PSY-0022 Emotion: Study Guide 2 - Body, Brain, Appraisal, Relationships
PSY-0022 Emotion: Study Guide 2 - Body, Brain, Appraisal, Relationships PSY-0022
Popular in Emotion
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amy Bu on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY-0022 at Tufts University taught by Dr. Heather Urry in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 110 views. For similar materials see Emotion in Psychlogy at Tufts University.
Reviews for PSY-0022 Emotion: Study Guide 2 - Body, Brain, Appraisal, Relationships
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/29/15
PSY 22 Fall 2015 Exam 2 Review Sheet by Amy Bu KOampJ 5 6 7 9 1 The two branches of the ANS exhibit several key differences in terms of structure and function Describe Hint On the structure side be sure to address points of origin in the spinal cord location of ganglia and length of ganglionic fibers 1 Sympathetic fight or flight prepares body for potentially physically demanding activity Heart rate increases blood pressure increases pupils dilate airways dilate digestive processes inhibited blood ow decreased constricted arteriesveins immune system inhibited Ganglia origin Very close to spinal cord Location of ganglia Evenly spaced throughout spinal cord thoracic and lumbar regions Length of ganglionic fibers Preganglionic short spinal cord to ganglia postganglionic long ganglia to target organs 2 Parasympathetic rest and digest restorative processes take place Heart rate decreases blood pressure decreases pupils constrict airways constrict digestive processes occur blood flow increases sexual response blood to genitals increases Ganglia origin mostly in target organs except head 8 neck Location of ganglia Near the top and bottom of spinal cord cranial and sacral regions Length of ganglionic fibers Preganglionic long spinal cord to ganglia postganglionic short ganglia to target organs 2 In studies of emotion that measure ANS activity skin conductance and heart rate are common Which branches of the ANS isare responsible for an increase in skin conductance and heart rate What about a decrease in activity 1 Sympathetic increase skin conductance and heart rate 2 Parasympathetic decreases skin conductance and heart rate 3 Why would heart rate speed up in the context of mental arithmetic but slow down in the context of Viewing unpleasant pictures eg a looming gun even though both are unpleasant tasks Your answer should address a actions of the ANS and b the psychological processes involved in the two tasks 1 Mental arithmetic is difficult which may induce the emotion of anxiety causing stress The stress activates the sympathetic nervous system and heart rate increases etc PSY 22 Fall 2015 Exam 2 Review Sheet by Amy Bu 2 Unpleasant images eg looming gun may induce fear and cause a defense orientation to the potential threat freezing Fear is associated with parasympathetic activity for animals which decreases heart rate Individual may be taking in information to decide how to respond 4 What are the two axes of interest in thinking about responses to stressful circumstances Describe each Why is it useful to have these two axes 1 Sympathetic adrenal medullary immediate fast reaction to stress increases sympathetic nervous system increased secretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline increased heart rate etc 2 Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal long term slow reaction regulates stress system Increased CRH corticotrophin releasing hormone affects anterior pituitary which releases ACTH affects adrenal cortex which releases cortisol stress hormone suppress immune system regulate glucose 0 SAM useful for immediate threats to react quickly HPA used to cope with longterm stress and reduces the initial shock response 5 How did William James define emotion What was an implication of his theory for patterns of physiological arousal in different emotional states Definition Emotions arise from autonomically specific physiological patterns Different bodily states each correspond to different emotional states Reverberations in glands the autonomic nervous system ANS muscles meaninggiving perception emotion Implication physiological patterns must be specific to create emotion and emotions are discrete Without physiological sensations or with parts of it missing there would be no emotion 6 Cannon offered four criticisms of James notion of ANSspecific physiology Describe 1 ANS responses too diffuse Changes in heart rate breathing sweat responses and so on can be very slight to very large cannot account for the varieties and nuance of emotional experience any slight change does not lead to a different emotion 2 ANS responses too slow Physical responses occur 1530 seconds after the stimulusevent eg blushing tends to occur 15 sec after but emotions arise immediately in response 3 ANS responses occur in nonemotional states Physiological responses such as body temperature skin conductance etc also change in fevers exposure to cold suffocation etc 4 We are insensitive to ANS responses People tend not to be sensitive to vasoconstrictiondilation are only somewhat sensitive to heart rate changes usually cannot feel when intestines are cutburned PSY 22 Fall 2015 Exam 2 Review Sheet by Amy Bu 7 What evidence is there to suggest that emotions exhibit autonomic specificity Be familiar with the Ekman and Levenson findings using the directed facial action task and Stephens Christie and Friedman 2010 1 Ekman Levenson 8 Friesen give Ps musclebymuscle instructions directed facial action to make faces hold expression Ps report emotion Trial 1 8 3 mirror Trial 2 no mirror Results Ps felt target emotion in most conditions more frequent when no mirror 2 Stephens Christie 8 Friedman Ps viewed emotional film clips and listened to emotional music while autonomic activity eg heart rate skin conductance was recorded Ps report emotions Results Produced target emotion Ps could be correctly classified into the study condition based on autonomic response alone Reactions were stimulus specific not individualspecific 8 Describe Schachter 8 Singer s twofactor theory of emotion Event Cognitive label appraisal Physiology Emotion After an eventstimulus there is autonomic arousal but it is meaningless The person must arrive at an explanation for the arousal The combination of both creates the emotion Research Ps injected with adrenaline without knowing effects are more affected by researcher39s emotions more angry more euphoric Ps who knew were lessnot affected 9 What is embodiment What evidence is there to suggest that cognitive processes related to an emotion for example our memories of an emotional experience or understanding of an emotional passage in a book will engage the bodily responses and sensations of that emotion KO8J p 132 Be familiar with the Niedenthal et al 2009 studies on categorization in this context What are two possible neural contributors to embodiment Embodiment idea that cognitive processes and emotions all depends on physical body body is beyond brain and plays causal role in emotion Niedenthal ask participants to sort words into three emotion categories happiness anger disgust When categorizing emotion related words there was activation in emotion related facial muscles forming expressions When Ps held pen in mouth and prevented disgustrelated and j oy related muscle movement Ps found it more difficult to categorize disgust and joy related words Neural contributors 1 Reactivation of states in sensorymotoraffective systems reliving experiences eg think about bear reactivate neurons involved in previous bear encounter 2 Mirror neurons map correspondence between seen and experienced actions PSY 22 Fall 2015 Exam 2 Review Sheet by Amy Bu 10 What is the somatic marker hypothesis What area of the brain appears to be critical for emotion to help decisionmaking in risky circumstances Damasio studied patients e g Phineas Gage Those with frontal lobe brain damage have no sympathetic nervous system response hence lack symbolic bodily responses somatic markers They have blunted emotions poor decisions moral deficits Hence 1 Somatic Marker Hypothesis purely cognitive processes without bodily emotional signals don39t guarantee normal behavior or responses Emotional body responses guide decision making 11 What evidence supports this conclusion Be familiar with the Iowa Gambling Task and results of studies by Damasio and colleagues that use this task Bechara et al Iowa Gambling Task 4 decks of cards 2 decks are safer but likely to only have small gains 2 are riskier and more likely to lose Measure skin conductance for arousal 1 For Normal Ps skin conductance higher if they chose from risky decks eventually avoided those decks even before consciously realizing best strategy 2 For P5 with VMPFC damage no sympathetic system response continue to choose risky cards even after consciously realizing best strategy Hence VMPFC essential in risky decisionmaking 12 How might an as if loop eXplain why the somatic marker is unnecessary for decision making in familiar situations AsIf Loop Sees snake gt Brain VM amygdala gt Body fight ight resp gt back to Brain fear However in familiar situations cognitive representations of the emotion can be activated in the brain without being directly elicited by a physiological response Imagining seeing the snake leads to similar but smaller response as if you really saw the snake Brain bypasses body signal 13 What is Pavlovian fear conditioning How has this procedure contributed to our understanding of brain regions involved in emotion Classical emotional conditioning where organism associates conditioned neutral stimulus with unconditioned stimulus negative eg electric shock Emotional conditioning for negative stimuli is quick to learn and slow to eXtinguish and involves the amygdala emotion center and thalamus 14 What does the amygdala do according to LeDouX and his collaborators What evidence is there in humans to support this claim Central emotional computer evaluates sensory input for emotional significance Receives visual and auditory input communicates with hypothalamus about emotionrelated behaviors In humans 1 1 Amygdala activation when watching sad erotic disturbing film clips bad tastes and odors PSY 22 Fall 2015 Exam 2 Review Sheet by Amy Bu 2 Increased amygdala activation in depression some bipolar depressives have enlarged amygdalae 3 Predicts whether Ps will recall of emotionally meaningful stimuli eg positive ice cream negative gun Memory for negative slides correlated to amygdala activation 15 What does it mean to say that there s a high road and a low road when it comes to the amygdala s role in processing motivationally significant stimuli 1 High Road Slow Visual stim gt visual thalamus visual cortex gt amygdala 2 Low Road Direct fast Visual stim gt visual thalamus amygdala Bypass cortical regions Cortical judgment can override Low Road eg in emotional regulation 16 What are the neural circuits for emotion according to the metaanalysis by Kober et al 2008 Label each circuit and describe the processes that are carried out by each circuit 1 Lateral Paralimbic Group mental representations of bodily sensations Sometimes experienced as hedonic displeasure and arousal 2 Core Limbic Group same as 1 3 Cognitive Motor Group language executive attention some representations selectively enhancedsuppressed eg when paying attention in class you don39t feel the seat against your legs 4 Medial Posterior Group conceptualization body and external sensations made meaningful by taking in context and using representations of previous experiences Make meaning from what you feel based on current situation and previous situations 5 Medial PFC Group same as 4 6 OccipitaUVisual Group visual processing sensory input relevant to emotional stimulus is more processed to higher degree 17 What is the distinction between wanting and liking How are these processes related to specific neurochemicals like opiates and dopamine Wanting enthusiasm variety of approachrelated goaloriented behaviors eg exploration affiliation aggression sexual behavior food hoarding nursing Dopamine release and activation of nucleus accumbens facilitate wanting anticipation of reward Liking experienced value of reward caused by release of opiates through sexual activity maternal behavior social interaction touch etc Produces warmth calmness and contentment PSY 22 Fall 2015 Exam 2 Review Sheet by Amy Bu 18 Discuss the evidence suggesting that emotion processing is asymmetrically represented in the brain Left frontal lobes approachrelated emotions mostly positive Right frontal lobes withdrawal related emotions mostly negative Participants making happy expressions getting rewards or experiencing positive emotions had more activation in left than in right side Getting a stroke in the left right frontal region have higher probability of becoming depressed becoming manic Davidson determined children39s affective styles genetically based asymmetry of function from observations of a play situation Inhibited children have much higher right side activation than uninhibited children and middle children had inbetween activation 19 What are appraisals Discuss evidence for the notion that appraisals of affectively significant events can occur outside of awareness Murphy 8 Zajonc 1993 Appraisal is an evaluation process where one assigns a value and valence to an event according to personal concerns Primary appraisal is automatic secondary appraisal is where emotions are directed to particular obj ectspeople is conscious and can be verbally described Murphy amp Zajonc show Ps photos of people smiling or looking angry In suboptimal condition photos shown for 4 ms not consciously seen then shown Chinese character In optimal condition photos shown for 1 sec knew what they saw then shown Chinese character All Ps then rated how much they liked the Chinese character For suboptimal unaware Ps who saw smiling faces liked the characters more and Vice versa For optimal no such priming effects shown 20 Describe the negativity bias and positivity offset What evidence supports their existence Consider Ito et a1 1998 and Norris et al 2011 Why might a negativity bias and positivity offset be useful Negativity Bias negative evaluations more potent negative stimuli trigger stronger responses Useful because it makes us more responsive to danger than satisfaction increase survival chance In real life contamination from a small negative thing may spoil a larger good thing Ito et al show Ps rare positive eg pizza ice cream and negative eg mutilation dead animals photos in mostly neutral photos Record electrocortical activity on brain area for evaluative responses negative photos prompt more brain activity than positive or neutral photos Positivity Offset positive events trigger stronger responses than negative ones at low affective input ie for mild events Useful because it may promote exploration when in absence of threat PSY 22 Fall 2015 Exam 2 Review Sheet by Amy Bu Norris et al show Ps positivenegativeneutral stimuli for 6 sec each rate positivenegative reactions rate arousal Rating of positive activation was higher for mild events but negative was higher for extreme events 21 Describe the two stages of the appraisal process according to Richard Lazarus and his theory of discrete emotions What is a core relational theme and when does this emerge in the stages of appraisal 1 Primary Appraisal a Goal relevance yes gt emotion no gt no emotion b Goal congruence congruent gt positive incongruent negative 2 Secondary Appraisal a Type of ego involvement does it threaten self image morals identity values b Causal attribution blamecredit othersself c How to respond coping potential 1 Consequences of response Outcome of these factors determine the specific emotion experienced 22 What are the core relational themes for three different emotions see Table 71 1 Anger demeaning offense against me or mine 2 Envy wanting what someone else has 3 Shame failed to live up to an ego ideal 4 Fear facing immediate concrete overwhelming physical danger 5 Disgust taking in or being too close to indigestible idea or object 23 What are limitations of the discrete approach to emotions that are addressed with a dimensional point of View according to Ellsworth Limitations 1 Many emotions similar in fundamental ways eg anger and fear are both unpleasant and arousing gratitude and love both pleasant and involve devotion 2 Discrete theory does not account for transitions between emotions eg anger gt guilt sad hope Dimensional View has 8 dimensions units of meaning that can account for subtle similarities and differences between emotions PSY 22 Fall 2015 Exam 2 Review Sheet by Amy Bu 24 Scherer is an appraisal theorist who proposed the Component Process Model CPM What are the appraisal dimensions of interest in the CPM Describe the sequence of appraisals proposed in this model Events precipitate appraisals which occur in a fixed order 4 dimensions 1 Relevance novelty pleasantness relevance suddenness predictability familiarity 2 Implication causality outcome probability discrepancy from expectation conduciveness urgency 3 Coping control power adjustment 4 Normative Significance compatibility with internal standards and external standards Sequence Event onset gt novelty 90ms intrinsic pleasantness 100200ms relevance 130ms gt goal conduciveness 500800ms 25 According to the social functional View of emotions what are the three functions of emotional experience What are the two functions of emotional expression Provide an example of each Fx of Emotional Experience 1 Give information about quality of social interaction eg anger fairness of events love commitment to another shame lowered social status 2 Prepare to respond to social contingencies e g anger shifts blood from organs to handsarms 3 Motivates formation of group bonds loyalty and identity eg trusting others feels good harming others feels bad discrepancy between feeling and others39 response increases understanding Fx of Emotional Expression 1 Elicit adaptive social responses from others eg joy fosters social interaction sadness elicits sympathy anger demands change and may elicit fear 2 Transmit coordinating information e g beliefsdesiresintentions of other people own status in the interaction This information guide how we feel and behave 26 A number of factors 6 of which were covered in class explain why one person becomes attracted to another What are three of those factors Proximity Physical Attractiveness Similarity Reciprocity Conditioning Courtship 27 When it comes to physical attractiveness how do facial symmetry and the golden ratio contribute What might explain why facial symmetry and the golden ratio are perceived as physically attractive Faces that are symmetrical and conform to the Golden Ratio are more attractive Golden Ratio applies to many aspects of human body Attractive individuals likely to have higher fitness are more likely to successfully reproduce and survive Asymmetry may signal disease low fitness PSY 22 Fall 2015 Exam 2 Review Sheet by Amy Bu 28 Explain Sternberg s Triarchic Model of Love Intimacy psychological closeness how well partners understand each other Friendship Passion physical sexual attraction romance Infatuation Commitment cognitive factors in decision to maintain relationship Empty love IntimacyPassion Romantic Love IntimacyComrnitment Companionate Love Passion Commitment Fatuous Love 29 Some romantic relationships succeed and some fail According to Gottman and Gottman what predicts this and why The ratio of positive to negative emotions shown predicts the success of relationships In their study P couples come talk about con icts 51 positive to negative predicts continuation of relationship 081 ratio predicts relationship termination Positive expressions decrease chances of 4 Horsemen of Apocalypse condition partner to associate positive feelings with you humor and laughter deescalate conflicts and increase satisfaction 30 How do anger and disgust help us understand betweengroup violence What are three emotional processes that might improve relations between groups Anger sparks violence angry people more likely to hurt others Aggressive behaviors escalate to violence when individuals become angry Anger at outgroup more likely if highidentifying members feel the ingroup is equally capable Anger increases prejudice bias towards outgroup Disgust protects body from diseasecontamination Group conteth if one feel disgusted by an outgroup they may believe that contact with them contaminates their own group Disgust predicts more prejudice and dislike for groups 1 Assertion everyone has a place in the hierarchy low shame gt high anger 2 Affiliation network of cooperation low sadness gt high affection 3 Attachment provides attachment safe base people to look up to low anxiety gt high trust 31 Definitions a Core affect Core feelings of positivitynegativity and lowhigh arousal based on primary appraisal b Directed facial action task Give Ps musclebymuscle instructions on how to move face eventually approximates an emotionrelated facial expression PSY 22 Fall 2015 Exam 2 Review Sheet by Amy Bu C Dopamine Released and activated in nucleus accumbens strengthens response to pleasurable stimuli facilitate wanting d Ego Involvement Secondary appraisal stage of Lazarus39s model type of ego involvement eg not relevant damage selfesteem enhance selfesteem threat affection loss determines specific emotion felt e Emotion lexicon Vocabulary of emotion words to describe emotional experiences f Empathy Feeling an emotion based on imagining or observing another39s emotions while being aware that the other is the cause for these emotions g Experience Sampling Write down keep journal of how you feel at certain moments in time eg in a study Ps beeped at random times in the day provide information about current emotions h Facial Feedback Hypothesis Hypothesis William James that when people move emotionspecific facial muscles elements of the emotion arise eg feel more sad when use sad muscles 1 Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse Toxic emotional behaviors that are damaging and predict divorce criticism defensiveness stonewalling resist dealing with problems contempt disparagement j Goal Congruence Whether the event is aligned with personal goals yes positive emotion no negative emotion Step 2 of primary appraisal in Lazarus39s model k Goal Relevance Whether the event is relevantmeaningfulimpactful to personal goals yes emotion no no emotion Step 1 of primary appraisal in Lazarus39s model 1 Infrahumanization Where people subconsciously dehumanize attribute animallike qualities to outgroup members whereas they see ingroup members as fully human PSY 22 Fall 2015 Exam 2 Review Sheet by Amy Bu m Mirror Neurons Monkey see monkey do map correspondence between seen and experienced actions n Nucleus Accumbens Region of subcortex part of hypothalamus involved in motivation and reward and learning wanting and liking anticipation of pleasure Rich in dopamine and opioid networksreceptors o Oxytocin Peptide of 9 amino acids produced in hypothalamus released to brain and blood Involved in lactation maternal behaviorbonding sexual interaction Promotes bonding and affiliation p Serotonin Neurotransmitter produced in brain may decrease depression Balances fast emotional processing VS slower languagebased processing Low serotonin leads to more intuitive responses instead of deliberated thoughtout ones q Social evaluative threat Threat to positive social identity potential of receiving negative social evaluations Likely to cause stress create anxiety and increase cortisol response r Social support Strong feelings of being surrounded by good friends during times of need
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'