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Phonetics Study Guide

by: Smccarty

Phonetics Study Guide CSD 285

Marketplace > University of Kentucky > Language > CSD 285 > Phonetics Study Guide
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About this Document

Notes cover all things from constants to vowels, to phonemes, and morphs, things to remember when transcribing and more
Applied Phonetics
Dr. Jodelle Deem
Study Guide
phonetics, vowels, constants, communication disorders
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Smccarty on Friday March 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CSD 285 at University of Kentucky taught by Dr. Jodelle Deem in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Applied Phonetics in Language at University of Kentucky.


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Date Created: 03/25/16
CSD 285 Exam 1 1. Things to Remember a. General Rules of Thumb Handout –aka GTOT i. Stress is generally indicated in our language by INCREASE in pitch, loudness or duration ii. A syllable, according to your text, can only be “syllabified” when the two consonants share the same place of articulation – this is called homorganicity iii. Generally, two syllable nouns are stressed on the first syllable: /prɑʤɛkt/ …while two syllable verbs like: /proʤɛkt/ are stressed on the second syllable nd iv. Generally, two syllable words with stress on the 2 syllable will have a schwa or an /ɪ/ in the first syllable—this occurs in words like above, about, destroy, deceive, believe, etc. 1. /dəstrɔɪ/ ̅ ̅ b. Vowels i. The schwa is the most commonly used vowels in our language—when you are decide between the schwa and the /Ʌ/ it is the most likely going to be the schwa except in many “up” words (uproar, unwilling), and “um” words (umbrella, umpire) ii. There is NO /U/ - only /ʊ/ and /u/ 1. When in doubt, use a schwa iii. The schwa is the lowest level of stress –always! It can be the same level as the schwar, but they must be lower than all other vowels and diphthongs in this system of transcription that we use iv. Words standing alone must have at least one vowel or diphthong in addition to any schwas or schwars—a word cannot have all schwas (this GTOT can change in connected speech) v. The schwar is almost always used in context where there is an ‘r’ on the end of a two syllable word such as mother, father, robber…Follow the same rule when a word ending in ‘r’ is imbedded in a multi-syllable word like “brotherhood” –it would be transcribed as: /brɅðɚhʊd/ vi. Use the stressed /ɝ/ in a single syllable words or on the stressed syllable…bird, heard, work, murder 1. /mɝdɚ/  murder (schwar on the unstressed “er”) vii. On words ending in y, ie, ey,use the /ɪ/ --follow the same rule when a word ending y, ie, ey, is imbedded in multi-syllable word like “anything”—it would be transcribed as: /ɛnɪθɪη/ viii. Be careful when transcribing words in which vowels are followed by a nasal 1. Nasals have a very strong influence on how we hear surrounding vowels—words like been, hen, ten, pen, them, stem, hem, and elementary should all be transcribed with the /ɛ/ in “GA” (General American) 2. /sɪη/  sing AND /θɪηk/  think ix. Diacritic  “puppy” /pɅpɪ/ ̝ x. /ɪ/ is most frequent in “ink”, “eer”, and “il” words: ink, think, sink, shrink, blink, bill, fill, pill, pun, pin, tin, win, dear, clear, gear, near; xi. In “ank” words like like thank, drank, shrank, --the vowels /æ/ is used—the same vowel is used in “al” words like pal, Halloween, etc. 1. /θæηk/  thank xii. “ing” words like king, sing, think, and thing, ringing, sinking, etc., all use /ɪ/ as the vowel, not the /i/ xiii. Likewise, the /l/ can have a very strong pull on vowels which precede them—for example, the word “school” should be /skul/. Some want to transcribe “school” as /skʊl/ 1. The same rule applies to words like pool, rule, streel, etc. The /l/ tends to pull the vowel to a different position but you should use the appropriate vowel a. I.e., /u/ or /i/ xiv. The /ɑ/, /ɔ/ distinctions can be tricky to hear—the words Don, cot, and tot all use the /ɑ/ and dawn, caught, and taught use the /ɔ/ in GA—generally “au” and “aw” words (like lawn) use the phoneme /ɔ/ c. Diphthongs i. Single syllable words standing alone will usually use the non-phonemic diphthong rather than the /e/ and /o/ vowels because a single syllable word is stressed just by nature of being single syllable—this can be quite different connected speech ii. In the “or” words: ford, tore, door, you use the /ɔ̅ ̅combination, in words like bear and where, you use the /ɛɚ/̅ ̅air”) combination, in car, far, scar, you use /ɑɚ/ ̅ ̅ d. Constants –generally follows i. The presence of voicing typically follows the preceding voicing feature, e.g., “stabbed” VS “tapped” 1. /tæpt/ VS /tæbd/  tabbed ii. In the same fashion the plural of an utterance tends to keep the voicing feature of the proceeding phoneme 1. Spots, scrubs..., the “t and the s” on the end of the spots are both voiceless while the “b and the s” on the end of scrubs will both be voiced iii. In the same manner as above, even a medical consonant will take on the voicing feature of the phonemes around it—for example litter can be transcribed with a /d/ or a flap /Ը/ iv. Words like this, that, these, those, them, there and many articles like “the” all use the VOICED LINGUA-DENTAL FRICATIVE  /ð/ as the first phoneme v. (Generally) In GA, there is no /g/ in sing, ring, singing, or ringing, but there is a /g/ in linger, finger, jingle, and single vi. Use the “dark” /l/ at the end of words like ball to help differentiate it from the clear /l/ in a word like light vii. Words which begin with /tr/ and /dr/ can be heard as /ʧr/ or / ʤr/ and are correctly transcribed either way 1. Truck  /ʧrɅk/ or /trɅk/ 2. How are Vowel and Consonants “classified” or “described”? a. Constants i. Generally produced with the vocal tract constricted (except for the /h/, where the constriction is at the glottis). 1. Place of articulation – Where the constriction is during sound production a. Bilabial b. Lingua-alveolar c. Velar d. Labio-dental e. Lingua-dental f. Lingua-palatal g. Glottal 2. Manner of articulation – how the sound is generally produced a. Stops b. Fricatives c. Affricates d. Nasal e. Liquid Lateral Consonants that are f. Rhotic formed by impeding the g. Glide flow of air somewhere in 3. Voicing – whether or not the vocal cords are vibrating the vocal apparatus so that a friction-sound is Stops complete closure followed by burst of produced. Fricatives energy, followed by movement Bilabials /p/- /b/+ tight constriction in sound ( Labio-dental /f/- /v/+ Lingua-alveolar /t/- /d/+ Lingua-dental /θ/- /ð/+ Velar /k/- /g/+ Glottal /Ɂ/ Lingua-alveolar /s/- /z/+ Lingua-palatal /ʃ/- /ʒ/+ Affricates Glottal /h/- a stop & fricative combined and said as one sound Ligature something together, means they touch, Labio-palatal /ʧ/- /ʤ/+ so it reads together: /ʧɝʧ/ VS /tʃɝtʃ/ Nasal Nasal is an open air way in nose into where the “loosy-goosy constants” uvula is velopharynx – V.P. (space behind uvula, Bilabial /m/+ stays open when nasal pharynx) Lingua-alveolar /n/- Velar /η/+ Liquid lateral If you wanted to say “L” (as in bell) you need to vowel-like constants, in which voicing use a dark ‘l’ uses a tilde (compared to a light energy passes through vocal track, only “l”) slightly more constricted than vowels Lingua-alveolar /l/+ bell  /bɛɫ/ Rhotic Glide “R” colored/constant that says “R”, not very round and vowel-like changing position, but adds the “rah” Bilabial /w/+ Lingua-palatal /r/+ Lingua-palatal /j/+ These sounds are the trills, the central Voiced, bilabial, glide /w/ is often a child’s approximants, the taps, the flaps, and the fricatives of phonetics speech disorder /j/  says “yua” not a. Vowels a. Tongue height - Height of the tongue within the mouth b. Tongue advancement – the position of the tongue within the vocal tract, from front to back c. Tenseness or laxness (of oral cavity during vowel production) d. Lip rounding – the amount of lip rounding when producing a vowel i. Generally, in English, the only vowels produced with lip rounding are the back vowels (like /u/) front central back /i/ /u/ high mid-high /ɪ/ /ʊ/ /e/ /o/ /ɜ/ /ɝ/ mid /ə/ /ɚ/ mid-low /ɛ/ /ɔ/ /Ʌ/ /æ/ low /a/ /ɑ/ Front Vowels Central Vowels Back Vowels /i/ “E” /ɝ/ stressed “er” /u/ “Oo” –NOT “You” High Mid-central High-Back Front Tense Tense Unrounded Rounded Rounded /ɪ/ “I” /ɜ/ “Uh” sound /ʊ/ “Book” High/-Mid-front Mid-central High/Mid-back Lax Tense Lax Unrounded Rounded Unrounded /e/↔ /eɪ̅̅ “A” (with /ɚ/ Schwar (“er” – /o/↔/oʊ/ “O” (with diphthong) completely unstressed) diphthong partner) Mid-front Mid-central Mid-back Tense Lax Tense Unrounded Rounded Rounded /ɛ/ “Low E” sound /ə/ Schwa “a” (low a) sound /ɔ/ “Aw” & “Au” words Low-Mid Front Mid-central Low/Mid-back Lax Lax Tense Unrounded Unrounded Rounded /æ/ Nasal “Ah” /Ʌ/ “Up” & “Um” words /ɑ/ (Father) “A” Low Front Low-Mid Back Central Low Back Lax Lax Tense Unrounded Unrounded Unrounded b. Morphemes, Phonemes, Morphs, Phones, Allophones, Allographs a. Morpheme – the minimum unit of meaning, or the smallest unit of language that carries semantic power i. Makes up your lexicon ii. Example: Cat + s = cats (cat and /s/ are both morphemes) iii. Words make up the dictionary & morphemes make up the lexicon b. Phoneme – the basic sound segment that has the linguistic function of distinguishing morphemes, e.g., cat, fat, mat, sat, hat, rat, pat, vat i. These differ only by a single alphabet letter or “grapheme” c. Morphs – An individual “morpheme like-shape” i. Many morphs will actually will turn into morphemes as an individual language “evolves”—The “o” as in some made up words like “applause-o-meter” is a morph d. Phones – A specific or individual occurrence of a phoneme i. AKA that individual utterance can NEVER happen again ii. English has a defective orthography, so many sounds mean the same thing e. Allophones – Any of the speech sounds that represent a single phoneme i. Such as the aspirated k in kit and the unaspirated k in skit, which are allophones of the phoneme k f. Allographs – Different letters or combinations of letters that represent the same phoneme i. So “ss”, “sh”, “ti”, “ch”, & “ci” are allographs because of the sound that we know as “sh” c. What is free variation, complementary distribution? a. d. Phonetics, dialect, speech community a. Phonetics – Speech is pattern of movement of speech organs and a pattern of acoustic vibrations b. Dialects – Characteristics of speakers who use the language of a country but who differ from other speakers of that language in pronunciation, vocab, or grammatical construction c. Speech Community – Group of people who live within the same geo boundaries and use the same language (i.e., US is American English) e. Minimal pair, cognate pair, a vowel, a diphthong a. Minimal pair or minimal contrasts are contrasts between two morphemes that differ by only one sound segment i. “Say” & “Fay” these sound changes, /s/ to /f/ are known as minimal pairs b. Cognate pair – 2 minimal pairs that differ only by voicing function are known as cognate pairs c. Diphthongs – means “2 sounds”, they are defined as vowel-like sounds with gradually changing articulation i. two vowels  one sound


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