Prelim 2 Study Guide
Prelim 2 Study Guide BIOEE 1540
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This 34 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erica on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOEE 1540 at Cornell University taught by Bruce C. Monger in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
Study Guide Prelim 2 Ocean Primary Production 1 Why Study Primary Production Carbon cycle l closely related to global warming issue Photosynthesis consumes C02 to form carbon of algae Respiration produces C02 The difference between photosynthesis and respiration by all organisms is what sinks to the oor of the ocean Requirements for Growth Primary Production consumes C02 and forms organic carbon that sinks into the deep ocean amp makes oxygen Plankton Small organisms that drift with ocean currents Phytoplankton Small cells that contain chlorophyll and drift with ocean currents Photosynthesis 6C02 6H20 Light Energy C6H1206 02 Carbon dioxide water sunlight energy l glucose oxygen Net Primary Production NPP is the difference between the amount of C02 consumed by photosynthesis and the amount that is produced by respiration NPP Photosynthesis Respiration Net gainloss ofcarbon Major Phytoplankton Groups the vast majority of primary production is carried out through phytoplankton Diatoms Require Silica Flagellates Motile so they don t sink Growth Rate Photosynthetic Bacteria able to grow at low nutrient concentrations Pattern of Light and Nutrient uptake by Phytoplankton Light dependency NPP phytoplankton cells don t have enough light to photosynthesize fast enough to meet metabolic needs Cell respiration gt Photosynthesis Low light levels l light limited 0 Optimal light levels l light saturated Very high light levels l photoinhibited Compensation Depth where ambient light intensity compensation light intensity Nutrient dependency NPP Nutrient needed proportional to phytoplankton cell massvolume Amount of nutrient that can be transported into a cell proportional to cell s surface area 0 Small cells larger surface area volume ratio than larger cells 0 Smaller cells grow better at lower nutrient concentrations 0 4 Phytoplankton Nutrients of interest Nitrogen Phosphorus Silica Iron Main source of N P amp Si is by vertical mixingupwelling of nutrientrich deepwater to the surface Large Phytopla nktonl I Main source of Fe input is from dust blowing Small Phytoplankton off of continents LOW HIGH Nutrient Concentration 3 Spatial Variations O 0 Fe limited regions southern ocean subpolar north paci c eastern equatorial paci c Summary Light is plentiful nutrients are limiting Deep ocean nutrients plentiful light limiting Surface amp deep waters separated by thermocline Primary Production is enhanced when there s high light amp high nutrients of Primary Production Dramatic increases in primary production occur wherever and whenever deep nutrient rich water is brought up to the ocean surface Subtropical Gyre Primary Production Low primary production yearround because of persistent lens of warm water Equatorial Primary Production Modest seasonality in the Atlantic Strong interannual variation in the Paci c because of El Nino more on this in later lectures 0 Coastal Primary Production High year round exceptionally high during upwelling periods in certain regions California Chile Portugal Northwest Africa South Africa and Arabian Peninsula 4 Temporal Variations of Primary Production Westerly Wind Belt Region 3060 degree latitude Strong seasonal variation in seasurface temperature in both Paci c and Atlantic Strong seasonal change in the depth of the seasonal thermocline in the Atlantic not Paci c bc it s not salty enough Temperature Cl Temperature DC 0 5 10 15 20 25 U 5 lllU 15 20 25 U Mixing 7 Depth I 39 lot 100 E 200 200 3 3 i 3010 300 400 4GB 500 7 500 t l Light Intensity llet Primary Productioh 0 25 so 75 mo 1 o 1 2 3 4 5 U D Phumihibiteci Liglht Saturated SD 50 lliglht Limited 39 i warm T Depth 9 100 100 Li D I l 150 150 I I I I 200 200 39 The Critical Depth 0 Cells below the compensation depth lose carbon because light is too low for NPP o The average light level that phytoplankton experience in 1 day becomes dimmer as mixing depth increases 0 Cells that mix below the critical depth they have lost too much carbon because of spending too much of the day below the compensation depth 5pring Shoaing 0f Thermocine above Critical Depth brings positive NPP 0 Winter mixing is below critical depth NPP negative 0 Spring mixing is above critical depth NPP positive Large seasonal increase in RF in the North Atlantic due to deep Winter mixing amp strong springtime strati cation Westerly Wind Region 0 Deep vertical mixing in winter brings high levels of nutrients to surface 0 Formation of shallow thermocline in spring l nutrients a re still plentiful from winter spring bloom forms 0 Continued strati cation in summer l mixing remains shallow nutrient limited Poar Ocean Regions 0 Same as temperate ocean but melting of ice shelf enhances strati cation 5 Total Global Ocean Primary Production Goba NPP is about 104 Gt C yr 391 Terrestria NPP is about 54 of Global NPP Oceanic NPP is about 46 of Global NPP Total Global Ocean 50 Gt Carbon per year Open ocean exhibits small ow intensities of RP but they make up most of the global ocean total NPP 71 6 Evolving Concepts lron Limitation Main source of Iron input to surface ocean is dust blowing off from continents High nitrate low chlorophyll regions 0 Southern Ocean Phosohoru5 Limitation Station Aloha in the North Paci c Subtropical Gyre Conclusions 0 N and sometimes Fe amp P often limits phytoplankton growth 0 Global ocean primary production is of the same order of magnitude as the global terrestrial system 0 The rate of primary productivity per square meter in the open ocean is low but because this region is so vast it dominates the total global ocean PP Food Webs Pelagic Food Chains Complex food webs are simpli ed by grouping the species into small broad categories Grouping depends on Main food sources of the organism Autotroph Group Carbon growth comes from nonorganic sources Heterotroph Group Carbon growth comes from previously formed organic carbon material 0 Trophic Level Nutritional feeding level within a food chainweb Main predators of the organism Simpli ed Pelagic Food Chain Conceptualization Top Tropic Level Second Tropic Level First Tropic Level Assigning Organisms to Trophic Levels Is the organism Autotrophc or heterotrophic Does the organism contain chlorophyll yes a utotroph no heterotroph o Heterotrophic l is the organism a orimarysecono arytertiary consumer 7 Other Natural Climate Oscillations 5ize determines almost everything about an organism 5 position on the community Prey size is often 110 the consumer s size Marine food webs are strongly SizeStructured 8 Trophic Pyramid Trophic Transfer Ef ciency Trophic Transfer Ef ciency depends on exploitation ef ciency amp gross production ef ciency Trophic Transfer Ef ciency Exploitation Ef ciency X Gross Production Ef ciency Trophic Transfer Ef ciency T T Sunlight Carbon Dioxide Exploitation Efficiency o The ef ciency with which a consumer population is able to nd capture and ingest all potential prey present in the environment 0 A game of hide and seekquot Strategies for detecting and capturing prey 0 Locomotion Cruising relying on own locomotion Ambush relying on the locomotion of your prey to come to you 0 Perception Visual perception Mechanosensory Chemosensory 0 RaptoriaI grasp prey with appendages 0 Direct Interception bump into prey and engulf o Filtering sieve large volumes of water 0 Entanglement set net or trap Counter strategies to avoid detection and frustrate capture 0 Avoid encounters 0r detection remain motionless be transparent separate by time andor space Diel Vertical Migration migrate up to surface layer at night to feed in the dark migrate down during the day for safety of darkness 0 Frustrate the capture process spines mechanical defense escape response schooHng Biouminescence 0 Examples 0 Spring Blooms in the Temperate North Atlantic Region 0 Exploitation ef ciency is very low much of phytoplankton is not found by grazers and instead sinks into the deep ocean as dead phytoplankton cells 0 Tropical Environments o Exploitation ef ciency is very high almost all phytoplankton is found and consumed by grazers Gross Production Ef ciency Gross Growth Production Ef ciency amount of consumer biomass produced amount of prey ingested This ef ciency ranges between 20 60 7739ophic 7739an5fer Ef ciency Summary Trophic transfer ef ciency is a function of exploitation efficiency 10 to 90 and gross production efficiency 20 to 60 The combined effect of both exploitation and gross production ef ciencies yields an overall trophic transfer ef ciency of about 10 to 20 10 trophic transfer ef ciency 9 Consequences of Food Chain Length on Harvestable Fish production Small cells have the growth advantage at low nutrient conditions This is important Open oceanregion there are a lot of trophic steps 7 steps to get to harvestable sh Costal region 2 trophic steps 0 Very ef cient transfer of carbon from primary producer to harvestable sh 0 This region is the most productive for sh The upper limit on the total biomass of harvestable sh in an ocean province is determined by 0 Intensity of primary production per square meter in the ocean province and areal extent of the ocean province 0 Number of trophic levels between primary producers and the harvestable sh in the ocean province and the trophic transfer ef ciencies between each of trophic levels Microbial Processes Part I De nitions 0igotroohic Pelagic environment water column that naturally very low plant nutrient concentrations 0 The vast subtropical gyres are oligotrophic Eutroohic Pelagic environment water column that naturally has high plant nutrient concentrations 0 Coastal upwelling zones are eutrophic Preferreo Prey Size is 11O of consumer size General Rule 0 Other than chlorophyll size determines almost everything about an organisms role in the community of pelagic organisms o Determines who it will eatwho will eat it Piled up water tilts the thermocline deeper in west amp shallower in the east Eoi uorescent Microscopy amp Fluorescent DNA Stains Widespread between 1975 amp 1985 0 Increased estimates of bacterial concentrations in the ocean o Allowed easy distinction between autotrophicheterotrophic cells New View of Marine Food Webs Recognizes the importance of high bacterial biomass and many nano agellates that are heterotrophic consumers of bacteria Unanswered Question What is the carbon amp energy source for all this newly discovered heterotrophic bacteria Heterotrophic bacteria are growing on dissolved organic matter that is released from phytoplankton Microbial Loop describes the role that microbes play in the marine ecosystem carbon cycle 0 Coined by Azam 1983 Discovery of a new BacteriaSized Autotroph o Autotroph known as Prochlorococcus o 1988 Paper describing presence of a new type of very small autotroph that is present in high abundance especially oligotrophic regions Written by Sally Chisholm amp others Discovery made using a new technique Analytic Flow Cyometry Pr0ch0r0c0ccu5 Abu nda nce Prochlorococcus abundance in the oligotrophic openocean is similar in magnitude to the abundance of heterotrophic bacteria 0 About 13 of all bacteria in the oligotrophic openocean is a utotro p h i c Prochlorococcus Discovery of a new BacteriaSized Autotroph o Autotroph known as Prochlorococcus o 1988 Paper describing presence of a new type of very small autotroph that is present in high abundance especially oligotrophic regions Written by Sally Chisholm amp others Discovery made using a new technique Analytic Flow Cyometry New View 19905 0 ln oligotrophic low nutrient encironments in the open ocean the advantage goes to the smallest phytoplankton cells o Represented mainly by Prochorococcus o Prochorococcus is the main contributor to primary production in openocean environments 0 Prochorococcus singlehandedly contributes more than 14 of total ocean primary production the remainder coming from other phytoplankton groups Summary 1Heterotrophic bacteria are highly abundant in all ocean environments Dissolved organic carbon from large phytoplankton cells are consumed by heterotrophic bacteria this organic carbon will be respired back to carbon dioxide 2 Prochorococcus is an autotrophic bacterium 0 It s the main primary producer in oligotrophic environments 0 It s responsible for more than 14 of the global primary production 3 The majority of living biomass in the open ocean is in the form of heterotrophic bacteria amp Prochorococcus this was only discovered fairly recently Part II Carbon amp Nitrogen Cycling within Marine Food Webs Role of Microbes in Carbon Cycle 0 The biological carbon pump 0 When phytoplankton cells are large the dominant grazers are large large material containing carbon sinks into deep ocean forms an efficient carbon pump When opposite occurs phytoplankton are small the biological pump is inefficient The carbon pump is very ef cient in coastal upwelling zones My 1As nutrient concentration is reduced the competitive growth advantage shifts to small phytoplankton cells 2 Small phytoplankton cells found at low nutrient concentrations enhance the of organic carbon that s respired back to carbon dioxide 0 Carbon is NOT ef ciently pumped into the ocean 3 Large phytoplankton cells found at high nutrient concentrations increase the of organic carbon that s pumped into the deep ocean Carbon is ef ciently pumped into the ocean Role of Microbes in Nitrogen Cycle 0 All living things have a roughly xed ration of major elements in their cells C N P O 0 This is often referred to a xed chemical stoichiometry Because of this xed chemical stoichiometry in all living matter the pattern of recycling export into the deep ocean for all major elements will look quite similar 0 Example where you nd C being recycled you also nd N being proportionally recycled Nitrogen Cycling the concept of new amp recycled primary production Total Primary Production recycled new primary production 0 Recycled primary production uses Ammonia generated by animal excretion in the upper ocean for its nitrogen source 0 New primary production uses Nitrate from the deep ocean for its nitrogen source Summary 1As nutrient concentration is reduced the competitive growth advantage shifts to small phytoplankton cells 22Oligotrophic Conditions 0 Small phytoplankton cells amp small grazers enhance the of organic carbon that s respired back into carbon dioxide l carbon not ef ciently pumped Small phytoplankton cells amp small grazers increase the level of nitrogen recycling in the upperocean 3 Eutrophic Conditions 0 Large phytoplankton cells amp small grazers increase the of organic carbon that s pumped into the deep ocean l carbon is ef ciently pumped Large phytoplankton cells amp large grazers decrease the level of nitrogen recycling in the upperocean R0e 0f Microbes in Other Cycles 0 Typically oceanographers want to study the cycling of the element that is limiting the growth of phytoplankton in the region of interest 0 Southern Ocean Iron Cycling 0 North Paci c Subtropical Gyre l Phosphorus Cycling 0 Many places in the world ocean l Nitrogen Cycling Divestment How much longer can we keep emitting C02 0 7 stay below 2Degree Celsius the planet must be taken to 0 Carbon emission 0 Atmospheric C02 has a lifetime of 10000 years 0 Scientists estimate that we have 500 Gt 1015 grams of C02 remaining 0 We currently emit about 50 Gt a year Do we keep emitting at 50 Gt per year for 20 years or slow down emissions now and make 500 Gt last longer The carbon pump is very ef cient in coastal upwelling zones 0 At some point we will need to transform our way of living so which path do we take 7b stay below a 2 Degree Celsius warming 1 Emissions will have to drop 4070 between 2010 amp 2050 2 We have a gap between what s been promised in order to reduce emissions amp what s happened 3 Delay means working much harder in the future Basic Arguments in fa vor of Divestment 1 Cornell is already taking the campus to zero carbon emission by 2035 Cornell already recognizes the need for a zero carbon emissions future by creating a Climate Action Plan that will take the campus here by 2035 The rate of divestment matches the rate at which the campus is being taken to zero carbon emissions It makes good scal sense to divest now 0 When the world agrees to completely phase out fossil carbon energy the stock for these energy companies is going to tank To help now as a student the one obvious thing to is raise your voice for a better world Because of this xed chemical stoichiometry in all living matter the pattern of recycling export into the deep ocean for all major elements will look quite similar 0 Example where you nd C being recycled you also nd N being proportionally recycled Nitrogen Cycling the concept of new amp recycled primary production Total Primary Production recycled new primary production 0 Recycled primary production uses Ammonia generated by animal excretion in the upper ocean for its nitrogen source 0 New primary production uses Nitrate from the deep ocean for its nitrogen source Summary 4As nutrient concentration is reduced the competitive growth advantage shifts to small phytoplankton cells 5Oligotrophic Conditions 0 Small phytoplankton cells amp small grazers enhance the of organic carbon that s respired back into carbon dioxide l carbon not ef ciently pumped Small phytoplankton cells amp small grazers increase the level of nitrogen recycling in the upperocean 6 Eutrophic Conditions 0 Large phytoplankton cells amp small grazers increase the of organic carbon that s pumped into the deep ocean l carbon is ef ciently pumped Large phytoplankton cells amp large grazers decrease the level of nitrogen recycling in the upperocean R0e of Microbes in Other Cycles Typically oceanographers want to study the cycling of the element that is limiting the growth of phytoplankton in the region of interest 0 Southern Ocean Iron Cycling 0 North Paci c Subtropical Gyre l Phosphorus Cycling 0 Many places in the world ocean l Nitrogen Cycling Rocky Intertidal Coral Reeds and Whales Rocky Intertidal Zonann Upper limit set by physical environment Lower limit set by biological interactions 0 Competition Predation Vertical Zonation The hallmark of the intertidal zone Communities are divided into distinct bands or zones at characteristic heights 0 Species are not randomly distributed throughout the intertidal zone but rather are arranged within relatively narrow vertical ranges The zones look like sharply divided belts easily distinguished by the colors of assemblage of organisms that live there Upper limit set by physical environment Lower limit set by biological interactions 0 Competition Predation Physical Stresses often set upper limit to species distributions Stress Factors 1 Desiccation 2 Temperature 3 Food Availability 4 Wave Energy 5 Salinity 6 Dissolved Oxygen Biological Interactions often set lower limit to species distributions Biological Factors 1 Competition for Space 0 Space on a rock is the valuable resource that is in short supply 2 Predation Species are not randomly distributed throughout the intertidal zone but rather are arranged within relatively narrow vertical ranges The zones look like sharply divided belts easily distinguished by the colors of assemblage of organisms that live there Cause of Zonation Barnacle Example 1 The upper limit of both species is determined by emersion larvar that settle too high in the intertidal dry out and die physical factor a Little grey barnacles can tolerate drying better than rock barnacles so they settle higher in the intertidal 2 At lower levels where the rock barnacles can survive the rock barnacle out competes the little grey barnacle for space biological factor and this sets the lower limit for the little grey barnacle 3 The lowest limit of the adult rock barnacles is determined by competition for mussels and predation by whelks or sea stars biological factors Species Diversity within Rocky Intertidal Communities Intermediate Disturbance Physical Disturbance can regulate species diversity within a community 1 Physical disturbance can open up gaps or patches in the rocky intertidal ex wave energy from storms 2 Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis disturbance maximizes species diversity by periodically removing competitively dominant species amp allowing less competitive species to reestablish themselves Too much disturbance l keeps the rock bare with few species Too little disturbance l dominant competitor for space to take over and form a monoculture Star sh predationhigh diversity 0 Sets lower limits of mussel distributions in rocky intertidal Leads to higher species diversity within a rocky intertidal community 0 Mussels can out compete most other organisms for space 0 PisasterStar sh predation sets the lower limit to mussels and below this lower limit other species can settle in o The removal or Pisasterallows mussels to take over l decrease in the community s species diversity just mussels remain Species are not randomly distributed throughout the intertidal zone but rather are arranged within relatively narrow vertical ranges o The zones look like sharply divided belts easily distinguished by the colors of assemblage of organisms that live there Keystone Species Species that have effects on their communities that are proportionately much greater than their abundance would suggest Pisaster is a classic type of keystone predator that strongly in uences community diversity Trophic Cascading Effects 5ea OttersKelp Forest Example 1 Sea Otters eat sea urchins 2 Sea urchins are herbivores that eat tiny young kelp 3 Removal of sea otters allows sea urchins to grow to high abundance 4 Low abundance of sea otters high abundance of sea urchins amp low abundance of kelp forests Coral Reefs CoraAnatomy the process of building a calcium carbonate reef structure is a very slow process lt 1mm per year to about 20mm per year C0ra Energetics o Zooxanthellae are chlorophyllcontaining algal symbionts that live in the tissue of the coral polyp o Corals receive 0 90 of their overall nutrition from photosyntheticderived oroducts Limits to Coral Growth Temperature 0 Limits coral growth to tropical latitudes 0 Optimal 2628 degrees Celsius 0 Restricted 1836 degrees Celsius Suanht 0 Limits coral growth to a depth range extending from the ocean surface down to a maximum of about 25 m 0 Light required for zooxanthellae to photosynthesize Space to Grow 0 Because corals rely on the photosynthesis of Zooxanthellae they have a depth limit set by light levels below which they cannot grow effectively 0 This limit is typically about 25m Predation Coral Reef Formation A new island forms and a fringing reef develops in shallow sunlit waters cose to shore of the island 0 The island slowly sinks with age and the coral slowly upward by secreting its calcium carbonate support structure layerbylayer o Barrier reef At time point the entire island is submerged and all that s left is the reef o Coral atoll o If the island sinks too fast or sea level rises too fast l reef cannot keep up with its upward growth reef then stops growing 0 Drowned reefs C0ra5 compete for space Competing with other corals o Sweeper tentacles Competing with macroalgae o The competitive advantage for taking over space is shifted in favor of microalgae when nutrients from agricultural activities run off the coast and onto coral reefs Predati0n by Crown of Thorns Star sh Acanthaster This star sh is an important predator of corals One of the main sources of coral mortality Eutrophic conditions increase phytoplankton abundance that enhances the growth of the Star sh larvae l to the large increase in abundance of adults and high coral mortality C0ra Bleaching 0 It s the zooxanthellae algae that give gorals all of their natural vibrant colors 0 Coral bleaching is the name given the an event where corals expel their symbiotic zooxanthellae algae due to environmental stress such as unusually warm water o Corals can recover and regain their zooxanthellae if the stress is small or shortlived o Coral death follows if the stress is extreme or prolonged Corals are extremely sensitive to rises in sea temperature 1degree Celsius above normal for just a few weeks can result In bleaching The developing 2015 El Ni o event will bring wide spread cora bleaching amp death The global average loss of coral is now at about 27 0verall Coral reefs around the world are in rapid decline Coral reefs are degrading at an increasing pace because of the effects of both localscale stressors due to pollution and globalscale stressors due to planet warming amp acidi cation of the ocean Localscale stressors should be minimized to offset increasing globalscale stressors Managing local water quality conditions to alleviate the pressure from globalscale stresses is now a top priority Whales CoraAnatomy the process of building a calcium carbonate reef structure is a very slow process lt 1mm per year to about 20mm per year Whale Evolution 1 Pakicetus 53 million years ago after dinosaur age 0 Dogwolf with hoofed feat and long thick tale 0 Special ear bone feature diagnosed for cetaceans and found in no species other than whales 2 Ambulocetus quotwalking whalequot 5049 million years ago 0 Early cetacean that could walk and swim 3 Rodhocetus 4647 million years ago 0 Could still walk on land but not well 4 Dorudon 4036 million years ago 0 5 meters in length 0 Carnivore 0 Couldn t go on land 5 Basilosaurus 4037 million years ago 0 2 feet long 0 Very small hind legs 0 Equipped with cone shaped teeth in front amp triangular teeth in back Evolution from Toothed Whales to Baleen Whales All Baleen Whales Mysticetes are large lterfeeders Used differently among species 0 Gulpfeeding o Skimfeeding 0 Bottom plowing o The rst members appeared about 35 million years ago 0 May have resulted from environmental amp physical changes in the oceans Feeding Modes Baleen whales feed by gulping large quantities of seawater and then squeezing the water through the baeen quot lterquot to retain krill and small sh Vocal2a tions 1 Odontocetes toothed whales 0 Produce rapid bursts of clicks and whistles 0 Do not make the long lowfrequency sounds known as the whale song 0 Single clicks are generally used for echolocation 0 Collections of clicks and whistles are used for communication 0 The multiple sounds themselves are produced by passing air through a structure in the head rater like the human nasalpassage 2 Odontocetes toothed whales 0 Often make the long lowfrequency sounds known as the whale song 0 Have a larynx that appears to play a role in sound production but it lacks vocal cords and scientists remain uncertain as to the exact mechanism Mysticete Vocalization Sexual Selection or Navigation o The complex and haunting sounds of the humpback Whale are believed to be primarily used in sexual selection during mating season but the simpler sounds of other whales have a yearround use 0 Toothed whales are capable of using echolocation to detect size amp nature but this hasn t been demonstrated in Baleen Whales 0 Simple sounds may play a role in navigation because there is poor visibility in the oceans and sound travels well in water 0 Spectograms Used to visualize the whale vocalization 0 Time on Xaxis 0 Frequency on yaxis o Loudness is denoted by brighter colors Frequency Time Christopher Clark Cornell Lab of Ornithology 0 Sources of Anthropogenic Sound Commercial Shipping 0 Engine amp propeller noise Naval Operations 0 Low frequency active sonar Oil Exploration 0 Seismic surveys with explosive air gunscannons 0 Repeated every 10 seconds 24 hours amp weeks at a time 0 Noise Pollution Acoustic Habitatquot no different than spatial habitat and must be preserved Noise Pollutionquot every bit as destructive as other forms of more familiar marine pollution oil plastic etc Whaing This star sh is an important predator of corals One of the main sources of coral mortality Eutrophic conditions increase phytoplankton abundance that enhances the growth of the Star sh larvae l to the large increase in abundance of adults and high coral mortality Whaing International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling ICRW International Whaling Commission IWC was set up under the terms of the ICRW to make decisions on quota levels based on ndings from the Scienti c Committee of the IWC Members of the IWC voted on July 23 1982 to apply a moratorium to all commercial whaling beginning in 1985 Japan 0 Continues to whale by claiming its whaling operation is now for scienti c purposes 0 The IWC allows lethal scienti c whaling but only when it addresses questions vital to management 0 Numbers vary each year but on average it is close to 1000 Minke notendangered 50 Fin endangered 50 Humpback endangered and 5 Sperm endangered whales each year Norway 0 Registered an objection when the 1982 IWC whaling moratorium was signed amp was not bound by it o 1993 Norway decided to exercise its reservation and resumed domestic commercial whaling 0 They now take about 600 Minke not endangered whales each year Iceland 0 Issued licenses in October 2006 for a commercial whale hunt in addition to its continuing hunt for scienti c purposes 0 Iceland has an exemption to the moratorium through the reservation it made in 2002 0 They take about 150 Fin endangered and 200 Minke notendangered whales each year
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