Exam Two Study Guide
Exam Two Study Guide POLI 1090 - 001
Popular in American Government in Multicultural World
Popular in Political Science
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Joerdan Notetaker on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to POLI 1090 - 001 at Auburn University taught by William W Franko in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 215 views. For similar materials see American Government in Multicultural World in Political Science at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
Dr Franko POLI 1090001 Exam Two Study Guide when going through the study guide sure you understand why things are important and what impact they had Ch 6 Public Opinion The Basics 0 Public opinion citizens attitudes about political issues leaders institutions and events 0 Values beliefs basic principles that shape a person s opinion about political events 0 Political ideology cohesive set of beliefs that forms general philosophy about the role of gov o Attitude opinion specific preference on a particular issue 0 Values gt Ideology gt Attitudes Political Values 0 Liberty freedom from gov control 0 Equality idea that all individuals should be able to seek personal and material success 0 Individualism success should be linked to personal effort ability instead of nepotism amp other privileges 0 Democracy every person should be able to take part in gov process and have a say How Political Values Are Formed 0 Political socialization induction of the individual to political culture learning benefits amp values that political system is based 0 Agencies of socialization example families and education Forming Political Values Family 0 Most acquire initial orientation to politics thru their families children absorb political conversations even if unintentional Forming Political Values Social Group 0 Involuntary amp voluntary groups 0 Ways social group can in uence political values I Groups give life experiences that shape views I Through efforts of the group I Through objective political interestsquot Education 0 Public education system provides basic background in civics and government 0 Educational attainment strongly associated with political outlook 0 Those who attend college are exposed to distinct philosophies and modes of thought Political Conditions 0 Political learning takes place within various political contexts 0 Group affiliation doesn t determine political values opinions Political Values gt Ideology political ideology a set of beliefs that fit together into coherent philosophy about gov Liberal Ideology 0 Generally support social amp political reform 0 Supports gov involvement in economy 0 Supports expansion of federal social services 0 Greater concern for disadvantaged consumers amp environment Conservative Ideology 0 Supports status quo o Believes large amp powerful gov poses a threat to citizens freedom Liberals typically favor equality and conservatives typically favor liberty Most only accept parts of the liberal agenda or parts of the conservatives agenda Forming Political Opinions 0 Ideologies can lead to internal contradictions nor is it always easy to link issues with ideology 0 Important factors political knowledge amp outside in uence Knowledge makes one better able to evaluate new info amp determine relevancy to beliefs amp opinions 0 Certain groups have higher levels of political knowledge than others 0 Political interest is connected to political efficacy how strongly you believe you could make a difference in politics Outside In uences 0 Political leaders 0 Private groups I Ex Chamber of Commerce conservative amp Common Cause liberal 0 Media has a role in shaping the publics opinion I The way in which media coverage is interpreted and framed plays a role 0 Governments in uence over public opinion is limited I Gov claims are often disputed by media interest groups or memebers from opposite party Measuring Opinion 0 Polls scientific instruments for measuring public opinion 0 Population universe of cases the researcher wants to describe 0 Sample small group to represent the most important characteristics of entire population 0 Simple random sample method where every member of population has an equal chance of being selected 0 Random digit dialing selected at random from a list of phone numbers to avoid bias in the sample Measuring Opinion Issues 0 Selection bias polling error where some opinions can be over represented or under represented I Recall the Literary Digest example Sample error polling error due to sample size Measurement error error due to ambiguous or poorly worded questions Push polling questions are designed to shape respondents opinion Illusion of saliency impression that something s important to the public when it s not 0 Bandwagon effect OOOO Ch 8 Political ParticipationVoting Political participation activities whose purpose is to in uence government Ways to Participate o Lobbying organized interests seek to in uence by exerting direct pressure on members of legislature 0 Public relations attempt to establish a favorable relationship w the public and in uence its political opinions o Litigation lawsuit or legal proceeding Protest assembling crowds to confront gov or other official organization 0 Voting not the most effective but the most accessible amp common form of political participation I Considered to be the foundation of democracy I Turnout percent of eligible individuals who actually vote Socioeconomic Status standing in society based on level of education income amp occupational prestige 0 Americans with higher socioeconomic status are more likely to participate in politics 0 Participation depends on O I Resources time money and information I Civic engagement sense of political concern of socialpolitical life I Recruitment if anyone asked you to participate I Civic Engagement belonging to social organizations is important 0 Membership has declined because of the decline in social trust political context and television I Formal Obstacles 0 Unusual registration system 0 Need greater degree of political involvement amp interest 0 Young people don t find registration as important as older people 0 Barriers for convicted felons I Political Mobilization process by which large number of people organize for political activity 0 The change in strength of parties is b c of mobilization decline Ch 10 Elections I Types of Elections 0 Presidential 0 Congressional 0 State amp local 0 Primary used to select party s candidate I Closed have to be registered with party to vote I Open can vote in either 0 General the winner elected to office for term 0 In some states they have a referendum and recall I Criteria of Winning o Majority system 50 1 o Plurality system whoever gets the most votes out of any other candidates 0 Proportional representation awarded legislative seats roughly proportional to percentage of popular votes received I Electoral Districts 0 Redistricting redrawing of election districts and redistribution of legislative representation 0 District should roughly have equal population to uphold idea of one person one votequot I Contiguous districts has to be one piece I Compact districts within a square mile boundary 0 Majorityminority districts majority of district made up of minority voters I The Ballot are now neutral and gave rise to splitticket voting I Electoral College 0 Made up of presidential electors from each state who indirectly vote for president 0 Electors not awarded proportionally o Nor are electors bound by popular vote I What are Campaigns Efforts made by candidates staff to get backing of donors voters and activists in quest for office 0 Precedes general and primary I Organize committee I Select advisers I Determine strategy polling I Presidential Elections have to compete in primaries in all fifty states I The Convention presidential nominations controlled by each party s congressional caucus I General election campaigns are media driven and capitalintensive o Relies less on workers and more on money and airtime I How Voters Decide o Partisanship predisposes many voters in favor of party candidates 0 Issue Policy concerns sharing the same outlook on issues in uences voters I Economic voting economy affects behavior at polls o Candidate characteristics personality and personal attributes in uence voters Ch 9 Political Parties They re organized groups that attempt to in uence gov by electing their members to important gov offices Important for Democracy 0 Expand political participation promote effective choice ease public business in congress 2 Party System only two parties have a realistic opportunity to compete for control 0 The only system we ve had in the US but the party that dominates has changed significantly over time o How do parties form amp change I Internal mobilization I External mobilization Party Organization formal structure including leadership election committees active members amp paid staff National Convention nominate president and VP establish party rules writes and ratifies party s platform 0 Platform party philosophy principles amp positions on issues Democratic and Republican National Committee raise campaign money head off party disputes amp enhance party media image 0 Before BCRA gt soft money 0 After BCRA gt shadow partiesquot or 527 committees I 527 committees aren t directly affiliated with a party so they can raise amp spend unlimited money Congressional Campaign Committees House amp Senate raise money for election campaigns State amp Local Party Organizations 0 Each party has a central committee in each state 0 Party machinesquot or quotbossesquot trade favors for votes 0 Patronage power to make partisan appointments to offices and to confer grants licenses or special favors to supporters 0 Party bosses were able to recruit armies of political workers Party Identification an individuals psychological ties to one party or another Role in Elections 0 Recruiting candidates 0 Nominations o Mobilize voters o Facilitate voters Parties amp Policy parties try to be all things to all peope 0 Party leaders act as policy entrepreneurs Parties in Congress depends on parties to determine House Senate leadaership who has majority SIX PARTY SYSTEMS First Party System 0 The Federalists weakened then collapsed which left Ieffersonian Republicans Democrats Second Party System 0 Whigs broke off Democratic Party during 1830s successor to Federalistsquot o Disintegrated and joined antislavery Democrats to form Republican Party Civil War Post Civil War 0 Wanted to convert the South Reconstruction but attempt failed due to violent resistance of southern whites 0 After south gained sovereignty African Americans deprived of rights 0 Party of the north Republican Party mainly business men amp middle class 0 Party of the south Democratic Party mainly working class amp immigrants System of 1896 o Populist party blue collar support I Merged with the democrats William jennings Bryan 0 Republicans nominated William McKinney 0 Democrats too weak to oppose Republicans I New Deal Party Systems 0 Brought on by FDR and New Deal Programs that were designed around the Dem Party 0 Dem was majority party for next 36 years 0 Civil Rights divided Dem Party into North and South 0 Republican party regains power under Nixon in 1968 I Contemporary Party System 0 Nixon s strategy gave votes to end Dem dominance 0 Rep Party added two groups under Ronald Reagan religious conservatives and working whites o Dem appealed to minorities 0 Congress is the most polarized its been since 1956 I Electoral Realignments points in history when new party supplants the ruling party 0 New issues amp economic crisis get citizens to shift party loyalties I Third Parties represent social and economic interests not voiced by two major parties Ch 11 Interest Groups I Basics 0 Framers of the Constitution feared power of interest groups but also believed in libertyfreedom of all to organize o Pluralism theory that all interests are and should be free to compete for in uence in gov 0 Interest group individuals who organize to in uence gov programs amp policies I Represent millions of Americans I Encourage political participation I Not all interests represented equally I Common Types of Interest Groups 0 Business amp Agricultural Groups direct economic interest Labor Groups lobby on behalf of organized labor Professional Associations lobby fro specific professions Public Interest Groups most visible in consumer and environmental protection Ideological Groups supports philosophical perspective 0 Public Sector Group representation for gov organizations I All interests aren t represented because its difficult to categorize unrepresented interests potential interest groups I Interest Group Organization 0 Leadership 0 Money 0 Agency office 0 Members have higher incomes education levels and have management or professional occupations I Membership associations I Staff organizations I Free Rider Problem those who enjoy benefits of collective good but don t help in acquiring them 0 Collective goods benefits that are available and cant be denied to nonmembers I Some join because of the information material solidary and purposive benefits I When government expands so do interest groups 0 Also expanded due to new politics movement and technology I Interest Groups In uence Congress 0 Access to lawmakers lawsuits public relations campaigns fundraising for candidates direct lobbying OOOO Ch 7 The Media Types of Media Broadcast 0 TV amp radio tends to cover few topics amp provides little indepth coverage 0 National brief quotes of the day s events 0 Local less critical of politicians disproportionally covers crime 0 Radio headline news but repetitive 0 Provides more detailed info amp is a better context for analysis 0 Prime sources of news for educatedin uential individuals Internet 0 Rapidly growing as important news source allows instant updating 0 Access to mobile phones photos and videos Regulation of Broadcast Media 0 Federal Communications Commission FCC regulates explicit content overtheair television I Regulation of political content 0 Equal time rule 0 Fairness doctrine stopped enforcing in 1985 0 Right of rebuttal stopped enforcing in 2000 0 Regulation of media ownership very limited after Telecommunications Act 0 1996 Media Ownership 0 2000 TV stations 0 1400 daily newspapers 0 13000 radio stations 0 Many news stations owned by either ABC CBS NBC or Fox Nationalization of the News mainstream newsquot 0 Internet allowed more diversity in views Subject of the News 0 Politicians have the desire amp ability to shape how media covers the news 0 Can leak info 0 Press releases can be used Power of Consumers o Responsive to the interests of educated and af uent public 0 Events issues of interest for lowermiddleclass are undercovered Shaping Events examples 0 Critical media led Civil Rights movement of 50s and 60s 0 Compelled Nixon to put end to involvement in Vietnam War Sources of Media Power 0 Agenda setting power to bring public attention to certain issues amp problems 0 Framing power to in uence how people interpret events issues 0 Priming preparing public to take a particular view of a politician or event Rise of Adversarial Journalism reporting in which media adopts a hostile posture towards gov o Contributes to popular cynicism and low levels of citizen participation in gov 0 It s critical to keep citizens aware Media Power amp Democracy 0 Think back to TED Talk with speaker Clay Shirky
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