Exam III Study Guide
Exam III Study Guide BIOL 2601 - 01
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BIOL 2601 - 01
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Suzanne Notetaker on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2601 - 01 at Youngstown State University taught by Dr. Asch in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 114 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Youngstown State University.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
Q 10 ll 13 Who showed the relationship between genes and production of enzymes where patients had inborn errors of metabolism a Garrod b Beadle and Tatum c Punnett d Mendel T or F Beadle and Tatum came up with the hypothesis One gene one enzyme Since some proteins aren t enzymes they previous hypothesis was changed to One gene one Transcription goes from DNA to and Translation goes from to Central Dogma a Protein Protein RNA b Protein RNA DNA c RNA Protein Protein d RNA RNA Protein Describe the components of Transcription What are the three stages of transcription In eukaryotic transcription the basic features are similar to prokaryotes except a Each step has more introns b Each step has more proteins c Each step has more extrons d Splicing occurs Splicing is the removal of in the a Extrons nucleus b RNA gene c Introns nucleus d Introns gene In eukaryotic transcription there are two modifications that including the addition of caps and tails Brie y describe both What are the start codons stop codons a AUG UAA UAG UGA AUA b AUG UAG UUA UUU c UGA UAG UAA AUG d AUG UAA UAG UGA T or F Codons live on the mRNA while anticodons live on the tRNA 12 Machinery of translation requires a mRNA tRNA ribosomes and translation factors b mRNA tRNA and translation factors c mRNA tRNA binding sites ribosomes and translation factors d mRNA ribosomes and translation factors In the initiation stage of translation the complex requires help of a Binding sites and tRNA b mRNA and tRNA c ribosomal initial factors and GTP hydrolysis 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 d binding sites and ribosomal initial factors What are the three steps of the elongation stage of translation Where is the stop codon found so translation ends in the termination stage a A site b P site c E site d All binding sites T or F Gene regulation ensures genes are produced at correct time and amount In eukaryotic gene regulation the cell contains same genome but express different a Genes b Proteomes c Proteins d Repressors Where does the most common gene regulation occur a Translation b Transcription c Binding sites d Genome Repressors transcription and activators a Increase increase b Inhibit decrease c Increase inhibit d Inhibit increase What is an operon When lactose is absent transcription of operon is a Inhibited b Transcribed c Nothing What happens to the lac operon When lactose and glucose are high as well as lactose is rate of transcription low and glucose is highlow The trp operon binds to the operator With of small effector molecule and is repressible and The lac operon is the opposite What is a heritable change in the genetic material What is the point mutation that changes 1 amino acid Changes normal codon to stop codon a Missense nonsense b Silent nonsense c Missense silent d Frameshift nonsense What mutation gives rise to gametes that affect progeny a Somatic cell b Frameshift c Spontaneous d Germline 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Spontaneous mutations are from abnormalities while induced is caused by What are the chemical or physical agents that alter DNA a Carcinogens b Teratogens c Mutagens d A and C e None of the above Ionizing radiation damage creates free radicals while nonionizing radiation damage only eg UV rays Which DNA repair removes and replaces an abnormal nucleotide a Nucleotide excision b Direct c Methyldirected mismatch d None of the above Cancers originate from a What are the two types of tumors and which is more dangerous What are the two characteristics of malignant tumors What may promote cancer by keeping cell division in a permanent on position a Protooncogene b Chimeric genes c Mutagens d Oncogenes Out of the four common genetic changes for a protooncogene which one is where two chromosomes break and switch ends a Missense mutation b Chromosomal translocations c Gene amplification d Retroviral insertions What are the functions of tumorsuppressor genes What are the checkpoint proteins responsible for advancing cell through the cell cyle a Cyclins cdks b Cyclins c Chromatids d B and C What halts cell division at the G1 point if sense the DNA is damaged a Checkpoint protein b Caspases c p53 d A and B e A and C If DNA damage is too severe p53 will activate other genes that promote In Eukaryotes cells division occurs via and meiosis 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 Humans have pairs of chromosomes This includes 22 pairs of and 1 pair of chromosomes How many chromosomes do diploids have a 96 b 23 c 22 d 46 Describe brie y the phases of the interphase T of F Sister chromatids occur in the G1 phase What are the order of the phases of the cell cycle a G1 G2 S Mitosis Cytokinesis b G1 S G2 Mitosis Cytokinesis c S G1 G2 Mitosis Cytokinesis d Cytokinesis Mitosis S G2 G1 e None of the above Simply what is mitosis Simply what is cytokinesis What is the role of the mitotic spindle Describe the phases of mitosis What is the process of sexual reproduction a Original diploidtwo diploidstwo gametes b Zygoteljtwo haploid gametesdiploid c Original diploidtwo haploid gametesljzygote d Two haploid gametesljzygoteljdiploid Meiosis is the process where cells are produced from a diploid cell a Haploid b Diploid c Zygote d Gamete What are the two differences between mitosis and meiosis What happens in anaphase II meiosis II that doesn t happen in anaphase I meiosis I Mitosis produces diploid daughter cells and meiosis produces haploid daughter cells a 22 b 42 c 44 d 24 T or F Variation in chromosomes structure and number can have major effects on organisms What are the four chromosomal mutations What is it called when you have a normal number of chromosomes a Polypoid b Euploid 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 c Aneuploidy d Monosomic Who experimented With pea plants unconsciously creating laws of inheritance a Mendel b Beadle and Tatum c Punnett d None of the above What is Mendel s Law of Segregation Define the terms genotype and phenotype What diagram finds the probability of an offspring having a particular genotype a Mendel b Punnett c Asch d A and B e None of the above What is the Law of Independent Assortment T or F Mendel s Law of Segregation can be explained by segregation of homologous chromosomes T or F The Law of Independent Assortment can be explained by behavior of chromosomes during meiosis What are the three systems of sex determination T or F In humans genes found on the X chromosomes but not the Y are Xlinked genes Name the three different inheritance patterns T or F Viruses are living particles With nucleic acids that require assistance to reproduce What are the differences for viruses a Host b Host range c Structural d Genome e A C D f B C D Describe brie y the 6 steps in the viral reproductive cycle What steps of the viral reproductive cycle are part of the lysogenic cycle a Integration replication excision b Synthesis assembly release c Integration excision synthesis d Replication excision assembly e None of the above T or F Human inmmunodeficiency virus HIV is the causative agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome AIDS What is the primary way AIDS are spread a Transfusion of infected blood b Infected mother c Sexual contact d Sharing needles e None of the above 74 What is a theory of the origin of Viruses 75 What do Viriods infect a Host nucleus b Plant cells Animal cells Chloroplasts B and C 76 Plasmids exist independently of bacterial chromosomes What is the type that is involved in conjugation gene transfer a Resistance R factors b Degradative c Fertility F factors d Colplasmids e Virulence 77 T or F Reproduction of bacteria is not by binary fission 78 Brie y describe the three gene transfer between bacteria 090 Answers P PP P 99 89 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 A True Polypeptide D Components of Transcription a Regulatory sequence in uence rate of transcription b Promotor begin transcription c GeneTranscribed region specifics amino acid sequence d Terminator end transcription Initiation Elongation Termination B C Modifications a Capping guanosine attached to 5 end b Poly A tail long chain of adenines added to 3 end D True A C Aminoacyl tRNa brings new amino acid to A site peptide bond formed translocation of ribosome toward 3 end A False B B D Cluster of genes under control of a promotor A Shut off Presence anabolic Mutation A D Environmental agents C Penetrate surface A Single cell Benign malignant More dangerousmalignant Invasive metastatic D B Maintain genome integrity and inhibitors of cell division A 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 E Cell death Mitosis 23 autosomes sex D G1cell growth need to pass restriction point Sllchromosomes replicate G2synthesize proteins False B Division of one cell nucleus into two separate sister chromatids Division of cytoplasm into two daughter cells Organizesort chromosomes during mitosis Describe the phases of mitosis a Prophasechromatids condense b Prometaphaseljnuclear envelope fragments spine form centrosome move apart two kinetochores attach to microtubules c Metaphasesister chromatids align between poles d Anaphasesister chromatids attach at opposite poles e Telophasechromosomes decondense nuclear membrane reform C A Homologous pairs form bivalent or tetrad crossing over Separate sister chromatids D True Deletions duplications inversion translocations B A Two copies of gene separate from each other during transmission from parent to offspring Genotype genetic composition Phenotypephysicalbehavioral characteristics B Alleles of different genes assort independently of each other during gamete formation False True XY XO ZW True Simple Mendelian incomplete dominance codominance False F Describe brie y the 6 steps in the viral reproductive cycle a Attachment phage binds to proteins in outer cell membrane b Entry phage injects in DNA into cytoplasm c Integration into chromosomes via integrase 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 d e f A True C i Go through lysogenic cycle end cyclephage DNA excised ii Or skip lysogenic cycle Synthesis of Viral Components phage DNA circularizes host DNA degraded Viral Assembly phages make new phages Release cell lysis and new phages release What is a theory of the origin of viruses a b c B C False Evolve form macromolecules inside living cells Regressive evolution Evolved parallel with cellular organisms Brie y describe the three gene transfer between bacteria a b c Conjugation direct physical interaction from donor to recipient Transformation DNA released from dead bacterium and taken up by another Transduction transfer from one bacterium to another
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