Study Guide for SecondExam
Study Guide for SecondExam ARTH 3353
Popular in Pre-Columb Art & Arch
verified elite notetaker
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verified elite notetaker
This 31 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ivonne Ruiz on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ARTH 3353 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Anne Perry in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Pre-Columb Art & Arch in Art History at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
OLMEC Kunz Axe Olmec style 1 Abstract Supernatural Werejaguar WereJaguar is often shown as a baby 0 Commonly has bangs Appears to snarl 0 Is holding a miniature axe in its hands 0 More than half of the Celt is devoted to the creature s face open toothless mouth and closely set slanting eyes Somewhat demonstrating a howling human infant Olmec Style Infant style usually depicts everything as babies and infantlike Commonly is portrayed with fangs Usually in the shape of a jaguar who is part human Flamed eyebrows quite exotic Has a cleft in the head Little detailing in the bottom and the focus detailing of the sculpture is on the head Las Limas ade Figure They use a lot of Green Limestone Approximately 3 feet tall 0 Normal human figure holding presenting a jaguar infant supernatural figure A youth neither specifically male nor female holds an infant in its lap a reference perhaps to legitimate descent The infant has the monstrous face of the Olmec rain deity and the knees shoulders and face of the larger individual are incised with the faces of other supernaturals Colossal Head San Lorenzo Olmec Style 2 Naturalistic Basalt Multiton Monument 0 Around 25 tons and up to 50 thousand pounds 59 feet tall 68 feet wide Fairly Mature Beings They ve got extra skin on their faces and around the cheeks and mouth 0 Wide noses 0 Wide lips Crosseyed slightly Mesoamerican peoples believed that all experience and emotion along with the soul resided in the head alone The ten colossal heads themselves are of greatly varying size they may have been posthumous records of the great kings who had led them LA VENTA Pyramid lookig north Pyramid at La Venta quotPyramid is tamped earth built in 34 phases with different colored claysquot 0 100 ft tall and 400 ft per side The mound may have been intended to echo the shape of a Central Mexican volcano or it may simply be the eroded remains of pyramidal platform Designed to raise a perishable shrine above the plaza level La Venta Plan Ceremonial Center 0 Parallel mounds lead north from the pyramid to a sunken courtyard anked by massive basalt columns La Venta Archeological Site 1820 Thousand people used to live there 0 Were from elite classes usually leaders rulers Focused on agriculture particularly maize Place is quite symmetrical and was excavated in the 1940 s Csal Heads 395 Altar 4 There are a total of 4 colossal heads located at La Venta but only 3 of the heads were positioned at the northern entrance to the ceremonial areapossibly as guardian figures The four colossal heads at La Venta were set like sentinels guarding the ceremonial core La Venta heads are somewhat broader and squatter in general than those of San Lorenzo An Olmec ruler emerges from the mouth of a schematic cave at the front of the stone These altars may also have been thrones from which the reigning lord would have presided It s holding a rope wrapped round the perimeter of the stone which binds twodimensional captives in profile to the lord on the front PreClassic Zapotec Monte Alban Ceremonial Plaza Here during the Late Preclassic circa 500 BC Monte Alban was founded on a centrally located mountaintop in the Valley of Oaxaca In its first 300 years residents leveled the outcrop creating a manmade acropolis some buildings were erected on the west side and center of the plaza creating a general north south axis that helps define the huge main plaza as the ritual core of the site The 1000 long plaza as it appears now was cleared and consolidated during 18 field seasons most under the direction of famed Mexican archaeologist Alfonso Caso and represents the ceremonial plaza as it appeared in the heyday of the site during the Late Classic period when between 15000 and 30000 residents occupied the surrounding hills Certainly by the Classic period Monte Alban was the dominant site in the Valley Archaeologists have struggled for decades to define the site at its foundation most seem to agree that it functioned as a type of regional capital of a military confederation of Valley Zapotecs They cite its obvious central strategic elevated defensible location in the valley and as we will see the imagery of Preclassic stone sculpture placed in the great plaza as evidence of Monte Alban s primary status Despite the fact that it is situated 1300 feet above the valley oor and had no natural source of water scholars assume that an elite who militarily controlled the region resided at Monte Alban s defensible hilltop location even from the time of its foundation Danzantes Program The Beginnings of Writing in Mesoamerica I l urlmll burlnl under Monu lnm Hmlding l up his rcnmam U l hugc xlhle or hundreds n shin Cllcmlcs Illustration of a portion of the Danzantes Display Danzantes Building L About 300 sacrificial sculptures were attached all along the front wall Partially buried under Monte Alban s Building L were the remnants of a huge display of hundreds of slain enemies 0 All of the enemies have closed eyes Were basically all naked because nakedness was considered crude and embarrassing indicated humiliation Some men demonstrate genital mutilation men were emasculated for further embarrassment The people boiled and consumed the esh of their Victims Danzantes and Nadadores in Situ Page 59 on book Danzante with writing 0 Were named Danzantes because of their free loose postures 0 All are male and most bodies are shown frontally or in threequarter View while the heads are in profile Hands and feet are limp and the Closed eyes of most figures indicate that they are dead Monte Alban 1 Texts 0 By the Preclassic period in Oaxaca a ritual calendar had been developed and formed the basis for written texts that coincide with the Monte Alban Period 1 Danzantes The content of the written information on these stones at Monte Alban is terse consisting primarily of dates and names and probably a few verbs and adjectives But by this time a syntax or order for the spoken language was clearly in place 0 The glyphs on the left stone at the top and bottom positions indicate respectively a specific Year and Day in the Zapotec ritual calendar 0 The ritual calendar shared by most Mesoamerican cultures consisted of 260 days perhaps derived from the length of the human gestation period 20day names combined with the numbers 113 for a cycle of 260 days When the last all 13 numbers had been combined with all 20day names 260 days had passed and the count started all over again 0 Running concurrently was a 360day solar calendar from which the year sign above was derived The Spanish friars and administrators who occupied the valley of Oaxaca after the conquest of Mexico were great ethno historians and managed to gather much information about Zapotec religion ritual and the use of the calendar 16th and 17th century religious noted that Zapotec children were named for the day in the ritual calendar upon which they were born An individual 8 Water is named in this glyphic text to translate them The elite rulers of Monte Alban continued to develop their writing system in the ensuing phases of the site Mound I Conquest Slabs Mound I and the Ceremonial Plaza at Monte Alban The orientation of Mound I differs dramatically from the rest of the buildings in the plaza Mound I is oriented to the bright star Capella and to a zenith tube located in the staircase of Mound P 0 Zenith passage tube 3 defining elements of each conquest slab Hill sign 0 Place name 0 Downturned head In the 19205 the archaeologist who excavated Monte Alban proposed an interpretation of the 40 or so stones with glyphic inscriptions that were displayed on the enigmatic Mound I beginning in Monte Alban period 11 Although he could not decipher large portions of these glyphic texts Alfonso Caso proposed that they recorded the military conquest of about 40 different towns perhaps in the region of Monte Alban After 80 years his fundamental reading of these inscriptions has not changed Caso perceived three essential components in al of these inscriptions A central hill sign consisting of the stepped mound motif rendered here in pink This hill sign is a constant feature in all 40 inscriptions and simply means place The second component is the glyph that names the conquered town These place signs vary Two examples here note the place of the crossed sticks or quotObservatory shown in blue and a place with a curved element and tassels is rendered in green Scholars have attempted to build upon Caso s original thesis and identify these places using a number of less than fruitful means oyce Marcus used Aztec toponyms that looked similar to these place signs to identify them while Gordon Whittaker utilized the Mixtec language to decipher them Whittaker further tried to identify places based upon where the stones had been originally located on the building This was a useless enterprise because the stones had all fallen off the building centuries before the research at Monte Alban began The third element is the down turned head which Caso believed to be the god or ruler of the conquered town shown upside down to indicate conquest or death A fourth feature found on some of the slabs is a lengthier text that probably provides information about the actual conquest The more recent studies of the inscriptions at Monte Alban and throughout the Valley particularly the work by Javier Urcid have not shed much additional light upon these texts We do know that new glyphs or signs appear at the time of the construction of Mound I and the inscribing of the conquest slabs The meaning of many still remains a mysteryquot I West Mexico Ceramics Ialisco Style Funerary complexes were called quotShaft Tomb Complexquot 0 Big rooms were underground 0 They were chambers to keep the dead Chambers were quite elaborate Bones were laid out with jewelry still on Plates ceramic pieces were placed around the remnants Ialisco Style 0 Hollow ceramic figures made by hand out of clay Few colors tannish some red and mineral pigments were applied Seated males with elongated craniums long thin nose headbands turban like almost earplugs and scarification Scarification was a Vital part of this culture it signified status and how strong you were cause of how much pain you could endure Elongated Craniums Demonstrates power authority and elite status 0 Probably was considered beautiful quotThe ceramic figures some as large as 3 high portray chiefs heads of lineages founders of lineages and other persons of high rank Many appear to be ingesting something eating or drinking Evidence of ritual scarificationquot quotTECHNIQUE Artists used native clays and pigments to create solid and hollow figures without use of the potter s wheel or molds Clay was modeled by hand tools of wood and bone were used to carve features and create incised designs prior to firingquot quotMost figures colored with slip or paint in a base color Decoration accents of color painted in slip or ground minerals in a plant sap binder Then figure was burnished with a pebble or smooth stone and then fired over a wood fire pit Colors used include black brown cream white red orange rose yellow goldquot quotSTYLE Unnaturalistic proportions head is very elongatedcranial deformation long thin nose and bulging eyesquot quotInterest in showing facial and hair decoration costume details virtually no articulation of bodyquot Ancestor Pair Intimate moment between an ancestral couple feasting Elite persons may have wanted themselves shown in ritual or ceremonial feasting to demonstrate their religious fervor or to insinuate that they provided for their community by sponsoring great community feasts Tala Tonala substyle 0 Figures in red with white accents costume elements 0 Beautiful textiles and very elongated heads shaved 0 Large ears and noses Colima Style Two principal figures have been found in Colima and they probably re ect a chronological sequence Flat figures often considered being the earlier type use a slabandapplique technique with animated postures and are something grouped togetherquot The majority of such figures also double as vessels whole pouring spouts are usually the tails of the animal effigies Indigenous hairless dogs were worked in particularly lively forms playing sleeping even nipping one another A terracotta dog with human mask Great numbers of native hairless dogs were immortalized in Colima clay sculpture However the mask in this one makes it an overtly supernatural creature quotColima dogs may have been a source of food for the West Mexicansquot quot7590 of the Colima shaft tombs had dogs in themquot quotAztecs had mythical dog guides through the levels of the underworld to the ancestorsquot quotModern day Huichol believe a dog bars your way in the underworld and you must take a treat for it so that you can pass and join the ancestors in the afterlife Nayarit Style Nayarit ceramics include more architecture than the other regional styles One of the most common themes is of figure sin or near thatched houses and the groups that show tiny figures underneath houses have been interpreted as funeral scenes related to the act of interment Ball court Tableaux CLEAR EVIDENCE OF THE BALLGAME BEING PLAYED HERE SOME 55 BALLCOURTS HAVE BEEN EXCAVATED IN WEST MEXICOquot The court grouping illustrated here shows three or four men in a team playing with a soccersized ball Teotihuacan Teotihuacan culture Classic period site was 10 square miles and had a population of 100000 to 200000 quotThe population was housed in about 2000 apartment compounds each holding between 60100 people that were most likely family or kin groups artisans who worked nearby in various obsidian and ceramic workshops that have been discovered and a number of other different military or elite groupsquot Important structures Ceremonial Center at Teotihuacan Moon Pyramid Sun Pyramid Feathered Serpent pyramid After Teotihuacan fell other neighboring Mesoamerican cities cultures fell as well because they were quite dependent on the Teotihuacan s By 750 AD all temples and sacred complexes along the northern portion of the Street of the Dead were destroyed by fire The city was just a ruin by the time of the Aztec rise to power in the Valley of Mexico in the 14th century Teotihuacan became an important pilgrimage site for the Aztecs quotThe Classic Period city at its height had a total area of bout 810 square miles and a population numbering between 100000 and 200000 peoples from the Valley of Mexico Veracruz and as far away as Zapotec Monte Albanquite a large foreign presence in distinct barrios in the cityquot Ceremonial Center at Teotihuacan quotTeotihuacan established in 1 AD when the population of the Valley of Mexico was forced to the site of the city and participate in the earliest period of monumental construction Between 1 and 200 the Street of the Dead was laid out and the three monumental pyramids were createdquot 0 The Moon Pyramid Sun Pyramid and Feathered serpent pyramid Pyramid of the Sun 5 tiers There is a temple located at the top that was probably run by a couple of priests Located over a series of caves caves were the portals to the underworld to their ancestors Caves extended back east They echo the shape of the mountains to the southeast and thus mimic the sacred landscape Astronomical position of pyramid of the sun Stairway aligned to setting sun on day of zenith passage To setting of Pleides on May 18th May 18th is close to the time of the first zenith passage as sun makes its way north Grid Plan With their coordinates set along the two axes Teotihuacan planners superimposed a grid upon the landscape All future building at the site would adhere to this plan Pyramid of the Moon quotMoon Pyramid is the northernmost terminus of the Street of the Dead Built in 4 phases it is smaller than the Sun Pyramid Would have supported a temple atop just like Sun Pyramid Plaza in front with smaller mounds for ritual activitiesquot The pyramid features a huge open courtyard in the rough configuration of the Mesoamerican completion sign that ows from the smaller structure that abuts the pyramid quotFramed by the mountain the pyramid appears to possess the mountain and channel its forces to the city acknowledging and calling upon the greater rainfall and abundance of the volcano once known as Tenanquot Model of the Ciudadela featuring the Feathered Serpent Pyramid FSP Ciudadela is a 39acre plaza accessible only on the western side where it is a barrier mound between the plaza and the Street of the Dead 15 small temples arranged around all 4 sides Palaces on either side of FSP At the center of the large residential compound called the Ciudadela once perhaps the palace of an early charismatic ruler the temple of the FSP celebrates and commemorates warfare Feathered serpent pyramid FSP First talud tablero building in the city Designs of feathered serpents on it Shown in several different ways such as stonework on the pyramid Huge stonework about 4 ft tall and weighed tons The FSP looks beaded as well There were 2 FSP s one feathered another beaded Feathered serpent and Beaded serpent The feathered serpent is associated with Quetzalcoatl The identification of the beaded serpent is problematic Each head weighs 4 tons quotVERY ABSTRACT BEADED SERPENT ON LEFT VS MORE ORGANIC FEATHERED SERPENT ON RIGHTquot Great Goddess at Tetitla She is wearing a giant headdress displayed 2 dimensionally to show its greatness demonstrate every detail 2 dimensional pretty at All Fresco work Was painted around 300 AD GODDESS ORIGINALLY IDENTIFIED AS TLALOC APPEARS TO BE A FEMALE MASKED BUST IN A USHAPED BOWL OR DISH PANELS OF WATER CARRY PRECIOUS ADE OBECTS SAME WORD FOR WATER PRECIOUSBLUE SHE PROVIDES LIFEGIVING WATER ANNABETH HEADRICK INTERPRETS THIS FIGURE AS MALE RULER PERHAPS ANCESTOR WHO HAS BEEN CONIURED UP BY AN UNSEEN PARTICIPANT WEARS THE IDENTIFYING SYMBOLS OF THE WORLD MOUNTAIN TREE BIRD IN HEADDRESS AND FANGED MOUTHPIECEquot Tepantitla Mountain Tree Motif The great goddess is in the painting It demonstrates a vaginalike gushing water out to the Earth with plants growing The Goddess suggests the fertility It is extremely elaborate with a gigantic headdress There are also two priests on the side throwing seeds on to the ground Basically a quotFertile wonderlandquot quotCLEARLY RELATES TO THE GREAT GODDESSHAS SAME BIRD IN HEADDRESS MOUTHPIECE AND ADE MASK AND EARPLUGS STANDING FEMALE PERSONIFICATION OF MOUNTAIN WITH CAVE VAGINAWATER POURS FROM THE VAGINA SHE IS THE MOUNTAIN SOURCE OF WATER FOR TEOTIHUACANOS AND VENERATED A TREE SPROUTS FROM THE TOP AND GROWS UPCONNECTING THE FIGURE TO THE CELESTIAL REALM CAVE CONNECTS TO UNDERWORLDquot AXIS MUNDI CENTRAL COSMIC TREE THAT SERVES AS METAPHOR FOR UNIVERSE ALSO A FERTILITY SYMBOL WITH SEEDSOWING AND PLANTS GROWINGquot Storm God at Tepantitla Classic Zapotec Zapotec Culture at Monte Alban Oaxaca quotMonte Albanfounded several centuries prior to Teotihuacan Sculptural programs of the Preclassic suggest military strife and the need to establish the centrally located defensible mountain top site Located on a series of ridges about 1300 feet above the valley oor it is situated right at the intersection of the three arms of the valley Artificially leveled off hilltop with central ceremonial plaza that must have been the religious political center of the cityquot Ceremonial Plaza at Monte Alban Strategic central mountaintop location Location and layout echoes the sacred landscape Plaza is 1000 ft long by 600 ft wide Classic period population of 25000 occupied surrounding hills Oriented to the cardinal points Very much a closed a CLOSED plan quotTHE PLATFORMS AND OTHER TYPES OF BUILDINGS AROUND THE CEREMONIAL PLAZA ENCLOSE IT BY THE TIME OF THE LATE CLASSIC PERIOD ACCESS TO THE PLAZA SEEMS TO HAVE BEEN VERY RESTRICTED AND COULD EASILY HAVE BEEN CONTROLLED UNLIKE TEOTIHUACAN WHICH STRETCHED OUT FOR MILES THE LOCATION ON THE HILLTOP RESTRICTED THE PLAZA S EXPANSION EAST AND WEST ESPECIALLY THE BUILDINGS ARE FAIRLY LOOSELY ORGANIED AND ORIENTED TO THE CARDINAL POINTSTHE MAJOR EXCEPTION IS MOUND Iquot a n g 1 g ESTELA LISA is STELA 8 Hidden carvings of the South Platform Sculptural program indicates the presence of Teotihuacans at Monte Alban All appear to be named by the hieroglyphs South Platform Prisoner Display All displayed on the stone Iaguar lord 3 knot captive Calendar name Iaguar Lord Calendrical name Mural fragment from Tomb 105 Seem to be speaking Chanting singing in precession The women wear beautiful beads headdresses plugs no shoes Men carry big staff s Men are fairly toothless Men have Teotihuacan hightop shoes Seated Male wearing the attributes of the Rain God Cociyo Deemed the rain deity Elite male status by the huge ear plugs Serpent bifurcated tongue Big mask on to represent the rain god Wears cociyo mask Classic Veracruz Ballgame yokes Ballplayers would wear these during ballgames Each yoke depicts different drawings as if to impart terrestrial powers to its wearer Yokes were fitted around the waits attached sideways Hacha May have served as markers for play Usually thought of as trophies they may also have functioned as ball court markers t Veracruz quotf h i 139 I quot39lei A v 39 1 V 39 I I E J iii i39 ui39v II 1 III A 33 Ilia a I S 17 Ball courts at E1 Tajin Veracruz Two victors are sacrificing an unfortunate loser at the ballgame while a third looks on A death god descends from the sky band to take the offering L l g u g quot39 I F ix quot1quot r l I u39 t q 4 x i39 1 39 y 5 139 I k quot c l Scene of ritual human sacrifice in the E1 Tajin ballcour Palmas Were inserted into the yokes at waistlevel and extended to midchest height
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