Intro to Anthro
Intro to Anthro ANTHRCUL 101
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Furman Hills on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANTHRCUL 101 at University of Michigan taught by Andrew Shryock in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see /class/231468/anthrcul-101-university-of-michigan in Culture at University of Michigan.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
Lecture 7 Primates We have already discussed reasons for studying nonhuman primates We are closely related to them we share an evolutionary history and the fact that many of our behavioral adaptations are found among other primates helps us make better sense of the behaviors that appear to be distinctly human Before we can discuss these issues in detail we need to familiarize ourselves with the taxonomical categories primatologists use to divide up the primate order Primates 9 Prosimians 9Anthropoids 9 Platyrrhines New World monkeys Ceboids 9 Catarrhines 9 Cercopithicoids Old World monkeys 9 Hominoids 9 Hylobatids Gibbons 9 Pongids Orangutans 9 Hominids Chimps Gorillas Humans Platyrrhines have tails and prehensile tails can grab things pick things up Gibbons are tree swingers long arms Hominines humans Throughout this radiation of families genera and species certain primate trends emerge l grasping ability can pick things up twist things around opposable thumbs 2 reliance on sight over smell 3 reliance on hand over nose 4 brain complexity brain gets bigger as the family tree runs down towards humans 5 parental investment the amount of time it takes for offspring to get out of parental care 6 sociality primates are highly social species tend to live in groups We have devised many ways of distinguishing ourselves from other primates but most of the traits we consider distinctly human are not as distinct or as human as we think 1 Learning humans are very good at learning new things 2 Tool use pen and paper termite twigs leaf sponges 3 Hunting chimpanzeesbaboons hunt use meat to signal allianceclosenessbribe sex for meat 4 Symbolic communication chimps can learn sign language can also learn grammatical and syntactical rules But there are things humans tend to do that their near primate relatives do not 1 Share food widely and routinely male chimps don t feed their children etc 2 Cooperate in planning and carrying out complex multistage tasks planning 3 Use spoken language Lecture 6 Evolution and Genetics Our knowledge of genetics and natural selection has developed out of con icting cosmologies is part ofa biblical worldview It tr l The differences and similarities we see among living things re part of God s will Using the book of Genesis as evidence biblical scholars calculated that the world was created in 4004 BC All human physical variation had to be traced to the three sons of Noah and their wives Linguistic variation originated at the Tower of Babel and so on Carolus Linnaeus the great taxonomer worked within this cosmology Why is there no record of today s species in the ancient past Why do so many ancient species no longer exist today Perhaps they were destroyed by oods res and other natural catastrophies after which God created new species to live alongside surviving species In other words canyons are made by the gradual eros1on of sod by runmng water Islands are made by the accumulation of volcanic rock and ash over time and so on u v M mquot J1 Many paleontologists are returning to the idea of catastro hism citing perlodic massive extinctions in the fossil record Are these due to Violent global volcanic eruptions or asteroid comet and meteorite impacts Whatever their cause these catastrophes create new environments in which evolution can occur Darwin could not locate the source of biological variation He knew nothing about DNA genes chromosomes on different com s of particles TT Tt And tall peas can produce short ones depending on how traits combine Tt X Tt TT Tt tT tt Talls can be TT Tt Two geno pes produce one phenotype Two phenotypes tall or short are produced by three genotypes Human blood types A AB B 0 One gene three alleles four phenotypes siX genotypes Lecture 4 Language nterested i Anthropologists are i 7 human speech and writing 7 because it l HIU ELL i But it is also the human capacity that most enables us to transcend biology The complexity of culture the ability to create cultures and pass them on is rooted in our use of language 39 Hylllllll iv 39 a with c od Primates can manipulate symbols Washoe and Koko learned ASL for instance But apes cannot speak and they use ASL only in social environments humans have created for them The combination of these trends reinforces several activities planning reporting and transmitting information over time and space Language might have evolved over many thousands of years or it might have happened in only a few hundred 4 m vliuc m llij m 3 WM examples gender is c nveyed through body language ways of occupying spac clothing hand signs the ethnographer s wife gets body lessons in Jordan covering teeth feet walking modestly and walking with a man 5 elj39 1mi r Edwin G Vocalizations Ha Mmmmm Uhhuh Wew Whoa Yeeeeeehaw All ofthese mean nothing in Jordan Ritual gestures kissing in Jordan and in the US signs of respect hand kissing etc All of these things can function quite well without speech Language includes and depends on elaborate patterns of speech Emmi Ll Limxmlmrm mmm mx uilmgr Phonemes are sound contrasts that make a difference are discemable English has about 35 ll vowels 24 consonants Not all sounds that are distinguishable in English are distinguishable or even present in other languages examples lr in Japanese bv in Spanish b but no p fbut no v in Arabic Some sounds present in other languages are not found in English e g ayn and qah and hard h and kh in Arabic Try spin and pin These two p sounds are indistinguishable to English speakers but different to Hindi speakers As for morphemes and morphology un woman ly ize es er ed ing The morpheme woman can be altered by attaching additional morphemes from the options listed above Try with man Grammar syntax Noam Chomsky and universal transformational grammar All human languages share a syntactic deep structure This universal grammar is inborn examples gender formality dusieduzen timemoney linkage in English religious imagery in Arabic praise be to God alhamdulillah God willing insha allah God protectkeep you allah khaleek God forbid awdhu billah in God s name bismillah God forgive istaghfar allah God be with you allah ma ak God willed i ma sha allah O Lord Ya rubb Let s go Hurry up yallah literally O God And so on and on What does this mean What does it mean that almost all these Arabic expressions have an English version that was in common English use until about 200 years ago 7 give or take fifty 7 and all are still intelligible Has our language changed our reality or has our reality changed our language Focal Vocabulary Color terms malefemale distinctions cultural variations Sports terms malefemale distinctions Carswagonshorses example kin terms in Arabic Hawaiian and English
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