THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION HIST 2215
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shanie Ruecker on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 2215 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Martin Babicz in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/231772/hist-2215-university-of-colorado-at-boulder in History at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
American Revolution Exam I Review TERMS The Grand Settlement 0 Peace between the Indians and the French 0 Made French settlement in Mississippi possible because of Iroquois neutrality Funded Debt 0 Government takes an annual budget 7 sets some of it aside 7 pays minimum amount on debts 0 Alexander Hamilton 0 Estimating the total public debt at 771 million called for the issuance of new federal bonds to cover the debt 0 By assuming the obligation to pay this debt the government rmly established its good credit The system of debt management instituted by Hamilton worked well to consolidate the debt and permit the government to make interest payments as they came due as well as to secure the faith and credit of the government in the new United States and abroad 0 Primogeniture o A British Real Estate Law 0 All of the land that a father owns passes to his eldest son when he dies 0 The colonies adopted this idea as part of their drive to emulate the British as much as possible during the 18Lh century Actual Representation o quotNo taxation without representationquot began as a slogan in the period 176371776 that summarized a primary grievance of the British colonists in the Thirteen Colonies o In short many in those colonies believed the lack of direct representation in the distant British Parliament was an illegal denial of their rights as Englishmen and therefore laws taxing the colonists the kind of law that affects the most individuals directly and other laws applying only to the colonies were unconstitutional o In the early stages of the American Revolution colonists in North America resisted taxes imposed upon them by the British Parliament because the colonies were not represented in Parliament 0 According to the British constitution colonists argued taxes could only be levied on British subjects with their consent 0 Because the colonists were represented only in their provincial assemblies they said only those legislatures could levy taxes in the colonies o This concept was famously expressed as quotNo taxation without representation American Revolution Exam I Review George Grenville defended the taxes by arguing that the colonists were virtually represented in Parliament a position that had critics on both sides of the Atlantic William Pitt a defender of colonial rights ridiculed the concept of virtual representation calling it quotthe most contemptible idea that ever entered into the head of a man it does not deserve serious refutationquot Parliament rejected criticism of the concept and passed the Declaratog Act in 1766 asserting the right of Parliament to legislate for the colonies quotall cases whatsoeverquot This was another lead into the American Revolution The Great Awakening The Great Awakenings were several periods of rapid and dramatic religious revival in Anglo American religious history generally recognized as beginning in the 1730s The cycle of Great Awakenings appears unique to the USA although the Great Awakenings in uenced and were in uenced by religious thought from throughout the world 0 This could be because the USA is home to many different denominations and sects while remaining largely Protestant o The lack of a single dominant faith or statesanctioned religion means new ideas can be spread without people having to slowly reform existing institutions from within or allow pressures to build up until the existing institutions are violently overthrown o The established sects have enough prestige and inertia that the pressure for new ideas builds into a regular cycle of revival and change George White eld An Anglican itinerant minister who helped spread the Great Awakening in Great Britain and especially in the British North American colonies On returning to North America he preached a series of revivals that came to be known as the Great Awakening of 1740 0 He preached nearly every day for months to large crowds of sometimes several thousand people as he traveled throughout the colonies especially New England Benjamin Franklin once attended a revival meeting in Philadelphia and was greatly impressed with Whitefield39s ability to deliver a message to such a large audience 0 Franklin had dismissed reports of Whitefield preaching to crowds of the order of tens of thousands in England as exaggeration I When listening to Whitefield preaching from the Philadelphia court house Franklin walked away towards his shop in Market Street until he could no longer hear Whitefield distinctly I He then estimated his distance from Whitefield and calculated the area of a semicircle centered on Whitefield o Allowing two square feet per person he realized that Whitefield really could be heard by tens of thousands of people in the open air 0 He then became Whitefield s publisher and friend though he never shared Whitefield s beliefs American Revolution Exam I Review Louisbourg o The Fortress of Louisbourg is an18th century French fortress at Louisbourg Nova Scotia 0 The declaration of war between France and Britain was seen as an opportunity by British colonists in New England who were increasingly wary of the threat Louisbourg posed to their shing eets working the Grand Banks of Newfoundland o The wariness bordered on an almost fanatical paranoia or a religious fervor stirred by false accounts of the size and scale of Louisbourg s forti cations and the general anti French sentiment shared among most British colonists at the time 0 New Englanders39 paranoia increased after a small French force sailed from Louisbourg in the summer of 1744 to the nearby British fishing port of Canso attacking a small fort on Grassy Island and burning it to the ground 0 This port was used by the New England fishing eet as it was the closest mainland North American British port to the fishing grounds however the Canso Islands offshore were contested by both Britain and France 0 In 1748 as part of the Treaty of Aix la Chapelle Louisbourg was returned to France in exchange for their handing back Madras to Britain and withdrawing their troops from the Low Countries 0 The decision to withdraw from Louisbourg came under fierce attacks in London from opponents of the Pelham Ministry but it went ahead nonetheless In 1758 the city was captured again by the British this time for good as Canada was given to Britain during the Treaty of Paris Pontiac s Rebellion 1763 o Pontiac39s Rebellion was a war launched in 1763 by North American Indian First Nations who were dissatisfied with British policies in the Great Lakes region after the British victory in the French and Indian War Seven Years War 175471763 0 Warriors from numerous tribes joined the uprising in an effort to drive British soldiers and settlers out of the region The war is named after the Odawa leader Pontiac the most prominent of many native leaders in the con ict 0 The war began in May 1763 when American Natives alarmed by policies imposed by British General Jeffrey Amherst attacked a number of British forts and settlements 0 Eight forts were destroyed and hundreds of colonists were killed or captured with many more eeing the region I Hostilities came to an end after British Army expeditions in 1764 led to peace negotiations over the next two years 0 The First Nations were unable to drive awav the British but the uprising prompted the British government to modify the policies that had provoked the con ict 0 Warfare on the North American frontier was brutal and the killing of prisoners the targeting of civilians and other atrocities were widespread o In what is now perhaps the war s bestknown incident British officers at Fort Pitt attempted to infect the besieging Indians with blankets that had been exposed to smallpox American Revolution Exam I Review I The ruthlessness of the con ict was a re ection of a growing racial divide between British colonists and American Indians The British government sought to prevent further racial violence by issuing the Royal Proclamation of 1763 which created a boundary between colonists and Indians The Proclamation of 1763 o The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7 1763 by King George III following Great Britain39s acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War Seven Years War 0 The purpose of the proclamation was to organize Britain39s new North American empire and to stabilize relations with Native North Americans through regulation of trade settlement and land purchases on the western frontier The Stamp Act 1765 o The Stamp Act of 1765 was the first attempt to impose a direct tax on its American colonies o The act required all legal documents permits commercial contracts newspapers wills pamphlets and playing cards in the colonies to carry a tax stamp I It was part of an economic program directly affecting colonial policy that was initiated in response to Britain s greatly increased national debt incurred during the British victory in the Seven Years War 0 Taxes had to be paid in hard currencyigold silver copper coinsinot paper moneyimust be transferableithis is hard in the colonies because there are no mines I If you violated stamp act you would be prosecuted in an admiralty court in Nova Scotia 100s miles awayino jury The Virginia Stamp Act Resolutions 0 The Virginia Resolves were a series of resolutions passed by the Virginia General Assembly in response to the Stamp Act of 1765 o The resolves claimed that in accordance with long established British law Virginia was subject to taxation only by a parliamentary assembly to which Virginians themselves elected representatives Since no colonial representatives were elected to the Parliament the only assembly legally allowed to raise taxes would be the Virginia General Assembly 0 American Revolution Exam I Review The Declaratory Act 1766 o The Declaratory Act was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain in 1766 during America39s colonial period 0 One of a series of resolutions passed attempting to regulate the behavior of the colonies I It stated that Parliament had the right to make laws for the colonies in all matters 0 the declaratory act symboliciparliament has full power and authority over the colonies o Discredits the moderatesipushed assigned by the more radical colonists who are victorious with the repeal I Britain regrets the repeal because now the colonists did not understand that parliament has complete authority Sovereignty o The exclusive right to control a government a country a people or oneself A Sovereign is the supreme lawmaking authority 0 The authority to do something without the permission of others ultimate source of power in a government 0 Hypothesis that the ruler s sovereignty is contracted to him by the people in return for his maintaining their safety led him to conclude that if the ruler fails to do this the people are released from their obligation to obey him 0 Product of the Enlightenment o In the 18111 century only a sovereign government has the right to tax 0 Question of sovereignty was very important I British believed that sovereignty rested with the king and parliament I Colonists believe that it was in the local government The Enlightenment o The intellectual and philosophical developments of that age and their impact in moral social and political reform aspired toward more freedom for common people based on self ovemance natural ri hts natural law central em hasis on libert individual ri ts reason common sense and the principles of deism 0 These principles were a revolutionary departure from theocracy autocracy oligarchy aristocracy and the divine right of kings o The Enlightenment marks a principled departure from the Middle Ages of religious authority absolute state power guildbased economic systems and censorship of ideas toward an era of rational discourse and personal judgment republicanism liberalism naturalism scientific authority and modernity John Locke s ideas on liberalism greatly in uenced the political minds behind the revolution for instance his theory of the quotsocial contractquot implied that among humanity39s natural rights American Revolution Exam I Review was the right of the people to overthrow their leaders should those leaders betray the historic rights of Englishmen o In terms of writing state and national constitutions the Americans used Montesquieu s analysis of the ideally quotbalancedquot British Constitution 0 A motivating force behind the revolution was the American embrace of a political ideology called quotrepublicanismquot which was dominant in the colonies by 1775 o The quotcountry partyquot in Britain whose critique of British government emphasized that corruption was to be feared in uenced American politicians I The colonists associated the British court with luxury and inherited aristocracy which the colonials had never welcomed and now increasingly condemned I Corruption was seen as the greatest possible evil and civic virtue required men to put civic duty ahead of their personal desires I Men had a civic duty to ght for their country 0 The Enlightenment was less a set of ideas than it was a set of values 0 At its core was a critical questioning of traditional institutions customs and morals o Brought about Liberalism in the colonies Republican Ideology o stresses liberty and rights as central values makes the people as a whole sovereign rejects inherited political power expects citizens to be independent in their performance of civic duties and is strongly inclined against corruption 0 republicanism asserts that people have inalienable rights that cannot be voted away by a majority of voters o The commitment of most Americans to republican values and to their property rights helped bring about the American Revolution for Britain was increasingly seen as corrupt and hostile to democracy and a threat to the established liberties that Americans enjoyed and to American property rights 0 The greatest threat to liberty was thought by many to be corruptionnot just in London but at home as well I The colonists associated it with luxury and especially inherited aristocracy which they condemned Virtue o In 18111 century 0 Pursuit of the best interests for society 7 not selfinterest 0 Only men could be virtuous 7 had to own land 0 Virtue required independence American Revolution Exam I Review The Townshend Acts 1767 o The Townshend Acts were a series of acts passed beginning in 1767 by the Parliament of Great Britain relating to the British colonies in North America 0 The purpose of the Townshend Acts was I to raise revenue in the colonies to pay for governors and judges who would be independent of colonial control I to create a more effective means of enforcing compliance with trade regulations I to punish the province of New York for failing to comply with the 1765 Quartering Act I to establish the precedent that the British Parliament had the right to taX the colonies o The Townshend Acts met with resistance in the colonies prompting the occupation of Boston by British troops in 1768 which eventually resulted in the Boston Massacre of 1770 o Ironically on the same day as the massacre in Boston Parliament began to consider a motion to partially repeal the Townshend duties 0 Most of the new taxes were repealed but the taX on tea was retained I The British government continued in its attempt to taX the colonists without their consent however which led to the Boston Tea Party and the American Revolution The Boston Massacre 5 March 1770 o The Boston Massacre refers to an incident involving the deaths of five civilians at the hands of British troops on March 5 1770 the legal aftermath of which helped spark the rebellion in some of the British colonies in America which culminated in the American Revolution 0 A tense situation because of a heavy British military presence in Boston boiled over to incite brawls between soldiers and civilians and eventually led to troops discharging their muskets after being attacked by a rioting crowd I Three civilians were killed at the scene of the shooting and two died after the incident The Boston Tea Party 16 December 1773 o The Boston Tea Party was an act of direct action protest by the American colonists against the British Government in which they destroyed many crates of tea belonging to the British East India Company and dumped it into the Boston Harbor Tensions between Great Britain and the American colonies arose in the 1760s when Parliament sought for the first time to directly taX the colonies for the purpose of raising revenue American Revolution Exam I Review 0 Colonists argued that according to the British Constitution British subjects could be taxed only by their own representatives because the colonies were not represented in Parliament they could not be taxed by that body I Colonists organized economic boycotts against the Stamp Act of 1765 and the Townshend Acts of 1767 By 1773 the British East India Company was in nancial distress due in part to the colonial boycotts The Coercive Acts 1774 o The Intolerable Acts or the Coercive Acts are names used to describe a series of laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 relating to Britain s colonies in North America 0 Four of the acts were issued in direct response to the Boston Tea Party of December 1773 o the British government hoped these punitive measures would by making an example of Massachusetts reverse the trend of colonial resistance to parliamentary authority that had begun with the 1765 Stamp Act I Boston Port Act I Administration of Justice Act I Quartering Act I Massachusetts Governing Act 0 Many colonists viewed the acts as an arbitrary violation of their rights and in 1774 they organized the First Continental Congress to coordinate a protest The First Continental Congress 5 September 1774 o The First Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from twelve of the thirteen British North American colonies that met on September 5 1774 in Philadelphia Pennsylvania early in the American Revolution 0 Called in response to the passage of the Coercive Acts by the British Parliament the Congress was attended by 56 members appointed by the legislatures of twelve of the Thirteen Colonies the exception being the Province of Georgia which did not send delegates o The Congress met brie y to consider options I an economic boycott of British trade I publish a list of rights and grievances I and petition King George for redress of those grievances o The Congress also called for another Continental Congress in the event that their petition was unsuccessful in halting enforcement of the Intolerable Acts Their appeal to the Crown had no effect and so the Second Continental Congress was convened the following year to organize the defense of the colonies at the onset of the American Revolutionary War
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