CMN3~ Midterm #1 Study Guide
CMN3~ Midterm #1 Study Guide CMN 3
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tammi Notetaker on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CMN 3 at University of California - Davis taught by Hamilton, Virginia in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 653 views. For similar materials see Interpersonal Communication in Communication Studies at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
CMN 3 Study guide Introduction and Communication Competence Variables in communication Shared meaning having a purpose People cosender coreceiver both are sending and receiving at the same time Le a cosender has to receive also in that they have to receive the responses from the other person in order to modify their sending method and coreceivers have to be aware how to send signals to the cosender in order give nonverbal feedback Messages information Channels verbal nonverbal occurs in a context shapes meaning EX QUESTION do you want to eat here or in the kitchen RESPONSE It s cold in here Overall meaning they want to eat in the kitchen Context effects interpretation Noise physical annoying noise 9 dinging buzzing ringing This can be eliminated psychological ignoring the other person in an argument 9 NO shared meaning thinking of the next comeback in an argument racialstereotype Two key variables that are the center of defining communication Sender and Receiver Has to happen behaviorally between two people for the senderreceiver model to label the behavior as communication lntentionality speaker has a specific meaning to be transferred and reception did the info get received processed 9 Intention receiver communication Small Group Communication Definition of a small group 37 people working together to achieve a common goal Assembly effect when the group s solution or product is superior to the individual work of even the best member Synergy total amount of available group energy that can be applied to the task common goal Intrinsic synergy Interpersonal challenges Effective synergy energy that is left over for the task Assets and liabilities for using group process to solve tasks Groups can accumulate more knowledge and fact may have a broader perspective and consider more approaches and alternative solutions and individuals who participate in the decision process are more likely to be satisfies with the decision and support the decision Groups tend to work more slowly They take up time to reach a decision and time costs money effort results in compromises which aren t always the optimal decision from an effectiveness perspective can be and usually are dominated by one individual or small clique Structuration theory and the process of role development in groups Group roles get developed through this process but it is NOT always beneficial because sometimes people are socially reinforced into roles they dislike or they become limited by being stuck in a role Difference between task and interpersonal roles more of an initiator focused driven motivated EX initiator information seeker iver opinion seekergiver clarifier coordinator orienter imore of an emotional support type connecting bonding creating cohesion and relationships among members EX Supporter harmonizer tension reliever gatekeeper encourages less talkative members to join in the discussion All group participants should speak up and contribute to the group s discussions when info 9 to offer relevant information point of view 9 offer relevant opinions evaluation 9 offer personal opinions about the selected ideas for consideration Process 9 both a participant and an observer of the group Offers suggestions regarding the way the group is operating Understanding 9 expressingshowing that you are tracking especially after a difficult discussion Agreement 9 becoming part of a consensus about a topic that has been discussed extensively Phases of group development 1 Orientation forming everyone is tentative amp on their good behavior 2 Conflict Storming people begin to lower their guard and openly disagree 3 Emergence norming begin to establish a routine way of being together 4 Performance Performing have achieved something together as a working group McGregor and the qualities of effective groups The atmosphere tends to be informal comfortable and relaxed There s a lot of discussion in which virtually everyone participates but it remains pertinent to the task of the group The task or objective of the group is well understood amp accepted by the members Adjust and formulate objectives in a way that members could commit Members listen to each other Every idea is heard People don t appear to be afraid of being foolish by putting forth a creative thought even if it seems fairly extreme There s disagreement and it isn t suppressed or overridden Reasons are carefully examined and the group seeks to resolve rather that dominate Most decisions are reached by a kind of consensus Formal voting is at a min the group doesn t accept a simple majority as a proper basis for action Criticism of ideas are frequent frank and relatively comfortable People are free in expressing their feelings as well as their ideas both on the problem and the group s operation When action is taken clear assignments are made and accepted Chairperson of group doesn t dominate The leadership shift from time to time There s little evidence of struggle for power Group is selfconscious of its own operation Why are groups dynamic lnherent contradictions in group process Four contradictions inherent in all group processes 1 Quality decision outcome or results vs deadlines 2 Task work vs interpersonal work 3 lndividual s vs group s goals 4 Agreement vs disagreement Communicator Competence and Traits Performative competence and process competence a surface level execution of message to person create goal have an objective the actual performance of the daytoday behaviors a deeper level consisting of everything we have to know in order to perform Which comes first Process competence Five things a competent communicator must know 1 Assign meaning to the world around them 2 Set goals strategically what do I want to achieve should I contribute 3 Take on social roles appropriately What s my relationship to others 4Present a valued image of themselves How do I want others to view me 5 Generate intelligible messages Communication apprehension Anxiety when speaking publicly for a presentation 9How many Americans report experiencing it 85 Communication contexts that people experience anxiety Giving public speeches small groups oneonone conversations and mediated communication Difference between traitlike CA and situationalCA Traitlike is those who experience apprehension in all contexts whereas the situational CA is when those who experience apprehension only one or two context Three treatments for speech anxiety 1 Systematic desensitization focuses on identifying and reducing the physiological bodily responses to fear 2 Cognitive restructuring focuses on replacing one s negative selftalk with realistic and encouraging selftalk 3 Skills training practicing and developing the skills associated with effective communication Difference between a performance orientation and a communication orientation to public speaking accounts for most of the fear people experience speaking by being as natural and direct as possible better to use this approach According to Motley the main reason why some people experience speech anxiety Not memorizing or reading the speech Speaking extemporaneously with a keynote outline Giving consistent and brief eye contact around the room Remaining natural to your own style of communicating don t try to gesture or be facially animated if your aren t naturally like that Definition of aggression The application of pressure to another person Four traits of aggression 1 Assertiveness putting your rights fonvard without hampering other s rights 2 Argumentativeness willingness to discuss controversial topics and ability to defend one s point of view even in the face of strong opposition pos correlation with effective leadership 3 Hostility open display of anger for the purposes of venting and or dominating 4 Verbal insults flaming speaking in attacking and insulting manner How are assertiveness and argumentativeness considered to be positive forms of aggression It has a positive correlation with effective leadership Rhetorically sensitive These communicators moderate between the two extremes by embodying a concerns for self concern for others and a situational attitude Why is it considered important This way you can adapt and adjust your message based on the audience Noble self and rhetorical reflector they stick to their personal ideals and style without variation and without adapting or adjusting to others Individuals who at the opposite extremes moderate themselves to others whishes without following one s personal needs or principles Conversational style how we choose to frame our messages as senders influences how we interpret other sender messages Various conversational signals and devices vocal tone vocal pace vocal volume and vocal intonation expressive reactions degree of reaction we give to out conversational partners Asking questions degree to which we engage in questionasking Complaining9 degree to which we openly complain with others or not Matching9 degree to which we watch others regarding such conversational practice such as selfdisclosure joke compliments etc Immediacy 9 an effective communication style open expression of liking and acceptance us to feel close to one another Outcomes of an immediate style Increased mutual liking affiliation and affect more approachable increased solidarity decreased anxiety decreased status difference Increased perceptions of communication competence potential drawbacks Verbal and nonverbal immediacy techniques Expressive9 take care be careful Selfdisclosive9 revealing personal stories sharing one s thoughts worries Caring and appreciation I value your input responsive I understand how you feel Use direct references I thought of you when Praise9 You write very clearly ncusive9 Do you want to join us Futureoriented9 I look forward to working with you again Dressing appropriately to the situation Leaning toward open body orientation Nodding Eye contact Smiling9 pleasant facial expression nterested voice Sitting closer Being sensitive to and honoring time constraints Verbal Communication Vehicle of meaning denotative meaning and connotative meaning signs and symbols the objective agreedupon meaning of a word The dictionary definition the psychological idiosyncratic meaning an individual experiences with the word Signs and symbols considered to be meaning vehicles they direct and change how messages information can be interpreted Difference between a sign and a symbol Symbols are used to intentionally transfer meaning from one source to another Signs are unintentional and naturally occurring events Premises of the cooperation principle communication partners need to help each other in order to have an effective conversation cooperation principle Is the assumptions that senders guarantee relevance and receivers assume relevance we go into a conversation expecting the other person to make a good faith effort to produce meaningful messages when meanings are ambiguous this puts extra work on the receiver to find the intended meaning Four conversational maxims and what does each of them mean 1 Quantity maxim one s words should be informative as is required no more and no less We shouldn t talk too much or not enough 2 Quality maxim words should be accurate and truthful This is violated when you lie deceive exaggerate embellish distort or omit known truths 3 Relevance maxim contributions should be on topic or one should notify the listener clearly that heshe is changing the current topic 4 Manner maxim9 words should make sense and be presented in a way that is perceived as socially appropriate When should we be more or less abstract when speaking When details matter be more specific less abstract When details matter less be less specific a bit more abstract When details really don t matter be abstract Nonverbal Communication When is verbal communication better at conveying meaning It is better for facts and information When is nonverbal communication better at conveying meaning It s better for expression emotions and other functions listed below Characteristics of nonverbal communication 1 Nonverbal behaviors are omnipresent Behavior is always there people are always behaving 2 Multifunctional layers many emotions in one moment9 worry relief anger 3 Some nonverbal codes are universal crying and laughing 4 Can be ambiguous there s no dictionary for nonverbal9 crossing arms can be considered closed off or it s just comfortable 5 Nonverbal is trusted more than verbal communication we know that people can lie so we go off of how people act Four functions of nonverbal communication discussed in lecture 1 Expressing emotion 2 Manage impression senders and form impressions receivers having a face on 9 lounging at home versus going out to party it s notjust physical appearance it is also one s attitudemoodpersonality 3 Defines and manages relationships friend at church vs same friend at party 4 Structure interactions way you re dressed shapes how people talk to you Facework9 Manipulate your natural self to make a certain impression attitude and physical appearance Research findings discussed regarding each of the codes 9 Highly salient and meaningful of all the nonverbal codes We focus on faces Has the greatest encoding what senders do and decoding what receivers do potential of all the nonverbal sources 9 We manage and control our facial expressions to fit with appropriate social requirements 9 Smiling is a universal code of goodwill and thus a very important nonverbal code that is on the face Although it can mean other things as well EX9 women always smiling men smiling when they are pleased 9Eye contact Direct eye contact is essential to be perceived as competent credible and trustworthy 9Eye gaze Is a form of intimacy Connects people People with strong feelings toward one another will hold longer gaze than those who don t know or don t care for each other females more than males astaring Used in threatening situations and when someone interests us 9Pupil dilation When the room is dark or we feel physiologically stimulated our pupils dilate deception attraction EX candlelight dinner 9We perceive people with stron postures to be stroni selfconfident and credible 9Convicted rapists report that they are more likely to attack people with weak postures because they perceive them to be less likely to put up a fight 9Every single sound that comes from the voice is considered a nonverbal source snorting sneezing laughing whispering crying moaning 9Vocalics second to the face is a highly salient and meaningful source of nonverbal meanings 9The study of physical distance between people as a form of communication We move closer to people we know better or when the topic is personal We move farther away from people we know less well or when the topic is of a professional impersonal nature 9Cultures vaq in how close they like to stand next to one another when conversing EX People in North America tend to prefer greater distances 9The study of touch as communication 9Touch is essential for infants and young children to grow and thrive into a healthy welladjusted human being 9Children who were denied touch can develop severe health problems 9Touch enhances health and longevity in older people although as we grow older we receive less and less touch older people need more touch 9The study of was communication 9People show their superiority position and power by using other people s time and by not following the same time rules as others 9People show they someone by wanting to spend more time with them by wanting to spend prime times with them New Year s Eve and by planning mutual events into the future EX boss allowed to come in late and run the meeting later as well They own the time Three different types of gestures discussed in class 9Emblems translate into a precise verbal meaning thumbs up 9llustrators depict a visual image of what is being said 9Adaptors releaserelieve physical or psychological tension rubbing your shoulder because you hurt your shoulder working out Self twirling hair uneasy stomach rubbing shoulder Other grab someone s knee on accident because they got scared Object unwind paper clip fiddling with change in pocket Females self mostly Male object mostly
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