Intro to Sociology Midterm Study Guide
Intro to Sociology Midterm Study Guide T SOC 165
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kimberly Notetaker on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to T SOC 165 at University of Washington taught by Tanya Velasquez in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see INTRO SOCIOLOGY (I&S,DIV) in Math at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
Intro to Sociology Midterm Study Guide 0 Sociological Imagination the ability to connect the most basic intimate aspects of an individual s life to seemingly impersonal and remote historical forces 0 Hegemony a condition by which a dominant group uses its power to elicit the voluntary consent of the masses O The dominant control of a group of people by ideas knowledge and beliefs not necessarily by violent force or coercion but by consent I Tacit Consent Simply by walking along the highways of a country a person gives tacit consent to the government and agrees to obey it while living in its territory O The processes of hegemony are I a Absorption or the Story Told The parts of the story or angle that are most frequently presented to the public by AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION I b Insulation or the Story Untold The parts of the story or angle that are often kept away hidden from andor deemed inappropriate for the public O The tools of hegemony I a Connotation what s implied and intonation how it s said I b Context where when and by whom I C Imagery symbols and pictures that convey ideas I 1 Language e g select words that have powerful meaningwords that serve as code and words that neutralize Q The Seven Tenets of the Sociological Imagination O 3 The Social Construction of human identities and roles in society which function to uphold social order and in some cases inequalities I EX Big wealthy corporations and their personnel need working middle class people to buy their products so stay rich O 7 The Personal is Political personal troubles can be indicative of larger social ills and public issues I EX Politicians make the personal troubles of mass shootings to drive their campaign political agenda 0 Functionalist Theory the theory that various social institutions and processes in society eXist to serve some important or necessary function to keep society running 0 Conflict Theory the idea that con ict between competing interests is the basic animating force of social Change and society in general 0 Symbolic interactionism a micro level theory in which shared meanings orientations and assumptions form the basic motivations behind people s actions Q Ascribed Status A status into which one is born INVOLUNTARY status A social position assigned to a person by society without regard for the person s unique and individual talents or characteristics E g race and ethnicity seX age social class Some of these characteristics are often understoodperceived to be biological in origin but are significant mainly because of the social meanings they have in our culture 0 Achieved Status A status into which one enters VOLUNTARY status A social position attained by a person largely through his or her own efforts e g college graduate husband marathon runner etc NOTE Our ACHIEVED status can be heavily in uenced by our ASCRIBED status 0 Master Status One status within a set that stands out or overrides all others A status that dominates others for an individual and thereby determines their general position within a society 0 Deductive Research Approach a research approach that starts with a theory forms a hypothesis makes empirical observations and then analyzes the data to confirm reject or modify them original theory 0 Inductive Research Approach a research approach that starts with empirical observations and then works to from a theory 0 Correlation simultaneous variation in two variables 0 EX People with high incomes tend to have better overall health 0 EX Poorer health gt Lower Income 0 EX Poorer health lt Lower income 0 EX Reckless Tendencies Poorer health Lower income 0 Causality the notion that a change in one factor results in a corresponding change in another O Three factors are needed I correlation time order and the ruling out of other other possible alternatives 0 Four Agents of Socialization 0 Peers family school media 0 Process of Socialization From early on one is taught of a society s cultural norms socialization whether that be to raise one s hand or stand in a straight line at school or to be nice by one s parents and so on as life goes on Rewards are given out compliments acceptance monetary awards etc to enforce these teachings as they are done correctly And sanctions scolding bullying isolation are given out as punishment for not following these social cultural norms 0 Culture a set of beliefs traditions and practices that which is not the natural environment around us 0 Goffman s Dramaturgical Stages Based off impression management 0 Front Stage requires performers and an audience O Back Stage performers are present and interact where they step out of character no audience O Off Stage individuals are not involved in a performance at all only intrapersonal dialogue with yourself O EX Student puts on brave face in front of class and teacher as they do speech but afterward with their friends they unload that they were terrified while speaking in front of the entire class and even later as the two friends depart the student continues to stress and worry if they did well 0 Looking Glass Self Theory 1 see me the way I think you see me Q We learn by interacting with others Our view of ourselves comes not only from direct contemplation of our personal qualities but also from our impression of how others perceive us 0 The I we imagine how we present ourselves to others friends relatives strangers co workers etc 0 The Me we imagine how others evaluate us attractive intelligent shy etc Q We develop some sort of feelings about ourselvessuch as respect or shame as a result of these impressions 0 Primary Deviance the first act of rule breaking that may incur a label of deviant and thus in uence how people think about and act toward you Q Labeling Theory the belief that individuals subconsciously notice how others see or label them and their reactions to those labels over time form the basis of their self identity 0 Secondary Deviance subsequent acts of rule breaking that occur after primary deviance and as a result of your new deviant label and people s eXpectations of you O Stigma a negative social label that not only changes your behavior toward a person but also alters that person s own self concept and social identity 0 It is the deviants among us who hold society together when someone commits an act of deviance when someone breaks the law the rest of society is essentially coming together so to speak when they condone his punishment for that crime because that is a social norm everyone lives by knows if you break the law you must be punished
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