Exam 2 study guide
Exam 2 study guide ANTH 1001
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Olivia SaoBento on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 1001 at George Washington University taught by O'Malley, R in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 229 views. For similar materials see Biological Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at George Washington University.
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basically copy paste from lecture slides the professor uploads
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Date Created: 10/29/15
Exam 2 Guide Primate General Body plan not hyper specialized Grasping hands and flattened nails Binocular and stereoscopic vision forward facing eyes Limb mobility well developed clavicle Large brain higher brain to body weight ratio Reduced dentition 21233 Petrosal derived auditory bullae primates no other mammals Extended life history 0 O 0 Extended juvenile period Extended lifespan High offspring investment tomaeaiiarga laminar aimamt tiarlao mobile mouldart lm tg li ion auditor hulllae woman39an hands and feet with 5 digita nails inatiaad sal tlawa I h hiigllnlth social Etre quotpair f39hilrlIES llllapInrlhines 39 E ftimum WWW antiliar brain rattan to boil Evian 39 I m39n 39 f 139quot Em Em I moatrhnal llama Pu mhml r no mhmmla 39tmthmb iraln gamma nfaight rely on sense UFEI39EHEHI a my Farmmmi m mtdiii rlgrligrmmgmm mp 39 Fi taathotn haltmo anlmaaod prontolart V u unfuaad mandiltlle ILemurlfrormea m 39ll39a railformaa Tantiara SE sia annual mottorhltal Home LE mu midea IL f39ilE lidlEEi La 39m TI39539me iLorioet and Galagoa Ll 39 fimed mandibk Madagmr at and arm traWioel lPlatyrrhlnea Earta rrhiInea isiFLlit39ii ESE mammary itlt JIEEE antral and south Amanda lm and lithium l39elzaorWrld Anthmaooida lid It39lforlti ttthrooiaia oreharm le tails not all arbonaall llj zdanta fmmnrulla 2113 dantal Frraula only matrimonial iiitinn comohtela moorzeal Ce laoidea New Iit39l39lorld Monitogyaj Ea rtoplthezcordaa H Mll lld EH r ld World Monikaya Hamid Limit 3 mona prognathisna than hominoiizda 39 I955 ruonaizhic Ritual taraiimtwninanim bargain mat 39i 5 molars ahxrtiar Elaintle quotl n g Eranm lengm llat39eralll39y rar5i xonod anapula lament human Iongar timida no tail J r L large5t rellativa brain aize Cololbinnea Eerie pitlhrEEii IES d 53 il39 po i imtrad mania pu rnarillgy laatfaatera pnirmar ily fruit eatera sharp highnapad mlaira IMF rotundad molars l tllia39n Mariam l Milt tha39aiasoaUEhea39 arfoa image Diets 9 leaves fruits some meat Hominoid Pongo orangutans SE Asia Sexually dimorphic Bimaturism 2 strategies of being male quotsubquot adult Gorilla Gorillas Africa Sexually dimorphic No meat eating but not vegetarian Sympatric with Chimps Pan troglodytes Chimps Africa 172700299700 in wild Fruit dominated omnivorous Malemale bonds social sex Males dominate females Tool use Group warfare aggressively territorial Chimpicide Infanticide and cannibalism Carnivory 0 Hunting occurs but frequency varies o Arboreal primates and bush piglets Pan paniscus Bonobos Africa below the Congo9 25005000 in wild Fruit dominated Femalefemale bonds social sex Adult females dominate Nonreproductive sex to bond Intercommunity encounters involve sex grooming and cofeeding No habitual tool use Carnivory 0 Wide spread low frequency 0 Associate peacefully with monkeys play with them like dolls Threats to primate life Deforestation Pet trade Bush meat Disease Primate Behavior study of behavior evolutionarily and naturaly Critical data include range territory diet activity budget group size and competition Sociobiology 9 behavior as adaptations terms of individual fitness Benefits of social behavior 9 mates defense cooperation Dominance hierarchies who gets what if there isn t enough to go around 0 Not always male 0 Not set in stone Intrasexual competition 0 Physical combat o Sperm competition 0 Rank 0 Signaling Intersexual competition 0 Physical intimidation of females 0 Infanticide 0 Physical ornaments Scramble v contest competition how resources are distributed 0 Leaves more readily available low energy high energy to be digested 0 Fruit limited time and quantity high energy quotwantsquot to be eaten 0 Meat high quantity high demand high energy Cooperation within social systems 0 Infant care 0 Detect and defend against predators o Hun ng o Coalitions Paleoanthropology study of primatehuman evolution Fossils Relative Dating 0 Stratigraphic I Soil is originally horizontal older Lower I Crosscutting relationships older features have to exist before they can be modified or moved 0 Lithostratigraphic I Compare rock at different locations I Identify major geologicalecological events I Correlations between sights to help date 0 Biostratigraphic I Same things in different area about same time I Chemical Dating 0 Bones in same location should have similar chemical signatures o Fluorine Dating I Paleomagnetism poles swap N95 0 Not specific date but much narrower Absolute Dating estimated date or range requires steady rate and time 0 o Dendrochronology tree rings every year can see variation from events 0 Radiometric dating 9 halflife of unstable ions Carbon KArArAr 0 Amino Acid Racemization I AA have specific orientation when an organism dies the AA flip to alternate orientation at a constant rate I Affected by temp and humidity Paleoecology 0 Tree rings 0 Oxygen isotopes 018 amp 016 I 018 evaporates less and precipitates more 018 heavier I 018 rich in oceans and 016 icecaps I Snow and ice form layers with different concentrations of isotopes I Microorganism use 0 to build shells die and shells form layers at bottom of ocean 0 Stable Carbon isotopes C13 amp C12 I Two metabolic pathways of plants process different C at different rates 0 C39 temperate grass legumes woody plants C12 0 C49 arid grass and sedges C13 I Ratios in plants transfer to animals help determine environment before death 0 Paleopoles palynology study of pollen Taphonomy study of death and decay o Damagewear of bones o Locationecology Primate origins Molecular Phylogenetic study of similarities an differences in genetics to determine ancestors o Sarich amp Wilson reacted two samples of blood and observed reaction smaller reaction closer related 0 Recent work on noncoding and mitochondrial DNA Estimated divergence Pongo gorillapanhomo split 183 mya Gorillapanhomo split 86 mya Panhomo split 66 mya 0 Pan Paniscus pan troglodytes split 22 mya Recent in terms of earth history 000 History of the Earth Paleocenegt EocenegtOligocenegt Miocenegt Pliocene KT extinction 65mya 9 no large dinosaurs after this period 0 One major meteor mexico increased volcanic activity 0 Disruption of Biosphere 0 Mass extinction opens ecological niches PreCenzoic gt65mya o Diversification of mammals angiosperm and insects Cenzoic 65 mya9 shifting of tectonic plates to current formation Paleocene 6555mya o Wetwarm Eurasisa and NA connected 0 Beginning of quotage of Mammals o Plesiadapiformes9 possible primate or very close relative NA Eocene 5534 mya o Colder o Origins of Strepsirrhinihaplorrhine split 0 Undisputed primates in N Hemisphere o Grande Couture 9 end of Eocene I Mass extinctions I Meteor I Large drop in temperature Oligocene 3424mya 0 Drop in temp9 permanent ice caps lower seas o Fayum Depression Egypt9 was a lush jungle region I Apidium9 predates PlatCata split I Aegptopithecus9 cata ancestor o Primate fossils in S America 0 Monkeyape divergence at end of Oligocene Miocene 245mya 0 Seasons fluctuating seas formation of grasslands and woodlands in Africa 0 quotage of apes gives way to quotage of monkeys 9 end of Miocene apes fossils reduced 0 Dental Apes 9 Proconsul looks like monkey I Y5 molars I No tail but monkey like body 0 End of Miocene possible Hominins Pliocene 0 Cooling drying spread of deserts modern continent configuration Monkey diversification Divergence of chimps and bonobos Panhominin split quotgreat American interchange 3mya I Land bridge connects continents I S American fauna loses out in majority OOOO Bipedalism Panhominin split 66 mya Context of hominin origins 0 Late Miocene EA 0 LCA forest or mosaic habitat 0 Expansion of woodland and savanna 9 new resources meat fish rootstubers Habitual bipedalism9 upright at expense of other forms of locomotion 0 Energy efficient9 endurance running thermoregulation o Ecology field of view feeding efficiency reaching branches 0 Carrying offspring tools food 0 One single selective pressure is unlikely Gross morphology of Bipedalism 0 Skull I Shift in Forman magnum large hole where skin enters skulls I Reduction of nuchal crest muscle configuration of neck 0 Spine I S shape vertebrate morphology lumbar I of lumbar vertebrae 5 v 34 0 Pelvis Paddle v saddle o Femur I Valgus angle angled in helps with balance I Locking knee joints condyles Arched feet sock absorption Nondivergent hallux Limb proportionality Reduced prognathous OOOO httpsquizletcomOlivia SaoBentofoldersanthro2
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