Environmental Systems 2
Environmental Systems 2 GEOG 1011
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jeremy Steuber on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 1011 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see /class/231915/geog-1011-university-of-colorado-at-boulder in Geography at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
Exam 1 study guide Chapters 8 and 9 note if using the Geosystems Text study chpt 11 and 12 Also online reading about the Yellowstone Volcano Topics Earth InteriorPlate TectonicsMountain BuildingEarthquakesVolcanos Earth s Layers 7 orderrelative density LithosphereAsthenosphere 7 mechanical boundary Magnetic Field 7 how formedsignature in rocks lsostatic Rebound 7 what is isostasy Geologic Time Scale 7 CenozoicMesozoicPaleozoicPrecambrian Plate Tectonics 0 Evidence 7 Earthquake Depth Mag Reversals Shape of continents 0 Types of Plates 7 OceanContinental 7 Relative DensitiesAge 0 Types of Plate Boundaries and associated mountains I Oceanic Oceanic 7 magma typeisland arc I Continental Oceanic 7 magma typef Mt St Helens Cascades I Continental Continental 7 no magma Himalayas Appalachians thus convergent divergent and transform ie San Andreas plate boundaries Orogenesis 0 Rocky Mountains 9 Laramide Orogeny 0 Fault Block Mountains Sierra Nevada mtns batholithpluton Tetons Basin and Range 0 Fold and Thrust Belt Mountains 0 Canadian Rockies 0 Appalachians Allegheny Orogeny FoldingFaulting o Brittle vs Ductile deformation 0 Types of folds and faults normal reverse thrust strike slip Horst and Graben 7 Basin and Range San Andreas Fault 7 Strike Slip Earthquakes 7 where are they 0 Focus Epicenter o Richter Scale 0 Geomorphic Effects Landslides Liquefaction Tsunamis Volcanoes Type of magma in relation to plate tectonics Composite ConeStratovolcano 7 Explosive Cinder ConeCalderaPyroclastic FlowLahar Volcanic NeckDikeBatholithPlutonLaccolith if we get to all these Hot Spots 7 Hawaii shield volcano Plateau Basalts Columbia RDeccan Traps Yellowstone Hot Spot GEOG 1011 LANDSCAPES and WATER REVIEW for FINAL EXAM The nal exam will consist of 80 multiple choice questions followed by some fillintheblank questions some questions related to a map of the US and 10 questions on slides You will see some questions that you have seen before perhaps worded a little differently Most of the information will come out of lecture notes use the book as a backup You need to know some terms see below but not as many as are given in the book I will post copies of the previous exams on a glassencased bulletin board located down the east hallway on the first oor of Guggenheim not the basement The following summarizes the main topics covered in this course I Basic Geology lecture notes from Aug 25 Sept 15 book chapts 11 amp 12 Review large scale geologic processes that create major topographic features on the earth s surface basic earth structure differences in layers density and composition of crust and mantle rock types including table 112 showing classification amp characteristics of igneous rocks plate tectonics evidence used in developing the theory 3 types of plate boundaries p 373 earthquakes review class notes including points about New Madrid Seismic zone volcanism review class notes see pp 383394 key words lithosphere asthenosphere mantle crust isostasy magnetic reversal elastic rebound lahar pyroclastic flow composite volcano shield volcano caldera II Weathering MassWasting and Soils lecture notes from Sept 17 Oct 13 Chapts 13 amp 18 A Weathering Remember that rocks form at high temperature and high pressure so they are out of equilibrium with the earth s surface environment mineralogy and texture determine resistance to physical and chemical weathering Review processes involved in mechanical weathering small pieces gt big pieces temp amp pressure effects chemical weathering review relation to igneous rock types texture and mineralogy key words hydrolysis oxidation carbonation B Soils 2 products of weathering Chapt 18 soil properties review material on pp 560564 importance of climate soil water and soil chemistry especially pH soil forming factors ClORPT know basic characteristics of 4 soil orders spodosols oxisols mollisols aridisols for example you should be able to complete a table with blanks for various soil properties key words eluviation illuviation pH cation exchange podzolization calcification salinization diagnostic horizon C Mass Wasting lecture notes on landslides debris flows Chapt 13 III Hydrology and Rivers lecture notes from Oct 17 Nov 21 Chapt 9 amp 14 A Hydrology hydrologic cycle review water balance eqn and the meaning of different terms see below review soil moisture states and processes of infiltration and runoff groundwater hydraulic gradient permeability surface water and floods key words water balance actual evaporation potential evaporation soil moisture deficit surplus overland flow field capacity capillary water hygroscopic water wilting point confined aquifer unconfined aquifer permeability porosity hydraulic gradient drawdown recharge overdraft B Fluvial Processes flow in channels velocity slope depth sediment erosion transport and deposition relation between sediment load and channel pattern meandering vs braided rivers concept of equilibrium amp the longitudinal pro le slope effects of changes in hydrology and sediment load on rivers key words grain size drag and lift forces bed load suspended load alluvium meandering rivers braided rivers exotic river longitudinal profile V Glaciation and Climate Change lecture notes from Nov 24 Dec 8 Chapt 17 formation and movement of glacial ice differences between temperate and polar glaciers mass balance accumulation vs ablation effects of climate change on mass balance properties of ice and ow characteristics erosion amp deposition by glaciers outburst oods causes and consequences of climate change over the last several million years amp connections to the formation of major mountain ranges eg Himalayas key words firn coldbased and warm based glaciers accumulation ablation equilibrium line altitude ELA regelation crevasse surge abrasion plucking cirque hanging valley Ushaped valley roche moutonnee moraine esker drumlin coulee Don t forget to read the paper Roof of the World placed on reserve in the Benson Earth Science library I will not ask questions about the other papers that you read earlier in the semester Final Exam Study Guide Remember the final is cumulative so use the study guides from Exams 1 3 as well lhighly recommend studying the old exams The exam will be 75 questions HALF new material and HALF review material This study guide covers glaciers and coastal processes chapters 14 glaciers and 13 pp 386 400 coastal Topics formation of glacial ice glacial mass balance glacial motion erosional and depositional landforms of alpine and continental glaciations ice ages coastal processes and landforms 0 Deltas and alluvial fans depositional plain at the mouth of a river or canyon Alluvial fans form on land at the mouth of a canyon whereas deltas form in the ocean or in a lake we brie y covered this after the last exam before moving on to glaciers Intro to glaciers 0 Glaciers in the hydrologic cycle 2 of total water but 78 of freshwater 0 Glaceris where are they Polar regions cold high winter precip areas lots of snow and high elevation areas cold generally more snow 0 Types of glaciers Coninental ice sheets and Alpine valley or mountain glaciers 0 Formation of glacial ice snow firn glacial ice getting more dense through metamorphosis rate of formation depends on temperature and snow amounts Glacial Mass Balance 0 Inputs snow 7 outputs melt evaporation etc 2 change in storage this would be the change in the mass of the glacier itself 0 ELA equilibrium line altitude or firn line the point on a glacier above which summer snow survived the winter below which it did not Negative Mass Balance ablation gt accumulation Receding Glacier Positive Mass Balance accumulationgt ablation Advancing Glacier 0 Remember ice is continually owing downhill from the accumulation zone to the ablation zone Glacial Movement behaves like plastic ductile and solid brittle ow rate 7 near nil to several km per year 7 depends on snow and steepness Valley Glaciers o Gravity is the driving force 0 Sliding along its base basal sliding 0 Internal deformation plastic ow o ReGelation freeze 7 thaw due to pressure diff helps incorporate debris o Crevasses big cracks I help the glacier negotiate obstacles I form along the edges of the glacier I where the glacier goes over a bump Ice sheets 0 Move downward amp outward from central high Glacial Erosion Abrasion amp plucking Bedrock polished amp striated Striations scratches amp grooves on rock Erosion by glaciers steepens slopes 9 mass wasting Makes quotUquot shaped valleys Erosional Landscapes Associated with Alpine Glaciation o Cirque A large bowl at the head of valley glacier U shaped valleys Hanging valleys Sharp peaks horns Arete sharp ridge cirque lakes tarns Fjords OOOOOO Glacial Deposition Glacial Till 7 unsorted debris Glacial Erratics M oraines Lateral 7 side Medial Where lateral moraines join as glaciers come together Recessional and Terminal Moraines 7 at glacier terminus 7 represent max advance Continental Glaciation Various Moraines Ground Moraine 9 vast till plain Kames 7 stream deposited material in pits or crevasses leaving mounds Eskers 7 subglacial stream deposits 7 meltwater channel under glacier Kettles 7 lake formed in hole left by ice block in sediment Drumlins 7 streamlined till Outwash Plains Pro glacial Lakes Lake 7Missoula ood and the channeled scablands what is the evidence Outwash Rivers Glacial Terraces Platte 7 ADD WIND 9 sand dunes Mississippi 7 ADD WIND 9 Loess Columbia River Glacial Periods and Ice Ages Pleistocene Ice Age Epoch Essentially the last 2 million years What s the evidence 018 Ice cores C02 concentrations corollary coral records 018 depth ie sea level Mechanisms leading to Ice Ages Eccentricity Tilt Precession 9 seasonality Milankovitch Cycles Solar Variability Tectonics 7 continental drift Climate Change 7 C02 and weathering 0cean Circulation Coastal Processes and Landforms Tides Daily oscillations in sea level 7 very little to several meters Relentless energy for geomorphic change Produced by gravitational pull of sun and moon moon twice sun for in uence Waves Friction between air and surface 7 break as they approach shore due to land friction Abrupt drop in sea depth will result in big waves 9 surfing Typically straighten coast line sometime approach irregular coast Energy focused on headlands due to converging waves 9 straightening effect 000 Longshore Current 7 sub parallel to coast 9 beach drift Erosional LandformsProcesses Sea Cliffs arches sea stacks wavecut platform marine terraces Depositional landformsProcesses Barrier Spit 7 sandy sediments in long ridge extending from coast 7 Cape Cod Barrier Islands 7 Sand Dep parallel to coast Seem to be migrating landward as sea level rises cover 10 of shoreline Eroding quickly in Gulf due to hurricanes Protect coastline from erosional force of storms Exam 2 study guide Weathering Soils Mass Wasting Chapter 10 pp 296313 Chapter 15 Chapters 13 and 18 in Geosystems REMEMBER The book gives a good general overview of the processes and puts everything in a broader context but many of the speci cs are only in the class notes focus your studies on the notes and use the book as a reference We discussed many things about mass wasting weathering and soils that are not contained in the text the guide below highlights the major topics but is NOT all inclusive Also see the lecture diagrams and practice questions linked on the website I Weathering what factors determine rate of weathering Rock Type climate grain size topography etc How do physical weathering processes relate to chemical weathering processes I PhysicalMechanical I jointing frost wedgingfreeze thaw I I exfoliationsheeting I salt weathering crystallization I thermal expansion I hydration 7 swelling of clays 7 ie shales in desert I Chemical I Hydrolysis common in silicates such as feldspar Feldspar carbonic acid water 9 kaolinite clay silicic acid cations bicarbonate thus transforming Feldspar into a stable clay mineral spheriodal weathering of granites is common I Oxidation common in iron rich minerals eg biotite Iron oxygen 9 iron oxide aka Hematite common in soils I SolutionDissolution 7 just dissolving minerals Limestone calcium carbonate carbonic acid 9 Calcium ions bicarbonate Creates Karst topography 7 ie caves sinkholes in limestone bedrock Grussification or just creation of grus hydration of biotite I CLORPT 7 soil forming factors 7 climate organics relief parent material time I Soil Horizons 7 O A E B regolith 7 weathered bedrock I Eluviation vs llluviation I Soil Properties 7 color texture know how to use the soil texture triangle 7 check out the lecture diagrams link porosity permeability I Field capacity 7 wilting point 2 available water content these depend on the material texture porosity and permeability I Pedogenic Processes 7 understand these three 1 Laterization 7 Leaching process in warm humid environments 7 in essence high precipitation ushes nutrientsclays from soil creates acidic soils 2 Podzolization Leaching process in cool moist environments 7 creates acidic soils in concert with acidic leaf litter in coniferous forests distinct E horizon 3 Calcification 7 illuviation of calcium carbonate in B horizon how does the depth vary with precipitation 0 Soil Orders 7 know properties of these six Oxisol Spodosol Aridisol Mollisol Alfisol Ultisol 7 which of the above are bestworst for crops I lmportantly how are the soil orders coupled to CLORPT especially climate and pedogenic regimes I Soil degradation wind water gravity 0 Mass Wasting Gravity driven motion 0 o Downhill Force F mgcos angle where mmass ggravity aslope angle check out the lecture diagrams link for more info Downhill force relative to resistivefriction force determines block stability Angle of repose 9 driving force 2 resistive force max slope angle Factors in uencing slope stability slope angle water material strength etc Type of material very important Classes of Mass movements I Slope Failures slump slide fall rock or debris I Sediment Flows 0 Dry creep earth ow debrisrock avalanche 0 Wet debris ow very dense mud ow more liquidy OOOO Understand the different types of mass movements in terms of water content and how fast they travel downslope Also know about some of the regional mass wasting examples we went over in class REMEMBER Study your notes first and foremost and use this as a guide to direct your studies as you go back through your notes
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