Dorsal and ventral o Dorsal Stream ows from primary visual cortex to dorsal prestriate cortex to posterior panetal cortex Respond to spatial stimuli where Specializes in visually guided behavior 0 Ventral stream ows from primary visual cortex to ventral prestriate cortex to inferotemporal cortex Respond to characteristics of an object what 0 Damage can lead to Prosopagnosia visual agnosia for faces a Recognition de cit are not restricted to faces Akinetopsia de ciency in ability to see movement progress in a normal smooth fashion associated with MT area Chapter 7 mechanisms of perception Primary sensory cortex area of sensory cortex that receives most of its input directly from thalamic relay system 0 Secondary sensory cortex the area of the cortex that receives most input from primary sensory cortex or other areas of secondary cortex at the same time 0 Association cortex area that receives input from more than 1 sensory system Interactions among 3 types are characterized by 0 Hierarchical organization Receptorsprimary sensory cortex secondary sensory cortex association cortex As one moves through a sensory system receptorassociation cortex one nds neurons that respond optimally to stimuli of greater and greater speci city and complexity The higher level of damage the more speci c and complex the de cit o Perception Sensation detecting presence of stimuli Perception higher order process of integrating recognizing and interpreting 0 Functional segregation Each of the three levels of cerebral cortex in each sensory system contain functionally distinct areas that specialize in different kinds of analysis 0 Parallel processing lnfo ows through components over multiple pathways simultaneous analysis of a signal in a different way by multiple parallel pathways of a neural network Two fundamentally different kinds of parallel streams of analysis a In uences our behavior without conscious awareness n In uences our behavior by engaging our conscious awareness Perception product of combined activity of different interconnected cortical areas Auditory system 0 Sounds vibrations of air molecules that stimulate the auditory system 0 Fourier analysis mathematical procedure for breaking down complex waves into their component sine waves 0 The pitch of sounds is related to their fundamental frequency Fundamental frequency the highest frequency of which the various component frequencies are multiples The ear 0 Sounds waves travel from the outer ear down the auditory canal and cause the tympanic membrane the ear drum to vibrate o The vibrations are then transferred to the ossicles small bones of middle ear Malleus the hammer lncus the anvil Stapes the stirrup o Vibrations of stapes trigger vibration of oval windows Which in turn transfers the vibration to the uid of cochlea 0 Each pressure changes at oval window travels along the Oregon of corti as a wave 0 Sensitivity of cochlea allows humans to hear even slight differences in tones o Signals from each ear are combined at a very low level and are transmitted to both ipsilaterally and contralateral auditory cortex 0 Sound localization Mediated by lateral and medial superior olives When sound originates to a persons left it reaches left ear rst and is louder in left ear n Medial responds to slight different in time of arrival of the signal a Lateral responds to slight difference in amplitude Auditory cortex 0 Primary auditory cortex is organized in functional columns Within a column neurons respond optimally to sounds in same frequency range 0 Each area of primary and secondary auditory cortex appears to be organized on the basis of frequency 0 Most research on sensory system interaction focuses on interaction between auditory and visual in posterior parietal cortex Auditory dysfunction 0 Severe hearing problems typically result from damage to the inner ear middle ear or the nerves leading from them 2 main types of deafness n Conductive deafness damage to ossicles n Nerve deafness damage to cochlea or auditory nerves 0 Mostly caused by loss of hair cell receptors a Hearing loss sometimes associated with tinnitus ringing in the ear Often results when only one ear is damaged a Changes to the central auditory system caused by deafness cause tinnitus Somatosensory touch pain 0 3 separate but interacting systems Exteroceptive system mechanoreceptors n Senses external stimuli applied to the skin Perceiving mechanical stimuli touch 0 Thermal stimuli temperature Nociceptors stimuli pain a Main focus of this section Receptors in skin cutaneous receptors In Simplest free nerve endings not special structures Particularly sensitive to temperature changes and pain a Largest pacinian corpuscles Adapt rapidly ad therefore respond to sudden displacements of skin but not constant pressure Two major somatosensory pathways 0 The dorsal column medial leminsus TENDS TO carry info about touch and proprioception Sensory neurons enter spinal cord via dorsal root ascend ipsilaterally to dorsal columns and synapse in dorsal column nuclei of medulla axon then cross over to other side of brain and ascend in the medial leminicus to the contralateral ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus o The anterolateral system TENDS TO carry info about pain and temperature Most dorsal root neurons synapse as soon as they enter spinal cord Axons of most second order neurons decussate but then ascend to the brain in the contralateral anterolateral portions of the spinal cord 0 Somatosensation ascending information to the brain where decisions are made and send information back down Re exes adaptive don t need to get all the way up to the brain I Send info to dorsal root ganglion dorsal horn of spinal cord activates motor neuron which exists through ventral horn and causes response Cortical areas of somatosensation 0 Human primary somatosensory cortex is somatotopic Organized according to a map of the body surface 0 Each neuron in a particular column of primary somatosensory cortex has a receptive eld on the same part of the body and respond most robustly to the same type of stimuli Effects of damage to primary somatosensory cortex are often remarkably mild because features numerous parallel pathways 0 Vast majority of what you do occurs without your awareness Selective attention 0 Consciously perceive small subset of many stimuli Improves perception of stimuli in focus lnterferes with perception of stimuli not in focus 0 Attention is focused by Internal cognitive process endogenous Top down a Ex looking at a table because you are looking for keys n External events exogenous Bottom up n Ex looking at table because your cat knocked over a lamp Somatosensory agnosia o Asterognosia inability to recognize objects by touch 0 Asomatognosia failure to recognize part of ones own body 0 Chemical senses o Smell and taste Respond to molecules that interact physically with them No transduction other than the fact that the chemical messages themselves activate receptors Receptors respond to chemicals in the air Receptors hang out of your skull but are way up in the sinuses Our olfactory bulb is tiny in comparison to other animals and yet we can still distinguish between thousands of different odors Evolutionarily very old Chapter 8 the sensorimotor system 0 New theory 0 Drive is internal less violation more innate need 0 Frontal lobes initiate process of decisionmaking Each cortex is engaged 0 Then descending information from spinal cord to motor neurons than sensory receptors send signals back about grasp basal ganglia judges grasp and cerebellum makes adjustments if needed 0 3 principles of sensorimotor control 0 Sensorimotor system is hierarchically organized Association cortex like company president specifies general goal rather than speci c plans of action Main advantage to hierarchical organization is higher levels are left free to perform more complex functions Signal ows between levels on multiple paths Functional segregation each level composed of different units perform different functions information mainly ows down 0 Motor output is guided by sensory input Monitor effects of activity in order to ne tune processes Sensory feedback 0 Learning can change the nature locus of sensorimotor control During initial stage of sensorimotor learning each individual response is performed under conscious control Then after much practice individual processes are conducted without much conscious control by organizing individual response into continuous motor programs and transferring control to lower levels of neurons systems 0 Association Cortex 0 Top of hierarchy 2 major areas a Posterior parietal association cortex n Dorsolateral prefrontal association cortex Posterior parietal n Position of body and external objects a Plays role in directing behavior by providing spatial information and directing attention a Receives info from 3 sensory systems visual auditory and somatosensory which help to localize body and external objects in space a Most output goes to areas of motor cortex located in frontal cortex Dorsolateral prefrontal association cortex 0 Secondary motor cortex Frontal eye eld controls eye movement a Contains many small areas each specialized for guiding particular movements of eyes head arms or hand a Consequences of damage Apraxia disorder of voluntary movement 0 Cant perform tasks WHEN REQUESTED Contralateral neglect disturbance of ability to respond to stimuli on the side of the body opposite contralateral to the side of the brain lesion 0 Often behave as if left side of world does not exist and fail to realize they have a problem 0 Often associated with large lesions of right posterior parietal lobe o De cit in responding to stimuli left of body egocentric left 0 Evidence that object to left are still unconsciously perceived Dorsolateral prefrontal association cortex n Receives projections from posterior parietal cortex I Send projections to secondary motor cortex primary motor frontal eye eld a Initiates voluntary movement with a plan for success Descending motor pathways 0 4 pathways descend 2 in dorsolateral region of spinal cord 2 in ventromedial region of spinal cord 0 Signals conducted over these pathways act together in control of voluntary movement Dorsolateral Corticospinal tract n Descends primary cortex through medullary pyramids and descend lateral dorsolateral spinal white matter BETZ CELLS synapse on motor neuron n Distal muscles of wrist hands ngers and toes Corticorubiospinaltract n Synapses in red nucleus of midbrain Distal muscles in arms and legs 0 Some control of muscles of face Ventromedial Corticospinal tract a Direct axons descend n Axon descends and branches diffusely and innervates the interneurons circuit on both sides of spinal gray mater Corticobrainstemspinaltract n Axons feed into complex networks of brainstem structures a Proximal muscles of trunk and limbs Differences Ventromedial tracts are more diffuse Motor neurons activated by ventromedial tracts project to proximal muscles of trunk limbs shoulder muscles motor neurons activated by dorsolateral tracts projects to distal muscles nger muscles Ventro tracts involved in control of posture whole body movements and can exert over limb movements Dorso tracts control movement of limbs Only coritcospinal division mediates independent movement of digits 0 Secondary Motor Cortex O O O 0 Receive input from association cortex Send input to primary cortex 2 areas of sensorimotor cortex historically only two known Supplementary motor cortex wraps over top of frontal lobe and extends down its medial surface into longitudinal ssure Premotor cortex runs in a strip from supplementary to lateral ssure Now know at least 8 Stimulation of an area of secondary motor cortex typically elicits complex often involving both sides of body Involved in programming of SPECIFIC patterns of movement after taking GENERAL direction from dorsolateral prefrontal cortex 0 Primary Motor 0 O 0 Located in precentral gyrus of frontal lobe Major point of convergence of cortical sensorimotor signals Major but not only point of departure of sensorimotor signals from cerebral cortex Conventional view Pen eld and Boldrey n Realized primary cortex is organized somatopically According to a map of the body referred to as motor huminculus a Most dedicated to hand mouth Current view Target of movement is more important than direction which was the convention view Sensorimotor system inherently plastic Damage to primary cortex Disrupt ability to move one body part independently of others May produce astereognosia de cit in stereognosis process of identifying objects by touch May reduce speed accuracy and force of movement Sensorimotor spinal circuits 0 Lowest level of hierarchy o Capable of independent functioning Muscles Contractions muscles way of generating force one direction Synergic muscles two muscles whose contractions produce same movement Antagonistic those that act opposite bicep v tricep Muscles are elastic Tension is increase by n Increasing number of neurons in motor pool that are ring a Increase ring rate of those already ring a Or combo o Reciprocal innervation Antagonistic muscles are innervated in a way that permits a smooth unimpeded motor response a When one relaxes the other contracts Movement produced by adjustment to level to relative contraction between antagonists o Recurrent collateral inhibition Each time a motor neuron res it momentarily inhibits itself and shifts the responsibility for the contraction of particular muscle to other members of muscles motor pool 0 Walking a complex re ex Must integrate info from many systems Must be incredibly plastic Walking can be controlled by circuits in spinal cord 0 Central sensorimotor programs and learning 0 Sensory motor system hierarchy of central sensorimotor programs All but highest level of system have certain patterns of actually programmed into them Once activated each level is capable of operating on basis of current sensory feedback Most of individual response you make are performed without direct cortical involvement and you are often barely aware of them 0 Central sensorimotor programs are capable of motor equivalence Some basic movement can be carried out in different ways involving different muscles 0 Sensory info that controls central sensorimotor programs is not necessarily conscious Can develop without practice Practice can create central sensorimotor programs a Response chunking individual response become sequences of behavior a Shifting control to lower level 0 Increase speed lower levels act simultaneously Frees up higher level to deal with esoteric aspects of performance Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia o Cerebellum Contains gt 50 brains neurons Receives information from primary and secondary motor cortex Receive information about descending motor signals from brain stem nuclei Receive feedback from motor response via somatosensory and vestibular system Comprises 3 sources and corrects ongoing movements that deviate from intended course Plays major role in motor learning Effects of damage a Lose ability to contract direction force velocity amplitude of movement D And ability to adapt patterns of motor output to changing conditions a Dif cult to maintain posture n Disturbances decrease balance gait stance control of eye movement Basal Ganglia O O O Organized in heterogeneous collection of interconnected Perform modulatory function receive cortical input and transmit it back to cortex via thalamus Participate in habit learning but not limited to habit learning Modulate motor output and cognitive functions
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'