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International Nutrition

by: Miss Brooks Schmitt

International Nutrition KINE 460

Miss Brooks Schmitt

GPA 3.67

Kim Whitley

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Kim Whitley
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This 30 page Study Guide was uploaded by Miss Brooks Schmitt on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to KINE 460 at College of William and Mary taught by Kim Whitley in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see /class/231171/kine-460-college-of-william-and-mary in Kinesiology at College of William and Mary.


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Date Created: 10/29/15
Chapter 1 What is Outdoor Leadership the practice of leading individuals and groups into natural settings via a variety of modes of transportation walking biking canoeing caving kayaking and mountaineering Recreation amp Leisure Recreation is considered leisure Recreation occurs during leisure time but leisure is a broader concept then recreation Leisure 7 nonwork activity into which people enter voluntarily for employm ent39s sake but this does not mean that leisure is purposeless potential benefits of leisure as quotrelaxation diversion and refreshment Recreation means quotto regenerate refresh or recreate represents a form of leisure in which individuals exert energy through some form of physical activity quotRather than simply watching others play for the sake of amusement recreation entails participation in the activity quot Outdoor Recreation Outdoor Recreation is considered to be recreation activities that occur in natural settings Defined as quotall those leisure experiences in the outofdoors that are related to the use understanding or appreciation of the natural environment or those leisure activities taking placing indoors that use natural materials or are concerned with quot and 39 39 ofthe quott fquot 39 A series of phases constitute the overall outdoor recreation experience Anticipation Planning Participation and Recollection Environmental Education concerned with two types of relationship Ecosystemic and Ekistic Relationship I Ecosystemic refers to the quotinterdependence of living organisms in an ecological systemquot I Ekistic refer to quotkey interactions between human society and the natural resources of an environment Environmental educators teach people about the relationship of humans to the natural world I Involves developing an understanding of ecosystems and the place of humans with those system I Involves developing an understanding of issues in natural resources management environmental preservation and other areas of concern in the field Adventure Education Provides opportunities for personal and interpersonal growth through adventure experiences This can involve using the challenges of wilderness living and travel to develop greater selfconfidence It can also involve using the aesthetic beauty of natural environments as a source of spiritual enrichment Or it can involve teaching individuals to use adventure sport to maintain a healthy active lifestyle Experiential Education quota philosophy and methodology in which educators purposefully engage with learners in direct experience and focused re ection in order to increase knowledge Chapter 2 Outward Bound Movement Laurence Holt I British shipping tycoon I Lamented the passing of the old squarerigged sailing vessels from the contemporary shipping fleets I Holt found a concern for the younger sailors as during shipwrecks they were not skilled enoughwelltrained to handle such a situation Kurt Hahn I Provided Holt with a better way of preparing his sailors for the sea I Hahn encouraged Holt to fund a sea school in Wales that would offer courses Where young men could endure physical challenges and survival situations that test character I The challenges and perceived situations provided in the sea school gave young men the knowledge and confidence necessary to prepare for the real thing Outward Bound I In 1941 with financial aid from Hahn Holt opened the first Outward Bound school I Began as a survival school but served as not only training for the sea but a training for all of life I Hahn s philosophy with Outward Bound was to enable the student to make intelligent judgments and to develop the inherent strengths of sel qood to build character 1981 pp 4142 I Outward Bound is now a nationwide phenomenon serving over 60000 students per year Professionalization of Outdoor Leadership Paul Petzoldt I Founded the American School ofMounlaineering in the Grand Teaton in 1929 I Had one of the greatest influences on outdoor leadership as a profession I Involved in the development of the first Outward Bound school in the United States I Established the National OutdoorLeadership School NOLS 0 Goal was to promote the development of outdoor leaders 0 This establishment represented the first real attempt to promote outdoor leadership as a profession o Presently one of the most reputable organizations of its kind around the world After leaving NOLS Petzoldt teamed with Chuck Gregory Robert Christie and Frank Lupton to found the Wilderness Education Association WEA 9 1977 o Organization s goal to offer nationally recognized professional certification in outdoor leadership 0 Mission to promote the professionalism of outdoor leadership and to enhance the conversation of the Wild outdoors Berman and Teeters 2002 o The organization was born from a commitment to preserve the United States natural areas through responsible use of said areas 0 The advantages of this organization in comparison to NOLS is that it is able to offer less expensive courses While NOLS does offer a more diverse choice Chapter 3 Professional Development Elements of Profession Body of knowledge that includes scientific bases values and applied skills Organizations and institutions that transmit professional knowledge This category includes collegesmiversities accrediting bodies and professional organizations 0 0 Schools that offer skill and leadership courses Outward Bound National Outdoor Leadership School NOLS Wilderness Education Association WEA American Camp Association ACA American Mountain Guide Association AMGA and Association for Challenge Course Technology ACCT Professional Organizations Association for Experimental Education AEE Association for Outdoor Recreation and Education AORE National Association of Interpreters NAI American Alliance for Health Physical Education Recreation and Dance AAHPERD National IntramuralRecreational Sports Association NIRSA and Association of College Unions International ACUI 0 Several organizations offer programs for accreditation Public sanction meaning that the general population views the occupation as a profession Certification enhances public opinion Code of ethics or values and behaviors that are supported by a particular group of professionals Some view a code of ethics as a standard of conduct Commitment to professional ideals meaning that members of a profession accept rights responsibilities and obligations because they share common values about the field 0 Areas that can contribute to building and maintaining profession 0 Identifying professional incompetence and removing the culprits from service is a risk a management concern 0 Researching what we do and possible consequences is important because proof of effects and understanding processes is essential to add credibility to the field 0 Scarcity of human and financial resources means finding qualified personnel is difficult Steps Toward Professionalism A list of people who consider themselves professionals in the field may or Registration may not be cr1ter1a for add1ng your name on the hst Evidence that a person has a minimum level of skill Certification I Can be specific or more generalized I Can be local or on a national level This is for a program or agency39 where risk management is established Accreditation I ACA AM A and AEE are accredrt agencres For an individual or an agency39 state or legislative body establishes criteria Licensure and methods for provrng abrlrtres Other countries use certifications and skill levels to organize the training and International Status advancement of outdoor leadership Great Britain New Zealand Australia and Canada Places That Use Outdoor Leaders Park Systems Park employees are responsible for the conservation of cultural and natural resources and the development of interpretive programs conveying the significance of those resources to the general public Schools Expeditionary Learning Outward Bound BLOB is suppose to be instituted in schools Adventure Therapy Can be useful in addressing the needs of young people who lack basic developmental support N onpro t Organizations Outdoor Learning Centers Military Recreation Professional Practice Starting a career in outdoor leadership 0 Good idea to look at the AEE Jobs Clearinghouse or jobs posted on an organization s web site Building a ProfessionalDevelopm ental Portfolio 0 Outdoor resumes are different from any other type of resume highlights experiences an background Chapter 4 Leadership Theory James MacGregor Bums Pol Sci and Soc Philosopher wrote Leadership Plato Wrote The Republic said the ideal leader is one who rules with order and reason and is virtuous Machiav e lli The Prince L eadership 1 Is intentional aiming toward accomplishing certain goals 2 Is interactional involving relationships between 2 people There are many definitions Hegemony Suggests that as a culture develops systems of meanings and values are actively created by both groups and individuals Trait Theory of Leadership Leaders are born not made If the leader is endowed with certain superior qualities that separate him from his followers it should be possible to identify these qualities Great Men Theory of Leadership Focuses on historical examples certain factors predestine some to be leaders birth order education upbringing etc Charismatic Leadership Theory Lead by influencing emotions and thus a strong reaction emerge in times of crisis Leadership Styles AutocraticAuthoritarian Leader Highly directive does not allow input Democratic Leadership Emphasizes the need for members to be involved in decision making AbdicraticLaissez faire Leadership Allows group to operate on its own only adds info when asked 1 Any situation plays a large part in determining leadership qualities and Situational Leadershi Theo the leader for that situation p ry39 2 The Leadership qualities of an individual are themselves the product of previous leadership situations that have molded the individual Contingency Leadership Theory Leadership is task or relationship oriented and which leader arises depends on what the situation requires Transactional Leadership Task Oriented using stick stones and reason to accomplish finite goals Transformational Leadership Use relationships to motivate followers to act in the groups interest and to become full self assured people Truer to the idea of leadership Transformational Leaders use the Four I s Idealized leadership provides vision and a sense of mission pride trust and respect N V Inspirational Motivation communicates high expectations and importance of purpose in simple ways L V Intellectual Stimulation promotes intelligence and careful problem solving Individual Consideration gives personal attention treats as individuals and both coaches and advises Feminist Leadership Theory Focuses on communication and communication skills up down and laterally Leaders try and accomplish the best action but it s impossible to find Authentic Leadership Theory universal truth I Servant Leadership Theory I Leader is a servant first see Herman Hesse s book Journey to the East I Chapter 5 7 Leadership in Practice Group Leaders tend to be Autocratic for the first third of the trip abdicratic for most of the trip amp last bit is Auto Leadership Traits and Qualities Modeling Inspiring a shared vision Express what could be and allowing others to buy into that goal Have input from others Challenging the Process Having a goal and accomplishing it Enable others to act A ow others to do good work Encouraging the Heart Display authentic acts of caring appreciation and celebration Lead by examples including physical activities and morals Core Competencies Foundational Knowledge SelfAwareness and Professional Conduct Decision Making and Judgment Teaching and Facilitation Environmental Stewardship Program Management Safety and Risk Management Technical Ability Designated Leader Appointed Leader Emergent Leader A real leader may emerge if a designated leader is incompetent or unwilling Elected Leaders Leader because they are admired Shared Leadership Specialists emerge within the group Halo Effect How being a leader in one situation can expected to be a leader elsewhere Reward Coercive 39 39 39 39 39 quot 39 e um e Jul 39 39 Unethical Legitimate Power In uence granted to elected or appointed leaders inherent in position Referent Power Charismatic power where group values a person s opinion Expert Power in uence based on a person s abilities or knowledge Subcategories ofLeadership 1 Tells 2Sells 3Tests 4Consults 5Joins 6 Delegates Aulacralic Damaual c Ahmclatlc me mammal msseum 39 allmgmlyenns TeHs Sens Tests Consmts loms Delegates quot1112 x 51 gt2 7 mum mm fl Gmw Readinzss m msk RI Umms unwxlhng annsecu e R2 Umms ysmumg ax can dent R3 Able ysmnwunng a xnsecure RA Able lehng mdcan dem Candmaml Ou39dam Leadershp Thzaxy cansequences OmwardEamdecess Made lumex gt pxssmvssa physss emxam em gt pxssmbs sum en lvmg tasks gt sun af saspm xy ax campetency gt umer a pm em 5a afnew lummg FemxmstLudexslmp Skessrelaumslmszxsk mm ememxs shuedcmcem cansensual decmanmakmg persmal expenence success and mime 1m 5 bluxed Dsmsrmg gmng Wexwhatwe leumd Mahvahaml Needs Themy peap e need39hree mugs ssmwmsmmmmm amhunty p haum and awn sea Leaders m cmquot m H mm andmanlJeadex Mm 39 pmquot 7 WWW mm mm s w w 4 gm Wm w m39vumymz r s Chapter 6 Judgment and Decision Making Decision Making the process of choosing the best option from a collection of possible options I Gather data based on the past I Think ahead at potential outcomes that may result from decision I Use sixth sense 3 d eye representation of intuitive wisdom that helps you see the big picture I Recognize any patterns I Be prepared to change plans if outcome isn t what was desired I Decision making will improve with experience and knowledge Judgment based on past experiences and outcomes of decisions that were made39 I knowing what you know and what you don I know Paul Pelzaldl NOLS founder I Good Judgmen ability to arrange experiences resources and information in a commonsense way to obtain positives results I Best Way to Learn Judgment 0 Seek knowledge via formal education 0 Use mentors and coaches 0 Practice practice and practice learning from each experience 0 Maintain a selfdevelopment plan based on feedback from nature and from others I Priest and Gass judgment cannot be taught but can be developed 0 power of reasoning 0 experience alone is insufficient o engage in process of evaluation and thoughtful reflection DecisionMaking Process I Weigh your options consider the pros and cons of each option I be aware of your consequences for the group personally for safety and risk management costs and trip quality I Main variables involved in a decision making focus on the questions who what why when where and how I Gathering information from answering these questions allows you to make a better decision Simple Decisions have fewer variables limited consequences and outcomes that are relatively predictable 0 Should not be time consuming Complex Decisions characterized by uncertainty in terms of the information the options or the outcome I Identifying the level of complexity will allow you to respond to simple decisions relatively effectively and quickly I Outdoor leaders usually make decisions in the middle of the continuum between simple and complex graph pg 75 Decision Making Models combination of models provides the most useful application Analytic Model Highly structured linear nature most helpful in making timely and effective simple decisions prevents simple from developing into complex a Define the Problem b Gather Relevant information c Consider priorities d List solutions e Evaluate solutions and consequences f Implement a decision Reevaluate Natural Nonlinear 10 C reative Outdoor leaders usually rely on systematic thinking comm on sense intuition and experiencebased judgments and apply them to new ones 0 First step is to stop and consider situation mistake people make is making a decision too quickly Nonlinear level of structure and approach Will depend upon the situational variables it is based on pattern recognition re ective thinking stimulation and extended brainstorming a Recognition of patterns involves development of sixth sense39 patterns develop with each Wilderness trip39 patterns include 1 Weather predictions 2 Ability to read participants 3 Average distance that group travels per day 4 How much food to pack per person Reflective Thinking employed when a situation is ambiguous when it presents a dilemma and when alternatives are available39 when uncertainty is present and information is missing then a person must rely on her memory of general concepts composing specific predictions to fill in for uncertainties l Inductive reasoning develop general concepts from specific experiences 2 Deductive reasoning when information is missing rely on general concepts to fill in uncertainties c Stimulation 1 involves stepbystep consideration of each decision and the outcomes of the decisions d Extended Brainstorming 1 List all ideas to fully consider unconventional options 2 Leaders learnt to use 360 vision of all options 11 Methods chart on com es to source may Arbitration group group to move Compromise Decision forW ard 12 Chapter 7 Values and Ethics A set of values guides a person s life and any description of a person s ethics would be based on an understanding of the person s values Source of Values It has been shown that leaders values influence their decisions and the directions they take Outdoor leaders build trust and respect by behaving ethically and consistently from a solid value base I Values defined Values are beliefs not facts 0 Factors relate to individual upbringing Home environment Education 000 Religious beliefs Socioeconomic class I Axiology The question of values deals with notions of what a person or a society conceives as good Axiology is a branch of philosophy that seeks to answer the question what is value One defines it as an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct I Epistemology philosophy that studies the nature sources and validity of knowledge Tries to understand sources of truth Sources of Ethics Ethics is the study of both moral values and conduct Focuses on moral reasoning Guided by a set of rules often proactively determined by a governing professional Principle Ethics organization or by the current professional standards of behavior Ex Laws Ten Comm andm ents etc Guided by the virtues associated with being a moral outdoor leader rather than the principles of being ethical Concerned with professional character traits According to Virtue Ethics this ethic an individual must examine the factors and influences of each act maintaining that the right decision is defined by each situation and can t be linked to any decision made in other situations Consequentialist Ethics Provides an application for the practice of normative ethics Applying summum bonum or making judgments in terms of the highest good or supreme good from which all others are derived If the end result of an act has good consequences in terms of the highest good then the act itself is judged to be a good act Utilitarianism is a consequentialist theory of ethics This maintains that an act is good only if it brings about the greatest good for the greatest number The two fundamental pillars of utilitarian approach to ethics are Happiness and for the greatest number Nonconsequentalist Ethic s Theory of ethics is concerned with the acts themselves or the means They argue that the emphasis for ethical decision making should be the nature of specific acts Acts within this tradition are predetermined to be a good or bad based on the standard set by summum bonum For example telling lies is bad regardless of the end result of the lies Kohlberg s Six Stages of Moral Development 0 Preconventional Level 13 O 0 Stage 1 the focus is on punishment and obedience Stage 2 the focus is on satisfying needs 0 Conventional Level 0 0 Stage 3 the focus is on conformity and gaining approval Stage 4 the focus is on authority and fixed rules 0 PostconventionalLevel O O 0 Stage 5 the focus is on the social contract and public interest Stage 6 The focus is on moral issues It is the congruence of the levels of need and other motivations and of the states of moral development that leadership becomes enlivened with moral purpose Example An adolescent boy and girl are both asked to address the scenario of a man stealing a loaf of bread to feed his family 0 The boy responds in a mathematical fashion reasoning that laws have mistakes and you can t make laws for every scenario so it is acceptable for the man to steal the bread He would rank between stages 3 and 4 o The girl responds instead in reference to the dilemma of the situation Saying that the family may have bread for the day but if the man gets put in jail there may be worse consequences for his family as a result of his actions It is based on a more intuitive sense of right and wrong However she would rank between stages 2 and 3 appearing by Kohlberg s standards to be below the boy 0 We can see here that Kohlberg s theory is highly limiting concerning the girl s ability to develop higher levels of m oral judgm ent Ethic of Care vs Ethic of Justice 0 Ethic of Care 0 O 0 Based on relationships Takes a relationshiporiented approach to moral development Girls and women choose this ethic more often then men The caring attitude or being able to be cared for and being able to care about 0 o Ethic of Justice 0000 Decisions are based on principles of fairness and reciprocity Focuses on the establishment of principles and that which can be logically derived from them Ethical decision making is rational and objective This ethic fits with Kohlberg s theory of moral development More masculine Professionalism in Outdoor Leadership 0 Code of Ethics Hackm an and Johnson 0 O O O O A leader should not intentionally send deceptive or harmful messages A leader should place concern for others above concern for personal gain A leader should respect the opinions and attitudes of group members and allow them the freedom to consider the consequences of their actions A leader should stand behind members when they carry out policies and actions approved by the leader and group A leader should treat members consistently regardless of sex ethnicity or social background A leader should establish clear policies that all group members are expected to follow 14 0 Outdoor Leadership as Professional Practice 0 Practiceany coherent and complex form of socially established cooperative human activity 0 The goods internal to that form of activity are realized in the course of trying to achieve those standards of excellence that are appropriate to the activity goodssatisfaction of achieving a high level of excellence in outdoor leadership 0 An outdoor leader must do more than have technical skill but must be able to work towards achieving the ideal ends associated with the practice 0 Entering into a practice involves standards of excellence and obedience to rules as well as the achievement of internal goods 0 Virtues of Outdoor Leadership 0 One precondition for entering a professional practice is that practitioners be honest 0 Justice is another essential virtue o Compassion lies at the heart 0 However there are no universal standards Model for Ethical Decisions 0 First step Ask What is the practice I m engaged in and What is the ideal end of the practice 0 Second step List your options considering your obligations to the group and the potential effects of your decision 0 Third step consider the ethical guidelines under which you are operating 0 Fourth step employ the ethical principles and theories in this chapter and use them to help determine which factors are relevant 0 Fifth step identify your own bias and how if may 15 ChapterS Goals of Facilitation Shift outdoor experience from excursion in outdoors to a dynamic learning experience Move groupindividual towards desired outcome Facilitation styles Nondirective facilitation lalssezfalre style that allows participants to determine which way they will go Appreciative facilitation emphasizes what works well and concentrates on success and achievement Ac vhyfacHhannoccursdunnganac vhyFacHhatorh edectsdunngtheac vhyto influence what is experienced Group Facilitation facilitator builds climate for learning and team building positive group dynan c Directive Facilitation leaves little to chance 0 Frontloading facilitator tells group what they should learn from the experience in order to create focus and a reference point 0 Framing helps a group make sense of the experience 0 Metaphors help group understand how a particular actlvlty relates to their lives out deoftheexpenence Transfer of Learning taking an experience and applying that learning elsewhere future pace any learning that occurs needs to be seen as something that will be used sometime in the future 3types 0 Specific transfer involves learning particular skills for use in closely related shua ons o Nonspecific transfer learning more general principles behaviors or ideas and applying them to a different situation 0 Metaphorlc transfers learning principles behaviors and ideas and generalizing those ideas to a new situation Facilitation Techniques Remem ngtheexpenence AddMgvmuetotheexpenence Making sense of the experience Making connections with other experiences Developing learning skills Readings can help frame an activity or can help articulate are ec on Journal writing strong tool for processing an experience Specific questions may be assigned to focus response lsolatlon provide time alone for reflection and selfeval Challenge by Choice if individuals are not ready to move out of their comfort zone because of physical psychological or emotional reasons the activity will not affect the participant in a desirable way Outdoor leaders should ask everyone to challenge themselves but not push them Interpersonal Conflict conflict within self Avoidance nonassertive method of dealing with problems 16 Accommodation low assertiveness technique but involves some cooperation Competition high assertiveness low cooperation Compromise we are taught to do to make everyone happy about an outcome but it often leads to everyone being unhappy because everyone has to give something up Collaboration each person works to meet the goals of the other Neither the person nor the situation is lost in this process Difficult because both parties must be able to see problem from another point of view 17 Chapter 9 Facilitating Personal Development Outdoor leaders have an opportunity to facilitate development in individuals Through wellplanned outdoor activities people can learn about themselves and their effectiveness in groups The mind is shaped by the environment Human development can be best understood by observing behavior and its environmental determinants 0 Ivan Pavlov classical conditioning stimulus and response Behavwml Theory 0 BF Skinner operant conditioning negative and positive reinforcement Reinforcers can be intrinsic feelings of satisfaction or pride or extrinsic come from around us People learn new behaviors from observing others and patterning those behaviors modeling soual Theory 0 Selfefficacy our perception of what we can and cannot do Developed from direct and indirect experience Outdoor programs should be available to everyone Outdoor leaders are morally obligated to make reasonable accommodations for anyone interested despite any differences 0 Inclusion allowing anyone who wants to be involved to be involved 0 3 laws guide an outdoor leader s programming decisions Americans with Disabilities Act ensures access for individuals Dlversny and Leadersmp with disabilities to any public outdoor experience Rehabilitation Act ensures that individuals with disabilities are not discriminated against when participating in federally funded programs Individuals with Disabilities Education Act all children are ensured appropriate public education without discrimination The Center for Character Development cites six areas for inclusion in a Moral Development character education curriculum trustworthiness respect responsibility fairness caring and citizenship 18 Chapter 10 Facilitating Group Development Effective Groups In effective groups individuals talents and skills are recognized and utilized as demonstrated in the following ways 0 Goals are cooperatively structured clarified and changed so there is a match between individual and group goals 0 Communication is an open and accurate expression of both ideas 0 Leadership is distributed among all group members to accomplish goals 0 Ability and information determines in uence and power Therefore power is shared Decisionmaking procedures are matched to the situation 0 Controversy and con ict are seen as positive for members involvement in the group quality of decisions and maintenance of positive relations in the group 0 Interpersonal and group behaviors are stressed and cohesion is built through inclusion affection acceptance support and trust 0 Members evaluate the effectiveness of the group and decide how to improve its functioning Ineffective Groups In ineffective groups individuals skills or ideas are overlooked ignored or hidden 0 Members accept imposed goals goals are competitively structured 0 Communication is oneway and only ideas are expressed feelings are suppressed 0 Leadership is delegated by authoritym embership participation is unequal and only goal accomplishment is emphasized 0 Position determines influence and powerobedience to authority is the rule 0 The highest authority always makes decisions 0 Controversy and con ict are ignored denied avoided or suppressed 0 Members are controlled by force and rigid conformity is promoted o The highest authority evaluates the group s effectiveness and decides how goal accomplishment may be improved 0 Persons who desire order stability and structure are encouraged Tuckman s Theory of Group Development 0 Groups develop in predictable ways as they move toward a goal and take care of each other emotionally 0 Group development process stages of group development require a variety of leader behaviors to maximize the resources in a group 19 Coleadership up to Pretrip considerations When the group is led by two individuals a coleading pairthe uctuating expectations and demands and the interplay between members and leaders over time become especially complex and interesting The dyad can be viewed as a small group in its own rightdeveloping over time with its own internal issues linked to the phases and preoccupations of the larger group at a time Chart pg 141 Establish equity between leaders by determining roles setting parameters and establishing opportunities to contribute to the group Flexibility equalizing power responsibility use of skills developing competence and comfort Keeping groups goals in sight by awareness of relevant concerns careful planning and evaluation of coleader and group process 20 Chapter 11 Challenge Course Profession Before ACCT challenge courses based on staff creativity no risk management uniformity ACCT Association for Challenge Course Technology 1988 developed universal challenge course standards in 1991 in inspection technical course operations and ethical standards PRCA Professional Ropes Course Association at this time no universal certifications exist for challenge course leaders basic training minimum 40 hours but cannot cover all areas many shadowapprentice 1 Origin of Challenge Courses I 1940s British Outward Bound the military backgrounds of most 1940s British Outward Bound instructors first challenge course to simulate working high in ship rigging called the Eskdale challenge course I first US Outward Bound school formed 1962 I first US OB challenge course Ernest Tapley invited to visit Eskdale amp had military experience as well 103911 Mountain Division created the US s first at OB s Marble Canyon base camp 2 Challenge Courses in the Beginning I at Marble Canyon 35foot rope ladder simulated rock climbing required students to belay I Tapley would debrief to maximize education I late 1960s 70s OB beginning to rise I h bertisme 7 George He39bert French Navy officer focused on physical conditioningtraining of French Navy emphasized development of moral values and virile character 1913 created opportunity to discover personal potentiallimitations in natural environment I two Canadian army officers served in France in WWII exposed to he bem39sme implemented program at Camp Ecole TroisSaumons Quebec in 1949 3 Movement Into Mainstream Education I Project Adventure 7 one of the first organizations to integrate challenge course programming into mainstream education from OB philosophyform er staff 1971 nonprofit educational organization experiential learning college campuses summer camps 4 Course Environments I space is always an issue I forested areas the first in the US and Canada were in groves of trees to support the ropes and cables lowhigh elements planted telephone poles in open spaces alternative to forested areas allows for strategic planting and therefore more exibility lowhigh elements three large poles in a giant tripod lowhigh elements can be strung between good for limited space rafterswalls of gyms amp other open ceilings high elements in otherwise wasted space conference centers team building for conventions meetings generally temporary so as to be dismantled after event Challenge Course Programs Effective Challenge Course Leadership the ability to provide successful programs that accomplish predetermined goals Maj or Barriers lack of public understanding novice outdoor leaders Challenge Course an experiential adventure program which offers groupsindivids the opportunity to participate in a series of activities involving mentalphysicalemotional risk taking Rohnke et al Pros facilitate CC experiences based on goalsobjectives intended to produce specific outcomes 21 activities must be sequenced amp facilitated to meet program goals I can be indoors or outdoors I outcomes depend on program goal three global goal orientations education therapy recreation may stand alone or be combined Venn diagram on p 155 can be applied to any adventure activities 1 Recreation Global Goal Orientation l I relaxation socialization enjoyment thrill seeking skill p f 39 p 39 39 may be conscious or unconscious leisure experience when intrinsically motivated participant has freedom of choice and perceived control over activity39 up to them to pull what they wish from experience I occur within leisure context like zipline touring in Hawaii Education 2 intentional and developmental formal goal settingassessment Fquot I specific developmental targets psychomotor cognitive affective domains experiential learning cycle direct experience re ection generalization application SEE CHAPTER 12 ultimate goal to facilitate change within participant I developing confidence communication teamwork possibly in corporate contexts Therapy 3 renewal personal growth39 more specific 9 I medical model if considered therapy licensed health care pros involved individ treatment plans based on diagnoses ie for substance abuse centers There are 1 Games and Icebreakers aka warm ups physicallysocially deinhibitizers fosters group development during early stages of group dynamics name games tag stretching positive program tone productive initial group norms established 2 Group Initiatives problemsolving teambased no specialized safety systemwout inteferencereliance on facilitator trust activities however if group is not ready they can backfire 3 High Elements individteam require belay system39 participants are required to climb or be lifted a significant distance selfconfidence selfefficacy specific technical skills for leaders belayed equipment use course setupinspection must be able to facilitate psychologicalemotional effects of perceptions of risk facilitation ability 9 participant outcomes there are V 339 quotin mm Sequencing it is the art of choosing appropriate activities and organizing them into an intentional progression to accomplish goals and group needs the activity plan 22 appropriate for the group s skills abilities goals program objectives socialcultural needs ACCT planning observing reacting adjusting required generic example 1 orientation 2 fullvalue contract 3 warmup activitesicebreakers 4 initiatives problemsolving 5 low elements 6 high elements 7 closing activities Processing aka debriefing re ection used to facilitate meaningful experience SEE CHAPTER 8 facilitates selfactualization discovery awareness group analyzes their own process and how to improve lessons carried into real life typically a QampA led by facilitator many novice make the mistake of systematically doing this after every activity before moving on to the next Leader competencies general facilitation technical risk management Risk Management Competencies pros know from accident data formal networking challenge course leaders must be able to I manage participant behavior I institute specific agency s risk management policies I interpret participant medical info ie how someone s knee condition affects things I administer appropriate agency forms med forms waivers assumption of risk forms photo releases paperwork I communicate the inherent riskshazards effectively I implement agency s formal emergency response plan protecting others calling for help first aid I perform rescues and lowers to the ground as outlined by agency protocol 23 Chapter 12 Teaching strategies Experiential education all sections Learning by doing Concrete W Exoerience g E Active Reflective Exoerimentation Observation El Abstract lt9 Concentlialimtion Concrete Experience Feeler I Learns from specific experience I Relates to people I Is sensitive to feelings and people Reflective Observation Watcher I Makes careful observations before taking action I Takes on various perspectives I Looks for meaning in things Abstract Conceptualization Thinker I Logically analyzes ideas I Is systematic in planning I Action based on cognitive understanding of a situation I Prefers lots of information Active Experimentation Doer I Risk taker I Uses action to in uence I Problem solver trial and error Outdoor teaching techniques Grasshopper Method I Hop from one topic to the next I Stays in the flow of the event 0 Systematic 0 Specific curriculum to address I Breaks topics into smaller parts I Think and plan ahead I Can be opportunistic as you hop to a new topic Teachable Moments I Formal and Informal 24 Lesson planning Content outline Organization of What you intend to convey Strategies Lecture Directed questions Task Demonstrations Stories Role playing Group exercises Guided discovery Problem solving Be Creative do not lecture 25 Chapter 13 Parks amp Protected Areas Management Natural resources Land forest grasslands deserts snow amp ice areas Water rivers bays estuaries Living plant amp animal life Recreation Ecolog Environmental impact Can be positive or negative Amount of human traffic that an area can withstand before being adversely affected by that traffic canymg capamy Biological affects on the actual resources Psychological affects of one visitor on another Dispersed Use Encouragement of visitors to explore less popular and less used areas Preservation Protection of nonrenewable resources that take a long time to regenerate Sustainable Use Balance use with replenishment Renewable resources forest wildlife water Bureau of Land Management Mission to sustain the health diversity and productivity of the public lands for the use and enjoyment of present and future generations U S Forest Service Bureau of Reclamation and Army Corps of Engineers Mission to reclaim the arid lands of the western US for development through the construction of dams power plants and canals National Park Service Mission to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein and to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations US Fish and Wildlife Service Conserve protect and enhance fish wildlife plants and their habitats for the continuing benefit of the American people Bureau of Indian Created to serve as the US government s primary agency for interacting with America s numerous tribal governments Affairs Missron foster partnerships and prov1de serv1ce to native peoples National Wilderness Preservation System National Wild and Intended to ensure that these rivers remain free flowing and protected from uses that Scenic River System would cause drastic alterations in the rivers Agencies responsible for managing NTS include National Park Service amp Bureau of National Trails S stem y Land Managem ent One of the most useful resources at the state level to the field of outdoor education and State Parks recreation Municipal Parks Natural settings are maintained as open spaces for public use such as the James River Multiple Use Aimed at drawing a balance among the interests competing for the same resources Different for individualssmall private groups versus organized groups P 1 Different for nonprofit versus commercial outfitters erml S Can be difficult to obtain a per39mrt in federally managed parks and protected areas because of carrying capacity and other management issues General Rules amp Mammum group 5126 Distance from waterway generally 100 yards Regulation Campfire regulations Key Resource Carrying capacity Management Dispersed use concepts Multiple use 26 Chapter 15 Program Management PROGRAM MANAGEMENT Refers to administrative dutiesprocedures conducted by a program manager to ensure safe enjoyable amp environmentally sound adventures 0 Outdoor leaders are expected to manage program paperwork 0 Program managers typically oversee equipment needs for the larger programming structure PROGRAM DESIGNiforms the cornerstone of program management 0 Macro Programming creating the entire adventure program structure 0 Micro Programming specific trip plans 0 Trip plansactivities must be designed win the context of larger programming goals amp objectives PROGRAM CON SlDERATION S Exist to provide a framework for program development on a macro level 0 A wellwritten mission statement is necessary it serves as a guide for the development of program goals amp objectives throughout the organization Goals amp objectives are designed to put organizational philosophy amp mission into action 0 Additional factors to consider when putting together programs I Programs should be designed to operate win an organization s budget I Programs should be based on market research or extensive knowledge of the intended participants I Needs Assessment forms are good ways to get participant information I Programs should be designed to be affordable for intended participants I Programs should be planned based on current best practices win the industry I Programs should be designed to model the best environmental practicesicileave no trace principles I Programs should be designed to be inclusive in order to facilitate participation by individuals of all abilities amp backgrounds ADMINISTRATIVE DUTIES I Staff Selection 0 Program managers may have to hire staff members a crucial part of programming 0 The core competencies serve as a good foundation to determine employee qualifications 0 Time taken to select quality staff helps ensure program success amp growth Personnel Management 0 Is a complex process governed by state amp federal laws I Involves creating job descriptions screening interviewing developing benefit packages I Aspiring outdoor leaders should be aware of fundamental supervisory functions 0 Guidelines designed to assist program managers in developing orientation programs I Proper staff training is an important risk management practice amp helps ensure quality programming I Implementing an apprenticeship program or assistant leader positions are helpful so that novice staff members can work beside seasoned staff members before leading their own groups I Managers should create training schedules far in advance I Inhouse or inservice employee training is an important component of continuing education 0 Supervisors who work w outdoor leaders should consider the following guidelines to keep their staff healthy amp happy I Scheduling I Do not over schedule staffigive them appropriate days off amp avoid scheduling back to back trips burnout can be common Compensation 27 In general salary amp benefits tend to be minimal so it s nice to consider creating a professional discount program so that staff can purchase personal outdoor equipment at cheaper prices Physical amp Emotional Health Managers should monitor staff physical fitness amp psychological amp emotional health Staff Meetings Periodic staff meetings win the context of the overall schedule are important Positive Feedback Managers should recognize amp praise staff members on a regular informal basis Outside Communication Managers should allow time for staff members to communicate w family amp loved ones especially since sometimes they can be on extended expeditions I Documentation amp Record Keeping essential aspect of a program manager s duties 0 Registration amp enrollment forms provide participant data I Accounting information method of payment participant demographic information 0 Health amp Medical Records must be maintained bc awareness of medical conditions plays a key role in the prevention amp treatment of illnesses amp injuries 0 Photo Consents are photos signed by participants giving their consent to the organization to use trip photos in promo materials 0 Use Forms amp Maintenance Records I Documentation is needed to record what equipments are being rentedreturned o Assumption of Risk Forms amp Waiver of Liability Forms 0 Incident amp Accident Reports I Allow agencies to tract incidentsaccidents and can track patterns so that future problems don t occur 0 Field Records document specific events for each trip like weather conflicts w participants activities etc o Permits amp Permission are obtained for public or private lands 0 Trip Reports are conducted the end of a trip that summarizes the experience 0 Contracts amp Rental Forms Program Promotion 0 Program managers are responsible for marketing amp promotion amp thus must have a basic knowledge of marketing techniques 0 Marketing Objectives should be specific 0 Managers should assess the potential market by researching who the target market is amp understanding their lifestyle economic status leisure preferences etc 0 Program Profiles include inventory of all programs amp services so that program managers know what needs to be marketed 0 Strategies are developed in order to attract target market but must concede to the budget I Equipm ent Managem ent 0 Inventory systems keeping track of outdoor equipment is pertinent As well as maintenance and care for equipmentidam aged equipment is dangerous PROGRAM EVALUATION I Program evaluations provide leaders w vital info related to the accomplishment of goals amp objectives 0 Practical exams may be designed to assess participants skills 0 Written tests journaling are ways to assess knowledge 0 Assessing participant satisfaction I ParticipantCenteredEvaluations 0 Trip evaluation forms are designed to assess goals objectives amp overall participant satisfaction upon end of the trip 28 0 Leader evaluations are designed by the participants to assess the effectiveness of the leader s performance Chapter 16 Reducing Accident Potential Rescue curve 7 posits that there are four steps between and individual engaging in an adventure experience and winding up dead v Accident Prevention 7 sufficient preparation is the best way to prevent accidents This includes having a detailed trip plan knowledge of terrain conditions wearing proper clothing and having adequate knowledge of how to travel on the terrain Self Rescue 7Knowing how to perform simple techniques to rescue ones self in situations where the adventurer is alone Extreme example is getting trapped under a boulder and having to cut off ones arm since no one knows to look for you Rescue Within a Group 7 when someone gets in trouble there are other people available to help Ex traveling in rope teams on a mountain If one performer fails to selfarrest the other team members can compensate Rescue from an Outside Party 7 VHF radio Keeps adventurers in contact with the US Coast Guard should something go wrong Some places charge a service fee in advance in the event rescue teams must be called upon Overall the rescue curve presents steps to get someone back to safety based on who is available to help Standard of Care 7 whether or not an outdoor leader is providing adequate levels of care to their program participants Adequacy is based on what other reasonable and prudent professionals would do in a similar sitation Having kayakers wear helmets falls under standard of care If they were not required to wear helmets that would be a Violation of the standard of care Tort law 7 civil law Deals wit private rights of citizens rather than with crimes Negligence is one of the infringements on tort law Civil litigation can never result in incarceration Usually nancial compensation is agreed upon in m Including Participants in Risk Management v First step make participants aware of the risks associated with your program Participants must acknowledge the risks and waive the trip leader and program of any liability should an accident occur Sign waiver of liability and assumption of risks form 29 v Forrns should also be explained to participants Reading the form alone is not suf cient v Offer adequate training in technical skills Doing so allows participants to take an active role in their own safety during the trip 30


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