Intro to Comp Politics- Midterm 2 Study Guide
Intro to Comp Politics- Midterm 2 Study Guide PSCI 2012-100
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Molly Mortimer on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSCI 2012-100 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Dr. Andy Baker in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 276 views. For similar materials see Intro to Comparative Politics in Political Science at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
Thursday October 29 2015 Intro to Comparative Politics Midterm 2 Study Guide Concepts Independent variables a variable that causes something else to happen also called an attribute Dependent variables a variable that is caused by the independent variable also called an outcome Hypothesis a testable argument about cause and effect essentially and educated guess Cause and effect a process or event that creates an observable effect Political economy the study of the relationship between politics and economics Welfare state the part of the government that directly protects and promotes the social and economic wellbeing of its citizens Redistribution money that is usually collected by means of taxation that is spent on welfare Three types of welfare states Social democracy emphasis on universal entitlements universal healthcare pensions paid family leave etc high tax high spending 25 of GDP is welfare state states like Sweden Norway Netherlands Denmark Christian democracy emphasis on employmentbased social insurance unemployment high tax high spending but not everyone benefits from spending 25 of GDP states like Germany France Italy Austria Liberal democracy emphasis on meanstested programs low tax low spending 15 of GDP states like US UK Canada Progressive taxation the more money you make the more you are taxed Market failure the failure of an economic market to produce of distribute needed or wanted goods or services Economic globalization trade of goods and services across borders international capital flow people etc Thursday October 29 2015 Political globalization the spread of transnational issues and authority International Governmental Organizations like the EU UN WTO IMF and World Bank Race to the bottom countries lower tax rates as much as possible and eliminate social welfare spending in order to balance their budgets Multinational corporations companies with headquarters in one country but with operations and employees in many other countries ex McDonalds International Governmental Organizations political organizations that are made up of many member states that exercise transnational authority over certain issues ex EU UN Interventionist state an economic system in which the central government allocates resources makes investment decisions and owns most of the country s productive industries andor resources Stateled development a strategy to promote economic growth that includes such policies as government coordination or private sector investment forced saving and preferential treatment to certain industries regarded as essential for economic development Command economy similar to stateled development state controls what is produced market failures less common less domestic taxes ex Soviet Russia North Korea Freemarket economy private companies and citizens determine supply and demand typically more domestic taxes may be more likely to create monopolies ex US Extractive vs inclusive institutions Extractive colonies established to exploit natural resources not meant to be permanent no form of government established for natives Inclusive also known as settlement colonies established for people from Europe to settle government established Property rights tend to bring on economic development Creative destruction the breakdown of old technology to make way for new technology ex Uber replacing taxi services Informal sector unregulated and untaxed portion of the economy ex food carts Thursday October 29 2015 Thematic Questions What are the components of social science argument about cause and effect Hypothesis data and cases the things or units that we observe Why do political scientists make probabilistic instead of deterministic causeand effect arguments Political science does not have hard laws like other sciences like physics do so political scientists can only make probabilistic arguments which are tendencies to why things happen Why do some state have larger welfare states than others Depends on things like the leftlabor hypothesis the more labor unions the larger the welfare state ethnic diversity hypothesis the more diversity the smaller the welfare state and globalization societies that are more globalized have larger welfare states What are the three types of welfare states and how do they differ Above under three types of welfare states What are the different kinds of welfare state benefits Helps move people out of poverty stimulates the economy Does globalization weaken nationstates sovereignty and limit democracy Some say yes some say no global culture is spreading due to globalization but nationstates can still retain their culture states may have to give up some sovereignty to lGOs but the benefits far outweigh the drawbacks Why has globalization grown in importance over the past several decades technology internet container ships etc policy lowering barriers to trade changing global norms favor free market ideals What are the economic social and political characteristics of developing countries Economic poor infrastructure informal housingsettlements large informal sector primary products and laborintensive manufactures Social poor health outcomes high infant child mortality rate low life expectancy poor educational outcomes greater gender inequality greater ethnic fragmentation Thursday October 29 2015 Political less likely to be democratic more likely to have political violence and instability weaker state capacity almost all colonized by a Western country between 1500 and 1970 What are inclusive and extractive political institutions What are inclusive and extractive economic institutions What are their consequences according to Acemoglu and Robinson Inclusive institutions allow for creative destruction to occur Exclusive institutions allow for inner circles to excel 39 Can extractive institutions generate shortterm economic growth Can they generate longterm sustainable economic growth Extractive institutions are more likely to generate shortterm economic growth because their purpose is to extract natural resources but once they are gone the state is left with very little to stimulate longterm economic growth not to mention that extractive institutions also lead to corrupt governments which also hinder economic growth How do political and economic institutions reinforce each other to create virtuous or vicious cycles Political institutions give way to political power which create economic institutions which determine economic performance and distribution of resources and so on What are the different explantations for why some countries are rich and others are poor What are the strengths and weaknesses of each explanation Things like democracy type of government institution geographic location religion population and the way that the country was colonized can affect if it is rich or poor look at examples like the US China and India
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