Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide SOCIO1101
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Allardyce on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOCIO1101 at Ohio State University taught by Paul Carruth in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
Chapter 7 Social Class and Inequality in The United States Strati cation in Traditional and Modern Societies Social Inequality A high degree of disparity in income wealth power prestige and other resources Social Strati cation The systematic ranking of different groups of people in a hierarchy of inequality Stratisi cation systems are considered quotclosedquot or quotopenquot depending on how much mobility between layers is available to groups and individuals within a society Caste societies are quotclosedquot and class societies are quotopenquot represent two important examples of systems of stratisi cation Caste Society A system in which the social levels are closed so that all individuals remain at the social level of their birth throughout life Social status is based on personal characteristics such as race or ethnicity parental religion or parental caste that are present at birth and social mobility is virtually impossible Four basic castes for population priests warriors traders and workmen These are based on the country s majority religion Class Society A system in which social mobility allows an individual to change his or her socioeconomic position Class societies exist in modern economic systems and are de ned by several characteristics They are economically based that is class position is determined largely by economic status rather than religion or tradition Class systems are relatively uid boundaries between classes are violable and can be crossed In fact in contrast to caste systems in class systems social mobility is looked at favorably Finally Class status is understood to be achieved rather than ascribed status is ideally not related to a person s position at birth or religion or race or other inherited categories but to the individuals merit or achievement in areas like education and occupation Class status can be profoundly affected by factors like race ender and class of birth Sociological Building Blocks of Strati cation and Social Class 1 Social categories Categories of people sharing common characteristics without necessarily interacting or identifying with one another For example women may be ranked differently than men wealthy people differently than the poor and highly educated people differently than those with little schooling These categories continue to exist as part of the social hierarchy 2a Achieved Status Social position linked to an individual s acquisition of socially valued credentials or skills Ranking may be linked to achieved status People life experience and opportunities are powerfully in uenced by how their social categories are ranked 2b Ascribed Status Social position linked to characteristics that are socially signi cant but cannot generally be altered such as race or gende 3 A socially strati ed systems is that the hierarchical positions of social categories tend to change slowly over time Class A person s economic position in society usually associated with income wealth and occupation and sometimes associated with political voice Class position at birth strongly in uences a person s life chances Life Chances The opportunities and obstacles a person encounters in education social life work and other areas critical to social mobility Social Mobility The upward or downward status movement of individuals or groups over time The American Class Structure Capitalist upper middle middle working working poor and underclass Income The amount of money a person or household earns in a given period of time Most commonly earned at a job and less commonly through investments Fro example Social Security and household income or disability checks lncome pays for food clothing shelter healthcare and other costs of daily living Wealth or net worth The value of everything a person owns minus the value of everything he or she owes Wealth becomes a more important source of status as people rise on the income ladder Key source of wealth is home equity which is essentially the difference between the market value of a home and what is owed on the mortgage This form of wealth is illiquid illiquid assets are those that are logistically difficult to transform into cash because the process is lengthy and complicated Net nancial Assets A measure of wealth that excludes illiquid person assets such as home and car Examples include stocks bonds cash and other forms of investment assets Status The prestige associated with a social position It varies based on factors such as family background and occupation Occupation A person s main vocation or paid employment It is an important determinant of social class because it is the main source of income in modern societies Blue collar consists of manual laborjobs factory workers truck drivers miners agricultural laborers White collar require analytical skills or formal education doctors lawyers and business managers Pink collar described semiskilled lowpaid service jobs that are primarily held by women waitresses salesclerks and receptionists Gold collar jobs of young professionals who commanded large salaries and high occupational positions very early in their professional careers Political Power The ability to exercise in uence on political institutions andor actors in order to realize personal or groups interests It involve the mobilization of resources such as money or technology or political support or a desired constituency and the successful achievement of political goals such as the passage of legislation favorable to a particular group Class and Inequality in The United States Dimensions and Trends Income Inequality Wealth Inequality Other Gaps Inequalities in Health Care Health and Access to Consumer Goods Food deserts Areas that lack sources of competitively priced healthy and fresh food Why has Inequality Grown At the Bottom of the Ladder Poverty In the United States Official Poverty Line The dollar amount set by the government as the minimum necessary to meet the basic needs of a family Chapter 8 Global Inequality and Poverty Dimensions of Global Inequality and Poverty Global Inequality The systematic disparities in income wealth health education access to technology opportunity and power among countries communities and households around the world Gross national Income purchasing power parity per capita A comparative economic measure that uses international dollars to indicate the amount of goods and services someone could buy in the United States with a given amount of money Hunger mortality and Fertility in Poor Countries Infant mortality rate The number of deaths of infants under age 1 per 1000 live births per year Global Health indicators like infant and child mortality rates are linked not only to income differences between countries but also to income strati cation within countries Infant mortality rates are lowest in states that offer access to safe pre and antenatal care and sanitary childbirth facilities As well as good nutrition during pregnancy Total Fertility rate The average number of children a woman in a given country will have in her lifetime if age speci c fertility rates hold throughout her childbearing years ages 1549 We can use this to measure to look at childbearing over space and time Rates of fertility within many countries vary by economic status Modernization theory A market oriented development theory that envisions development as evolutionary and guided by quotmodernquot institutions practices and cultures This theory assumes we can understand a given states level of development by looking at its political economic and social institutions and its cultural orientation This theory has stages of development The traditional stage or prescienti c state societies are present and past time oriented looking back into history for models of economic and political behavior rather then looking forward and seeking new models They embrace tradition over innovation The takeoff stage societies are moving away from cultural norms practices and institutions and are embracing economic development with a sense of purpose and increasing practices of savings and investment In ight with technological progress and cultural modernization Dependency Theory The theory that the poverty of some countries is a consequence of their exploitation by wealthy states which control the global capitalist system World systems theory The theory that the global capitalist economic system has long been shaped by a few powerful economic actors who have ordered it in a way that favors their interests Developed by Immanuel Wallerstein who shared ideas Core COUNTRIES Economically advanced Technologically sophisticated and home to well educated skilled populations They control the vast majority of the world s wealth and reap the greatest bene ts from the world economic order including trade and production practices Chapter 9 Race and Ethnicity Race A group of people who share a set of characteristics usually physical characteristics deemed by society to be socially signi cant Ethnicity Characteristics of groups associated with national origins languages and cultural and religious practices Minorities Less powerful groups who are dominated by more powerful groups and often discriminated against on the basis of characteristics deemed by the majority to be socially signi cant Expulsion The process of forcibly removing a population from a particular area Segregation The practice of separating people spatially or socially on the basis of race or ethnicity Assimilation The absorption of a minority group into the dominant culture Cultural pluralism The co existence of different racial and ethnic groups characterized by acceptance of one another s differences Racism The idea that one racial groups in inherently superior to another often results in institutionalized relationships between dominant and minority groups that create a structure of economic social and political inequality based on socially constructed racial or ethnic categories Prejudice A belief about an individual or a group that is not subject to change on the basis of evidence Stigma An attribute that is deeply discrediting to an individual or a group because it overshadows other attributes and merits the individual or group may possess Mixed contacts Interactions between those who are stigmatized and those who are normalquot Stereotyping The generalization of a set of characteristics to all members of a group Discrimination The unequal treatment of individuals on the basis of their membership in a group Individual discrimination Overt and intentional unequal treatment often based on prejudicial beliefs Institutionalized discrimination Unequal treatment that has become a part of the routine operation of such major social institutions as businesses schools hospitals and the government Scapegoating A process in which one group blames another for the problems those members of the rst group face Social epidemiology The study of communities and their social statuses practices and problems with the aim of understanding patterns of health and disease Chapter 10 Gender and Society Gender roles the attitudes and behaviors that are considered appropriately masculine or feminine in a particular culture Sex The anatomical and other biological characteristics that differ between males and females and that originate in genetic differences Gender Behavioral characteristics that differ between males and females based on culturally enforced and socially learned norms and roles Transgender An umbrella term used to describe those whose ender identity expression or behavior differs from their assigned sex or is outside the gender binary Transsexual A term used to refer to people who use surgery and hormones to change their sex to match their preferred gender Sexuality the ways in which people construct their sexual desires and relationships including the norms governing sexual behavior Sex Category The socially required identi cation display that con rms someone s membership in a given category Second shift The unpaid housework that women typically do after they come home from their paid employment Stereotype threat A situation in which an individual is at risk of con rming a negative stereotype about his or her social group Gender Wage Gap The difference between the earnings of women who work fulltime year round as a group and those of men who work fulltime yearround as a group Occupational segregation by gender The concentration of men and women in different occupations Labor Supply factors Factors that highlight reasons that women or men may prefer particular occupations Labor Demand Factors Factors that highlight the needs and preferences of the employer Human Capital The skills and knowledge a person possesses that make him or her valuable in a particular workplace Indirect labor costs Costs in time training or money incurred when an employee take time off to care for sick family members opts for parental leave arrives at work late or leaves a position after receiving employer provided training Glass ceiling An arti cial boundary that allows women to see the next occupational or salary level even as structural obstacles keep them from reaching it Glass escalator The nearly invisible promotional boost that men gain in female dominated occupations Sexual Harassment Unwelcome sexual advances requests for sexual favors or physical conduct of a sexual nature when such conduct is used as a condition of employment instruction evaluation bene ts or other opportunities or when such conduct interferes with an individual s performance or contributes to an intimidating hostile or offensive environment Quid pro quo sexual harassment The demand or implications that a sexual favor will buy a promotion or an opportunity to keep one s job Hostile Environment Harassment Conditions in the workplace that someone perceives as intimidating uncomfortable or otherwise distressing Feminism The belief that social equality should exist between the sexes also the social movements aimed at achieving that goal Sexism The belief that one sex is innately superior to the other and is therefore justi ed in having dominant social position Liberal feminism The belief that women s inequality is primarily the result of imperfect institution which can be corrected by reforms that do not fundamentally alter society itself Socialist feminism The belief that women s inequality results from the combination of capitalistic economic relations and male domination argues that both must be transformed fundamentally before women can achieve equality Radical feminism The belief that women s inequality underlies all other forms of inequality including economic inequality Patriarchy Any set of social relationships in which men dominate women Multicultural feminism The belief that inequality must be understood and ended for all women regardless of race class nationality age sexual orientation physical ability or other characteristics Standpoint theory A perspective that says the knowledge we create is conditioned by where we stand or our subjective social position Standpoint Epistemology A philosophical perspective that argues that what we can know is affected by the position we occupy in society Matrix of Domination A system of social positions in which any individual may concurrently occupy a status for example gender race class or sexual orientation as a member of a dominated group and a status as a member of a dominating group
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