PSYC2101: Exam 1 Study Guide
PSYC2101: Exam 1 Study Guide
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Date Created: 01/20/15
Appendix A 12092014 Use of APA Empirical study reports studies conducted by the author 0 Literature review of past research 0 Articles analyzing critiquing or adding to theories Methodological articles how to conduct speci c research and analyze data 0 Case studies Writing Style Clarity o Precise and clear 0 Think of intended audience one that is unfamiliar w topic and methods Assume reader is familiar w statistics and hypothesis testing 0 Coherent structure 0 Topic sentence within paragraphs Acknowledging the work of others 0 Separate your own words and ideas from outside sources 0 Use citations even if paraphrasing and not directly quoting o Filling paper w quotes from others is distracting and counterproductive Active v Passive voice 0 Many writers rely too much on passive voice in reports bc it makes it seem more scienti c o It was found by x and y that kids prefer passive o X and y found that kids prefer active APA allows author to use I or quotwequot Avoiding biased language 0 Be speci c when describing participants in the study 0 Participants or subjects when describing humans who took part in research 0 Respondents in survey research 0 Patients children clients if appropriate 0 Provide exact age ranges instead of toddlers or teenagers Refer to people using terms they prefer 0 Korean Americans and Chinese Americans not Asians Avoid use of word normal when describing or comparing groups 0 Gender refers to male and female as social groups 0 Sex refers to biological aspects of men and women 0 Don t use he his man man s Racial groups always capitalized Word Processing Entirely double spaced Margins 1 inch on all 4 sides of page 0 Page headers running head and page 5 5 inch from top of page Paragraphs indented 5inches Words shouldn t be hyphenated at the end of a line o 12pt times new roman gures should be arial or hevetica spacing once or twice after sentence depends on what volume APA you follow Italics for 0 Titles and volume numbers of periodicals titles of books some headings in your paper most statistical terms anchors of a scale ie agree emphasis of a word words used as words 0 Bold 0 Some headings 0 Hanging indent 0 Reference list at end of paper Reference is ush w left margin then 5 indent below it Organization of the report 0 Title page title author name and affiliation and author note 0 Number pg 1 0 Title no more than 12 words positioned in top half of the page but not top 0 Author and affiliation just below institutional affiliation where research is conducted below 0 Author note contact info acknowledging assistance and funding 0 Running head is summary of your title pg capitalized Abstract 0 Brief summary of research 150250 words long 0 Sentence of 2 about each of the main sections in the body of paper State problem under study and the primary hypothesis Sample size and info brief summary of procedure Results pattern of ndings for major variables Implications of the study On a separate page pg 2 0 Body of the paper 0 Intro problem under study literature review rationale and hypotheses of study 0 Method Heading Method Overview if its complex to help reader understand what follows Participants number and nature age sex ethnicity how they were recruited incentives or course credit Apparatus or materials describe special equipment Procedure exactly how the study was conducted step by step include the instructions given to participants how the IV was manipulated how DV was measured method used to control confounding variables debde ng 0 Results Straightforward presentation of ndings Don t explain ndings Probability alpha level used to determine statistical signi cance Describe any scoring or coding procedures Which statistical test was used on the data Report exact probability Effect size Tables used to present large arrays of data Figures used when a visual display would help reader comprehension pie chart bar graph etc Tables and gures on separate page at the end of the paper 0 Discussion Discuss implications of results Organization a Summarize original purpose and expectations of study a State whether results were consistent w predictions 0 If yes how it contributes to your knowledge of the problem consider relationship between results and past research theory 0 If no discuss possible explanations a Include own criticisms of study a Discuss future research 0 References 0 New page 0 Complete citations for everything mentioned in paper 0 Appendix 0 Sample questionnaire or survey 0 Footnotes 0 All typed on one page at the end of the paper avoid using them Tables and gures Study Terms Alternative explanations 0 Nothing other than a causal variable could be responsible for the effect no other plausible explanation for the relationship Applied research 0 Conducted to address issues in which there are practical problems and potential solutions Authority 0 More likely to believe a speaker who seems prestigious trustworthy and respectable 0 Scienti c approach rejects we can accept on faith that statements are true due to authority we need more evidence Basic research 0 Tries to answer fundamental questions about the nature of behavior Studies designed to address theoretical issues such as cognition emotion motivation learning etc Covariation of cause and effect o If the cause is present the effect occurs if the cause is not present there is no effect Empiricism o Fundamental aspect of scienti c method knowledge is based on observation Falsi ability o Possibility something could be proven false Goals of behavioral science 0 Describe behavior 0 Predict behavior 0 Determine the cause of behavior To conclude causation there must be temporal precedence Covariation of cause and effect and elimination of alternative explanations 0 Understand or explain behavior lntuition o Anecdotal evidence to draw general conclusions about the world around us 0 lnvolves nding an explanation of a behavior based on personal judgment 0 lllusorv correlation focus on two events that stand out and occur together adoption followed by a pregnancy Peer review 0 Process before publication in which scientists who have the expertise review an article or study to decide whether or not the research should be published ensures research w major aws don t become part of scienti c literature Program evaluation 0 Area of applied research assesses the social reforms and innovations that occur in social institutions government health care education industry etc Pseudoscience o quotfake sciencequot in which seemingly scienti c terms processes and demonstrations are used to substantiate claims that have no basis in scienti c research hypotheses not testable methodology isn t scienti c and data isn t valid Skepticism 0 Ideas must be evaluated on the basis of careful logic and results from scienti c investigation Temporal precedence 0 Order of events in which the cause precedes comes before the effect Essential to determining causation Study Terms Abstract 0 Summary of research report no more than 120 words info about hypothesis procedure and broad results Discussion section 0 Reviews research from various perspectives do the results support the hypothesis Possible explanations for results what may have gone wrong limitations how results compare with past research applications for future research on topic Hypothesis 0 Tentative idea or question that is waiting for evidence to support or refute it Introduction section 0 Outlines the problem being studied mentions past research and theories relevant speci c expectations hypothesis Literature review 0 Articles that summarize the research in a particular areas ie Psychological Bulletin Method section 0 Brief overview of procedure characteristics of participants detailed stepbystep procedure describe any complex apparatus or materials Prediction 0 Comes after the hypothesis if prediction is true then hypothesis is supported not proven o Educated guess on what will happen psyclNFO o abstracts maintained in a computer database results section 0 results conveyed in three ways narrative description that is basic and doesn t try to explain statistical description and tables or graphs Science citation index SCI 0 Search through database based on citation info such as author or article title disciplines such as biology chemistry etc 0 Can use key article feature which gives you all articles related to that rst article a Social Sciences Citation Index SSCI 0 Similar to SCI database based on author or article title that includes social and behavioral sciences sociology criminal jusUce 0 Can use key article feature which gives you all articles related to that rst article a Theory 0 Systematic body of ideas about a particular topic or phenomenon grounded in actual data from prior research as well as numerous hypotheses that are consistent with the theory 0 Organize or explain a variety of speci c facts or descriptions of behavior generate new knowledge by focusing our thinking so that we notice new aspects of behavior a Web of Science 0 Database that brings us SCI and SSCI 0 Study Terms APA Ethics Code 0 Revised in 2002 0 Five general principles bene cence responsibility integrity justice and respect for the rights and dignity of others 0 Autonomy 0 Participants are autonomous meaning they are capable of making deliberate decisions about whether to participate in research 0 Assent minors are asked to participate parents give written consent but minors must also agree assent 0 Belmont Report 0 Basis for current ethical guidelines 0 De ned the principles and applications that have guided more detailed regulations and the APA Ethics Codes 0 3 basic ethics principles bene cence respect for persons autonomy and justice Bene cence 0 Need for research to maximize bene ts and minimize any possible harmful effects of participation Con dentiality 0 Very important when asking questions about sensitive topics such as sexual abuse alcohol drugs family violence etc Very important responses to such questions remain between the researcher and the participant Deb e ng 0 Opportunity for the researcher to clear up any issues of deception withholding information and potential harmful effects of participation occurs after the study also gives them an opportunity to explain the purpose of the study Deceonn 0 Occurs when there is an active misrepresentation of information Exempt research 0 Research in which there is no risk anonymous questionnaires surveys educational tests naturalistic observation in public places when there is no threat to anonymity Fraud 0 Fabrication of data 0 Often detected when other scientists cannot replicate the results of a study Honest experiments 0 Behavior can be studied without deception participants agree to have their behavior studied and know exactly what the researchers hope to accomplish 0 People seek out information of services they need 0 Naturally occurring event presents an opportunity for research IACUC 0 Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee 0 Composed of at least 1 scientist one vet and a community member 0 Reviews animal research procedures and ensuring that all regulations are adhered to Informed consent 0 Potential participants should be provided with all information that might in uence their decision on whether to participate or not Should be informed on purpose of the study general procedure the risks and bene ts compensation con dentiality contact information and their rights to terminate participation 0 Institutional Review Board IRB 0 Every institution that receives federal funding must have an IRB that is responsible for reviewing research conducted within the institution 0 Review agency composed of at least 5 people at least one of which is from outside the institution Jus ce 0 Addresses issues of fairness in receiving the bene ts of research as well as bearing the burdens of accepting risks 0 Brings up the issue of equity decisions to include or exclude certain people from research must be scienti cally justi ed Minimal risk research 0 Risk of harm to participants is no greater than risks encountered in daily life or in routine physicalpsychological tests 0 Ex recording routine physiological data moderate exercise by healthy individuals research on individual or group behaviorcharacteristics of individuals perception cognition game theory or test development in which researcher does not manipulate the person s behavior and the research wont cause stress to participant o Plagiarism 0 Misrepresenting another s work as your own replication lacking quotations or citations 0 Risk 0 Harm that could come from participating in a study such as psychological or physical harm and loss of con dentiality Riskbene t analysis 0 Calculation of potential risks and bene ts that are likely to result 0 Roleplaying 0 Experimenter describes a situation to a participant and then asks how they would respond to the situation 0 Simulation 0 Type of roleplaying o Replication of real world situation Stanford Prison Experiment 0 Study Terms Construct validity 0 Does the operational de nition of a variable actually re ect the true theoretical meaning of the variable Correlation coef cient 0 Numerical index of the strength of relationship between variables indicates how strongly variables are related to one another Curvilinear relationship 0 Increases in one value is accompanied by systematic increases and decreases in the values of another variable direction of relationship changes at least once External validity o Extent to which the results can be generalized to other populations and settings Internal validity 0 Ability to draw conclusions about causal relationships from the results of a study high internal validity if strong inferences can be made that one variable caused changes in another Negative linear relationship 0 Increases of one value associated with decreases in other values Operational de nition 0 The set of procedures used to measure or manipulate a variable variable must be de ned in terms of the speci c method used to measure or manipulate it Participant subject variable 0 Personal attributes age sex gender ethnic group etc Positive linear relationship 0 Increases in the values of one variable are accompanied by increases in the values of the second variable Thirdvariable problem 0 A third variable any variable that is not the 2 being studied one that is extraneous can in uence the relationship you re studying Variable 0 Any event situation behavior or individual characteristic that vades 0 Must have two or more levels or values 0 Study Terms Concurrent validity 0 Correlate test scores with some other different test scores have participant take both test in the same sitting 0 Examine the relationship and correlation between your measure and another established measure compare your IQ test with another standard accepted one Content validity 0 How much a test measures each element of a construct 0 If you re testing depression does each question item actually relate to and measure universally accepted symptoms of depression 0 Established by an expert Construct validity 0 Whether our methods of studying variables are accurate if its measuring what it claims to measure does it actually measure the construct Convergent validity 0 Extent to which scores of the measure in question are related to scores on other measures of the same construct 0 If I have a measure for shyness my results should be similar and thus have a strong correlation to another test for shyness 0 Keller says its about theory not practicality Finding a correlation between your measure and one you think is theoretically related Cronbach s alpha 0 For internal consistency reliability 0 Average of all possible splithalf reliability coefficients 0 Take all possible hal ngs of the test and takes the average correlation coefficient Discriminant validity 0 The measure is not related to things it shouldn t be related to measure of shyness shouldn t be related to or similar to measure of con dence Face validity 0 Measure appears to accurately assess the intended measure can be established by the testtaker not necessarily someone educated and sophisticated on the matter Internal consistency reliability 0 Assessment of reliability using responses at only one point in time all items within the measure should yield similar or consistent results Interrater reliability 0 Whether two raters make the same judgments or ratings and if they agree or not in their observations 0 Cohen s Kappa is used k Interval scale 0 There s numbers on the scale and the difference between these numbers is meaningful 0 Ex intelligence aptitude test scores temperature 0 No absolute zero point can t be 0 intelligence or absence of temperature Itemtotal correlation 0 Take what one question item is measuring and compare it to what the total items are measuring if it s the same its reliable if they do not correlate then they should be eliminated Measurement error 0 The degree to which a measurement deviates from the true score value Nominal scale o No numerical or quantitative properties different categories qualitative data Male female ethnic groups Ordinal scale 0 Rankorder the levels of the variable being studied 0 Rating something based on stars 15 Pearson productmoment correlation coef cient 0 Most common when discussing reliability 0 Symbolized as quotrquot can range from 0 to 1 and 0 to 1 R0 means they re not related at all closer R gets to 1 or 1 the stronger they are related R is positive linear relationship R is negative linear relationship Predictive validity 0 Test that is meant to predict some future behavior SAT supposed to predict performance in college Ratio scale 0 Used to measure variables that involve physical measures response time reaction time etc 0 Can have an absolute 0 point that indicates absence of a variable being measured 0 Ex reaction time weight age frequencies of behavior 0 Can be used to compared quotx weighs 50b and y weighs 100lb therefore y is twice the weight of xquot Reactivity 0 Awareness of being measured changes and individuals behavior or response ReHathy 0 Consistency or stability of a measure or behavior yield same result every time Splithalf reliability 0 Correlation between 2 halves of a test if you split the test into 2 parts then the results from each half should be consistent internal consistency reliability 0 Spearmanbrown splithalf reliability coefficient should be more than 6 Testretest reliability 0 Measuring the same individuals at two points in time r should be at least 80 True score 0 The real score on the variable 0 0 Study Terms Archival research 0 Using previously compiled information to answer research questions researcher does not actually collect the original data rather analyzes what already exists Case study 0 Observational method that provides a description of an individual usually a person but can be a setting Coding system 0 The way the observations are measured frequency of behavior for example Content analysis 0 Systematic analysis of existing documents like archival research coding systems are needed to quantify the information they nd in documents Naturalistic observation 0 Researcher makes observations of individuals in their natural environment 0 Normally qualitative data 0 Goal is to describe the setting and interpret the events Participant observation 0 Researcher assumes an active insider role allows the researcher to observe the setting from the inside in order to experience the events the same way as natural participants Psychobiography 0 Type of case study in which a researcher applies psychological theory to explain the life of an individual often a historical gure Reactivity o Possibility that the presence of the observer will affect people s behavior Systematic observation 0 Careful observation of one or more speci c behaviors in a particular setting interested only in a few speci c behaviors observations are quanti able often the researcher has developed prior hypotheses about the behavior 0 0 Study Terms Computerassisted telephone interview CATI o Cheaper than phone interviews by reducing labor and data analysis costs interviewers questions are prompted on the screen and the data are entered directly into the comp for analysis Closedended questions 0 Limited number of response options are given 0 More structured easier to code Cluster sampling 0 Researcher randomly picks clusters groups of people not based on speci c categories then interviews everyone in that cluster Con dence interval 0 Con dence that the true population value lies within this interval around the obtained sample result gives you information about the likely amount of error Facetoface interviewing o Require interviewer and respondent to meet to conduct the interview Focus group 0 Interview with a group of 610 individuals discuss a certain topic for 23 hours Members are normally there bc they are educated or interested in the topic Participants usually receive some sort of monetary compensation or a gift questions tend to be openended 0 Discussion is normally recorded and transcribed then coded for certain words or phrases Graphic rating scale 0 Requires a mark along a continuous 100millimeter line that is anchored with descriptions at each end disagree agree researchers then measure the marks with a ruler to code it Haphazard convenience sampling 0 quottakethemwhereyou ndthemquot sampling create your population based on what s convenient who s around when you re looking for participants your friends your classmates etc 0 introduces sampling bias and is not representative and results thus cannot be generalized 0 type of Nonprobability sampling Internet survey 0 Very easy to design and administer a survey online because someone takes it then the results are immediately sent to the surveyor can be both open and closedended 0 Problems how to sample people because search engines suggest the survey to people based on what they re interested in so it makes the sample not random people can lie about age ethnicity and other key characteristics Interviewer bias 0 Interviewer is a unique human questioning another so it is easy for issues to arise o Interviewer might bias the respondents answers by seeming to approve of certain answers their characteristics might in uence the way respondents answer they may have certain expectations which could lead them to see a response in a certain way Mail survey 0 Sending surveys to the addresses of people who were chosen to be in the sample they ll it out and send it back inexpensive however low response rates Nonprobability sampling 0 We don t know the probability of any member of the population being chosen for the sample o Haphazard sampling purposive sampling and quota sampling are different kinds Openended questions 0 Respondents are free to answers in any way they like 0 Require more time to categorize and then code so they are more costly Panel study 0 To study changes over time same people are surveyed at two or more points in time Population 0 All individuals of interest to the researcher Probability sampling 0 Each member of the population has a speci able probability of being chosen Purposive sampling 0 Choosing your sample based on a purpose to obtain a group of people who meet some criterion 0 Example under age 30 female with a child 0 Good way to limit the sample to only people you want to study but again results cannot be generalized type of Nonprobability sampling Quota sampling 0 Type of Nonprobability sampling you chose who is in your sample based on the need for speci c percentages of people quotchoose a sample that re ects the numerical composition of various subgroups in the population 0 You want 19 freshman 23 sophomores 26 juniors 22 seniors and 10 graduate students so you haphazardly nd this amount of people to be in your sample meaning you do it based on getting this certain amount of people Random sample 0 Nothing determines who is in the sample or not based off chance Rating scale 0 Ask people to provide quothow muchquot judgments on any number of dimensions amount of agreement liking con dence etc 0 Different formats depending on what s being studied Response set o Tendency to respond to all questions from a particular perspective rather than provide answers unique to each queonns o For example quotfaking goodquot means answering in a socially desirable way Response rate 0 Percentage of people in the sample who actually completed the survey Sampling 0 the process of choosing members to be included in a sample Sampling error 0 Error due to the fact you re studying a sample not a whole population synonymous with margin of error 0 To x sampling error you increase sample size to make it more representative of the population Sampling frame 0 Actual population of individuals from which a random sample will be drawn 0 A list with all your possible participants in it then you ip a coin to see if they re in or not Semantic differential scale 0 Developed by Osgood 0 quotMeasure of the meaning of conceptsquot respondents rate a concept on a line broken into 7 sections anchored by 2 bipolar adjectives and you indicate your rating on those dashes evaluation good bad activity slow fast potency weak strong Simple random sampling 0 Every member of the population has an equal probability of being selected for the sample Strati ed random sampling 0 Divide population into subgroups based on categories race gender age strata and then take random samples from each 0 Advantage no strata is left out because you pick from each of them Survey research 0 Employs questionnaires and interviews to ask people to provide information about themselves and past or intended future behaviors Telephone interview 0 Less expensive than facetoface allow data to be collected quickly bc multiple interviewers can work on the same survey at once Yeasaying and naysaying o Tendency to agree or disagree to all the questions 0 Quasiexperimental 0 Procedure Studied dissociation on selfreport measures Created new measure SODA Used BIDR to measure social desirability Used ESM for ecological validity o lndividual s experiences in naturally occurring conditions Dissociation is a construct Used CES and QED to establish validity 0 Goals To create a better measure of dissociation 0 Participants 100 randomly chosen undergrads 0 Results High internal consistency of 92 so reliable measure 0 Design Experimental betweensubject design replication of Milgram o More ethical Screening for taking 2 college level psych class Screening for mental health Maximum of 150 volts Debrief immediately Clinical psychologist ran the study to look out for excessive stress of participants 0 IV Confederate refusal to administer shocks 0 DV Participant obedience measured through shocks administered 0 Participant variables examined Gender Personality type Age Ethnicity 0 Participants Responded to yers and advertisements 50incenUve 0 Results No effect of gender No effect of personality type No effect of confederate refusal o
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