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COLORADO / Political Science / POLSCI 2012 / Why do political scientists make probabilistic, instead of determinist

Why do political scientists make probabilistic, instead of determinist

Why do political scientists make probabilistic, instead of determinist


School: University of Colorado at Boulder
Department: Political Science
Course: Intro to Comparative Politics
Professor: Andy baker
Term: Fall 2015
Cost: 50
Name: Intro to Comp Politics- Midterm 2 Study Guide
Description: This is my study guide for the exam on Wednesday, hope it helps some of you. Notes from this week will follow soon!
Uploaded: 10/29/2015
4 Pages 148 Views 8 Unlocks

Ahmed Nabhani (Rating: )

Thursday, October 29, 2015

Why do political scientists make probabilistic, instead of deterministic, cause-andeffect arguments?

Intro to Comparative Politics- Midterm 2 Study Guide  


- Independent variables: a variable that causes something else to happen (also called  an attribute)

- Dependent variables: a variable that is caused by the independent variable (also  called an outcome)  

- Hypothesis: a testable argument about cause and effect (essentially and educated  guess)  

- Cause and effect: a process or event that creates an observable effect  - Political economy: the study of the relationship between politics and economics  - Welfare state: the part of the government that directly protects and promotes the  social and economic well-being of its citizens  

What are the economic, social, and political characteristics of developing countries?

- Redistribution: money that is usually collected by means of taxation that is spent on  welfare  

- Three types of welfare states:  

• Social democracy: emphasis on universal entitlements (universal healthcare,  pensions, paid family leave, etc.), high tax, high spending (~25% of GDP is welfare  state), states like Sweden, Norway, Netherlands, Denmark  

• Christian democracy: emphasis on employment-based social insurance  (unemployment), high tax, high spending but not everyone benefits from spending  (~25% of GDP), states like Germany, France, Italy, Austria  If you want to learn more check out What type of third-party beneficiary has no rights in the contract?

• Liberal democracy: emphasis on means-tested programs, low tax, low spending  (~15% of GDP), states like US, UK, Canada  

Why has globalization grown in importance over the past several decades?

- Progressive taxation: the more money you make, the more you are taxed  - Market failure: the failure of an economic market to produce of distribute needed or  wanted goods or services  If you want to learn more check out What are the three main agricultural crops of different native american groups?

- Economic globalization: trade of goods and services across borders (international  capital flow, people, etc.)


Thursday, October 29, 2015

- Political globalization: the spread of transnational issues and authority (International  Governmental Organizations like the EU, UN, WTO, IMF, and World Bank)  

- Race to the bottom: countries lower tax rates as much as possible and eliminate  social welfare spending in order to balance their budgets  

- Multinational corporations: companies with headquarters in one country but with  operations and employees in many other countries (ex: McDonalds)  

- International Governmental Organizations: political organizations that are made up of  many member states that exercise transnational authority over certain issues (ex: EU,  UN)  

- Interventionist state: an economic system in which the central government allocates  resources, makes investment decisions, and owns most of the country’s productive  industries and/or resources

- State-led development: a strategy to promote economic growth that includes such  policies as government coordination or private sector investment, forced saving, and  preferential treatment to certain industries regarded as essential for economic  development  

- Command economy: similar to state-led development, state controls what is  produced, market failures less common, less domestic taxes (ex: Soviet Russia,  North Korea)  If you want to learn more check out Which hemisphere region is responsible for motor function, responsible for higher thinking, planning, abstract thinking?

- Free-market economy: private companies and citizens determine supply and  demand, typically more domestic taxes, may be more likely to create monopolies (ex:  US)  

- Extractive vs. inclusive institutions:  

- Extractive: colonies established to exploit natural resources, not meant to be  permanent, no form of government established for natives

- Inclusive: also known as settlement colonies, established for people from Europe to  settle, government established  Don't forget about the age old question of What is gender schema theory?

- Property rights: tend to bring on economic development  

- Creative destruction: the breakdown of old technology to make way for new  technology (ex: Uber replacing taxi services)  

- Informal sector: unregulated and untaxed portion of the economy (ex: food carts) 2

Thursday, October 29, 2015

Thematic Questions:  

- What are the components of social science argument about cause and effect?  - Hypothesis, data, and cases (the things or units that we observe)  - Why do political scientists make probabilistic, instead of deterministic, cause-and effect arguments?  

- Political science does not have hard laws like other sciences like physics do, so  political scientists can only make probabilistic arguments, which are tendencies to  why things happen  

- Why do some state have larger welfare states than others?  Don't forget about the age old question of What contains each level of maslow’s hierarchy of needs?

- Depends on things like the left-labor hypothesis (the more labor unions, the larger  the welfare state), ethnic diversity hypothesis (the more diversity, the smaller the  welfare state), and globalization (societies that are more globalized have larger  welfare states)  

- What are the three types of welfare states and how do they differ?  - Above under “three types of welfare states”  

- What are the different kinds of welfare state benefits?  

- Helps move people out of poverty, stimulates the economy  

- Does globalization weaken nation-states’ sovereignty and limit democracy? - Some say yes, some say no; global culture is spreading due to globalization, but  nation-states can still retain their culture, states may have to give up some  sovereignty to IGOs but the benefits far outweigh the drawbacks  Don't forget about the age old question of What is a hypothesis test?

- Why has globalization grown in importance over the past several decades?  - technology (internet, container ships, etc.), policy, (lowering barriers to trade),  changing global norms (favor free market ideals)  

- What are the economic, social, and political characteristics of developing countries?  - Economic: poor infrastructure, informal housing/settlements, large informal sector,  primary products and labor-intensive manufactures

- Social: poor health outcomes (high infant, child mortality rate, low life expectancy),  poor educational outcomes, greater gender inequality, greater ethnic fragmentation


Thursday, October 29, 2015

- Political: less likely to be democratic, more likely to have political violence and  instability, weaker state capacity, almost all colonized by a Western country  between 1500 and 1970  

- What are inclusive and extractive political institutions? What are inclusive and  extractive economic institutions? What are their consequences, according to  Acemoglu and Robinson?  

- Inclusive institutions allow for creative destruction to occur

- Exclusive institutions allow for inner circles to excel  

- Can extractive institutions generate short-term economic growth? Can they generate  long-term sustainable economic growth?  

- Extractive institutions are more likely to generate short-term economic growth  because their purpose is to extract natural resources but once they are gone, the  state is left with very little to stimulate long-term economic growth, not to mention  that extractive institutions also lead to corrupt governments, which also hinder  economic growth  

- How do political and economic institutions reinforce each other to create virtuous or  vicious cycles?  

- Political institutions give way to political power which create economic institutions  which determine economic performance and distribution of resources, and so on  - What are the different explantations for why some countries are rich and others are  poor? What are the strengths and weaknesses of each explanation?  

- Things like democracy (type of government institution), geographic location,  religion, population, and the way that the country was colonized can affect if it is  rich or poor (look at examples like the US, China, and India)  


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