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by: Megan Groenhout

FinalExamReview MC202

Megan Groenhout
GPA 3.23
Intro to Public Affairs -- Final Exam Study Guide
Dr. Kleinerman

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Intro to Public Affairs -- Final Exam Study Guide
Dr. Kleinerman
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Groenhout on Tuesday January 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MC202 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. Kleinerman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 188 views. For similar materials see Intro to Public Affairs -- Final Exam Study Guide in Art at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 01/20/15
Clarence Darrow 0 American Lawyer 0 Leading member of the American Civil Liberties Union 0 quotMy clients are here charged with murder but they are really here because they are black The case brought the legal arm of the NAACP to existence Culmination of his career All white jury of 12 middleaged men In uence of the KKK on the city government Henry Sweet was tried Found not guilty Had it been a white man shooting into a mob of blacks he would have been praised for his actions Ossian Sweet Grandson of a slave Born during the height of Jim Crow Set up practices in Detroit Rite w opportunity After the trial they traveled with the NAACP fundraising wife 8 daughter died of TB after the trial Shot himself in 1960 Tocqueville on Racial Tyranny of the Majority 0 Used to be slaves of all ethnicities in Europe 0 Colonists brought African slaves with them to America 0 After this slavery African Americans were thought of as inferior to whites created a racial caste African Americans born into inferiority The GINI Coefficient Income Inefficient 0 Measuring scale from 0 to 1 0 Perfect equality 0 0 Perfect inequality 1 Q As of 2005 the US was 38 gtgt placed US 2730 OECC Nations 0 When calculating the percentage that does to the top 1 we are 30 for most unequal Piketty on RgtG Q R the rate of return on capital 0 Gthe rate of economic growth 0 most economic models show that if G falls R will too Piketty believes that R will fall less than G due to how easy it is to replace workers with machines and eliminate that person s income Q If he is right more money will continue to go to holders of capital rather than wage workers 0 This is bad because it leads to inequality Alexander on Police Discretion Q The explanation for racial disparities can be summed up in a word discretion 0 At every step along the path from an initial traffic stop and arrest to conviction and sentencing police and prosecutors are given a tremendous amount of discretionfreedom to decide what s rightwrong Q Why might police be more likely to target people of color The reasons are partly diplomatic Given the ubiquity of drug crimepresent everywhere police departments make choices about where to focus their efforts 0 Conducting large numbers of stopandfrisk and SWAT house raids in poor communities of color provokes considerably less political backlash than doing the same in an af uent white suburb Hacker amp Pierson Mettler on Organizational Politics 0 Smaller level of submerged state 0 Not discussed in highly visible situations 0 There isn t any controversy over them since nobody is aware of them the media doesn t cover it 0 They happen behind closed doors with no citizen input 0 Bene ts certain groups Suzanne Mettler on Policy Drift 0 Policy change often occurs when groups with the ability to block change effectively resist the updating of policy over an extended period of time in the face of strong contrary pressure and strong evidence that policy is failing to achieve it initial goals what we call policy drift 0 Policy being put in action not approved not achieving its goal Mettler on Upward Redistribution 0 Federal bene ts are allocated disproportionately to the most welloff Americans 0 Consume a large portion of revenue leaving less for programs that actually help people who need it Q The Submerged State perpetuates this Russell on Social ImmigrationExclusion EU as an example 0 Initial integration goals were economic political common currency Euros 0 Social integration not a top priority 0 Social integration also means it should diminish social practices leading to social exclusion 0 Social integration integration 0 Didn t want to repeat WWI or WWII Wilkinson on Consumption equalityinequality 0 Denmark has a 60 tax on income 0 Don t use Europe as a whole 0 The US doesn t have the same system as European countries 0 We have more disposable income 8 we use money at our discretion 0 Noah says that we are going more in debt because we use more credit 0 Europe has direct programs Money is taken from paychecks and put into direct programs for welfare Alexander on Racial Schema 0 Rather she argues that individuals often make decisions and act based on racial schemas that operate automatically without conscious awareness or intent O Judges for example might say race doesn t factor into their decisions at all and they may genuinely believe that to be true yet fail to realize how racial schemas affect their decisions 0 Research shows racial disparities in sentencing even after offense seriousness and defendant s criminal history are taken into account Alexander on Legalized Discrimination Q Pro ling stopandfrisk 0 Police automatically perform these actions in black communities Piketty on Income vs Wealth 0 It s always more valuable to be born or marry into money than to get there by working 0 Income from capital still exceeds income from wages salaries and bonuses gtgt think Steve Jobs 1 salary but 21 Billion in Apple Stocks 0 Wages haven t risen since the 70s except for the top 1 which has risen by 165 Alexander on Racial Bribe Q In the 1600s the slaveholders 8 gov t tried to keep middlelower class whites from uniting with the blacks O This would have created a powerful 8 large force Suzanne Mettler on The Submerged State 0 Includes a quotconglomeration of federal policies that function by providing incentives subsidies or payments to private organizations or households to encourage or reimburse them for conducting activities deemed to serve a public purpose 0 Since the 1980s these policies have grown 0 Place their largest bene ts on af uent Americans gtgt exacerbating inequality 0 Policy makers protect them and make sure they stay in existence 0 Channels to af uent Americans privileged thirdparty organizations and businesses 0 Interferes with democracy because citizens cannot establish their own opinions on policies because they aren39t aware of their existence Russell on European Social Democracy 0 Advance capitalist development 0 Strong welfare state 0 Socialism played a large role Buruma on the clash between Dutch multiculturalism amp Islamic extremism 0 Netherlands is a particularly progressive country and they embrace many religions just not Islam At least not extreme Islam 0 The murder of Theo van Gogh by Mohammed Bouyeri Q Hirsi Ali 8 van Gogh s lm about how Islam oppresses women 0 The media whipped the people into a frenzy about Islamic extremism 0 Some believe tolerance has gone too far multiculturalism was a mistake 0 Islam is now a European religion Buruma on the Challenges of Immigration 0 Europe doesn t like immigrants 0 Netherlands quotguest workers from Turkey and Morocco 0 Bulkestein muslim customs clash with our Enlightened Q Fundamental values 0 Intolerant of the intolerant Russell on Positive Action Policy 0 Just as controversial as affirmative action in the US 0 Public doesn t resist them as long as they are restricted to Q Nondiscrimination and O preparing minorities to compete for jobs 0 but they don39t want them given preferences 0 European positive action programs are not targeted at racial minorities Q Racial differences are not as prominent 8 divisive as in the US 0 Ethnic minoritiesfocus on culture instead of racial minorities are the issue Why 0 They held colonies in various countries so they ve been exposed to various races already Contemporary challenges from Mettler 0 Government making policies we can t see 0 Policies we don t take into account 0 We can t understand them anyways they are dense Q Wealthy organized interest groups affect policies majorly they get special treatment 0 Wealthier politicians can manipulate policy 8 changes The Submerged State 0 Private organizations the government pays to do thingscreate policies 0 quotInvisible welfare 0 TaX loopholes From Alexander 0 Privatization of the prison system Q Racial Inequality Racial caste Justice system 0 Private prisons are a submerged policy 0 Mass incarcerations O Incentive to arrest because arrest Connection to Tocqueville 0 Could not fathom the prison system of today 0 He actually praised our system of that time 0 Fair 8 just system was a de ning character of our democracy 0 Saw the US as a role model for the European prison systems


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