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by: Mrs. Willis Mante


Mrs. Willis Mante

GPA 3.6

Kevin Jones

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About this Document

Kevin Jones
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mrs. Willis Mante on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MCDB 4777 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Kevin Jones in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see /class/231837/mcdb-4777-university-of-colorado-at-boulder in Molecular, Cellular And Developmental Biology at University of Colorado at Boulder.

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Date Created: 10/29/15
MCDB 47775777 Exam 3 Review revised 0307 The Eye and Vision 17 What are the anatomical parts of the eye How does accommodation work How does this relate to myopia hyperopia and presbyopia 27 What is the developmental origin of the eye 37 What are the cell types of the eye and how do they relate to processing of visual information What is the relevance of the pigment epithelium 47 What is the mechanism of phototransduction How does amplification occur during phototransduction allowing single photon sensitivity 57 What is the relevance of rods cones and the fovea to vision 67 What are some common types of genetic defects underlying color blindness How do they relate to the arrangement of opsin genes 77 How do receptive fields of retinal ganglion cells vary and how does the circuitry work underlying these properties ie onicenter vs officenter and centerisurround properties How are horizontal cells relevant 87 What is the molecular basis of color vision How does this help explain color blindness and especially redigreen color blindness 97 What are the characteristics of onicenteroff surround and officenteronisurround retinal ganglion cells RGCs ie how do they respond to different types of stimuli What is the relevance of centerisurround to light adaptation 107 How do the RGC characteristics relate to the type of information relayed to the lateral geniculate nucleus LGN ie what sort of information is emphasized 117 What are the targets of RGC axons in the brain and the general functions of these target structures 127 What parts of the visual world are different parts of the retina the optic nerves and tracts the LGN and the visual cortex responsible for processing and how do deficits in these structures affect vision 137 What are the characteristics of orientationiselective cells 147 What is an ocular dominance column How are ocular dominance columns and orientation columns related in striate cortex 157 What are near cells and far cells and how are they thought to be important 167 What are the magnocellular and parvocellular pathways specialized for and how does this relate to the structure of the RGCs projecting to the magnocellular and parvocellular portions of the LGN What are the different processing streams in extrastriate visual cortical areas specialized for Hearing 1 What are the functions of the external and middle ear What are the ossicles and what do they do 2 What are the oval window round window basilar membrane tectorial membrane scala vestibuli scala tympani helicotrema and scala media and what are their functions in hearing 3 How do the properties of the basilar membrane relate to creation of a tonotopic map Which part of the cochleabasilar membrane is specialized for high frequency sound low 4 What are stereocilia and tip links 5 How are inner hair cells and outer hair cells important in hearing 6 How do the ionic properties of endolymph and perilymph relate to mechanoelectrical transduction by hair cells Trace the functions of different ions during mechanoelectrical transduction What is the significance of having some of the mechanosensitive chaImels open at rest 7 How are high frequency sounds localized in space Describe the circuitry of the LSO that allows this 8 How are low frequency sounds localized in space Describe how information from the two ears is processed by the circuitry innervating the M80 to achieve this How do the localization of high and low frequency sounds differ How are they similar 9 Trace the events from a sound pressure wave in the air to its perception in auditory cortex What types of response properties can be found for neurons in the inferior colliculus and medial geniculate nucleus 10 What is meant by lltonotopic mapll in the auditory cortex Vestibular System 1 What are the components of the labyrinth What types of motions are they specialized to transduce 2 What are striola What is the significance of the orientation of hair cells in the otolith organs 3 What are otoconia Why are they important How does tilt or linear acceleration affect the otolith organs and corresponding axons of the vestibular nerve What happens in corresponding otolith organs on opposite sides of the head in response to a given tilt or acceleration Can you explain fig 136 What is the significance of the firing rate at rest of vestibular axons 4 What are the ampulla crista and cupula How are semicircular canals on opposite sides of the head related and how do their responses differ with a given angular acceleration What happens with a constant velocity rotation 5 What signals are sent by vestibular axons from semicircular canals in response to angular accelerations Can you explain fig 139 6 Can you explain the vestibuloiocular reflex as we did in class see fig 1310 7 What is the relevance of descending projections from the vestibular nuclei Ascending projections to the thalamus What other types of stimuli activate cortical neurons responsive to vestibular stimulation The Chemical Senses 1 Know the anatomy of the olfactory system and relevance of the structures to function see fig 141 2 How variable is the sense of smell in the population and how does it vary with age 3 Where are olfactory receptor neurons located and when are they generated during life What are new olfactory receptor neurons generated from What are sustenacular cells important for 4 What is the relevance of olfactory cilia 5 What type of molecules are odorant receptors and what signal transduction pathway do they regulate Approximately how many odorant receptor genes do you have 6 What are glomeruli Mitral cells How are olfactory receptor neuron projections to glomeruli organized 7 What are taste cells taste buds What cell type besides taste cells is prewsent in a taste bud Why are they important 8 What are the types of taste buds and where are they on the tongue 9 How does sensitivity to different tastes vary on the tongue 12 When are taste cells generated during life 13 Which cranial nerve ganglia are important in processing taste and what do their peripheral processes innervate their central processes 14 What are the receptors and the signal transduction pathway used by taste cells to detect different chemicals How did the rescue experiment in fig 1417 support the labeled line hypothesis 15 What is the trigeminal chemoreception system important for and what are the responses elicited by its stimulation 16 What cell type is responsible for trigeminal chemoreception Motor Control 1 What are the general functions of the different neural structures involved in movement control see Fig 151 2 What is a motor neuron pool Where are the motor neurons of a given pool located in the spinal cord 3 What is the somatotopic relationship between motor neurons and body muscles 4 What is a motor unit What is the likely significance of motor unit muscle fiber organization within a muscle 5 What are the muscle fiber types and what types of motions are they recruited for How does this relate to mitochondrial content Why does it make sense 6 How do muscle twitches and fused tetanus relate to action potentials of motor neurons 7 How are muscle spindles important in the stretch reflex Can you explain fig 15 9 8 What is the function of gamma motor neurons How does this relate to feedback during muscle contraction and to setting the gain of the stretch reflex 9 What is the function of Golgi tendon organs What types of re exes do they function in Can you explain fig 151 1 10 What aspect of muscle lengthtension do muscle spindles or Golgi tendon organs monitor 11 What type of sophisticated circuitry is present in the spinal cord see fig 1513 1514 11 What are some of the facts known regarding ALS


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