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# Introduction to Hydrology GEOG 3511

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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jeremy Steuber on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 3511 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see /class/231916/geog-3511-university-of-colorado-at-boulder in Geography at University of Colorado at Boulder.

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Date Created: 10/29/15

GEOG 3511 HYDROLOGY Review for Third Exam The third exam will be similar to previous exams consisting of fill in the blank or short answer questions plus a question or two requiring calculations Focus on material covered in lectures anything presented in lectures and labs is fair game including points discussed on handouts The exam will focus on topics covered since the last exam evaporation and surface water however you shouldn t forget some of the basic concepts discussed in the first two weeks of class I Basic Hydrologic Concepts review the equations for the water balance and the energy balance and give some thought apply this equation to various hydrologic problems e g estimation of evaporation II Evaporation Be able to summarize the approaches for estimating evaporation and evapotranspiration e g water balance energy budget pans lysimeters mass transfer equations and discuss their differences Be prepared to answer questions regarding the quotmass transfer approachquot e g why is it used how is a mass transfer equation developed what does the mass transfer coefficient represent Hopefully class notes are clear if not see pp 277 280 Why was the Penman equation developed why is this called a combination equation Review lecture notes on transpiration and the connection to carbon cycling Review important points and results from the paper on limits to tree height Review lecture notes on effects of vegetation change on runoff and floods III Stream Response to Precipitation General comments Stick very tightly to the lecture notes The book contains a lot of material that I did not cover in class plus it is organized very differently from the way I presented it Make sure you can explain the differences in hillslope runoff processes HOF DOF SSSF if points made in lecture are not clear see pp 205209 The text goes into more detail than necessary in describing TOPMODEL The most important part of this discussion is the role of the topographic index eqn 919 Review lecture notes discussing differences between hillslope runoff and runoff in large basins Review notes on drainage basin properties you should be able to define drainage density and draw the basic relations between stream order numbers of streams and stream length Horton ratios discussed in lab On the basis of the lab exercise can you explain how network properties might vary with climate or some other environmental variable Review the steps and assumptions involved in flood frequency analysis the book explains statistical models and techniques in Appendix 3 Important points why is this method used What s involved What are the limitations If I gave you the mean and std deviation of a sample of floods could you plot the flood frequency curve Review lecture notes on open channel flow the book covers much more than we had time for so stick with the lecture notes Additional thoughts we have used three different terms for vapor pressure these are defined as follows ea vapor pressure at some height above the surface ground snow lake or vegetation es vapor pressure at the surface esat saturation vapor pressure ie vapor pressure at 100 RH could be with respect to the reference height a or the surface example the turbulent transfer equation for latent heat ux contains the term ea es which is just the difference between the vapor pressure at a and the vapor pressure at the surface the mass transfer equations contain the same variables but reversed ie e ea I assume that this is done simply to give a positive value for the evaporation rate the Penman and Penman Montieth equations contain the term esma ea which is different from above in this case esma ea represents the difference between the saturation potential maximum vapor pressure at a and the observed vapor pressure at a think of this as a vapor pressure deficit Another equation that we ve seen a lot is the logarithmic equation for velocity u u L In L K 20 where u is the velocity at height 1 u is the shear velocity k is von Karman s constant 04 and z is the roughness height The term ut has the units of velocity but it is really a measure of the stress or force per unit area that is creating the flow it s also a measure of the intensity of the turbulence If u or u go up the turbulence will be more intense and more sensible and latent heat will be transferred from the surface to the atmosphere The term 1 is theoretically the height above the surface where the velocity is zero this is impossible to measure because it is usually a fraction 1 10 of the height of the roughness Thus if the surface gets rougher 1 gets bigger and for the same 14 u gets smaller the equations for sensible and latent heat transfer both have the following term 11 625 1n This term is essentially 14 2 which is sort of what you get if you rearrange the above equation I will provide complex equations ie those with more than about 3 terms however you should know what the terms in these equations represent in a physical sense GEOG 3511 HYDROLOGY Review for First Midterm Exam General The midterm exam will consist of about 10 questions including fill in the blank short answer and maybe one that requires roughly a 12 page to answer Focus on material covered in lectures anything presented in lectures from Jan 14 Feb 7 is fair game including points discussed on handouts The following list reviews important topics covered in class Basic Hydrologic Concepts You should be able to write the water balance equation without the aid of notes you should know which terms are negligible and you should be able to apply the equation to estimate terms that are difficult or impossible to measure such as regional evaporation Energy Balance and Global Climate Review the notes covering the global energy balance you should be able to explain how the heat energy absorbed or emitted by the Earth is used in the hydrologic cycle You should be able to explain how the patterns of atmospheric circulation affect precipitation both globally north south as well as regionally in North America Precipitation You should be able to apply the equations for saturation vapor pressure and relative humidity You should be able to describe the steps involved in forming precipitation Review the section covering mechanisms of uplift and precipitation Details covered in the lectures on frequency analysis can be found in the text by Hornberger et al you won t find this information in the Chapter 2 handout but hopefully the lectures were clear enough to understand the concepts You should be able to 1 explain the rationale behind this approach 2 apply the techniques covered in lecture and 3 describe the limitations of this type of nalysis Review the material on extreme rainfall including relation to storm types and geographic location don t worry about specific rainfall amounts The material covered in the lecture on historical trends in precipitation and streamflow is important you should be able to describe 20 h century trends in precipitation and streamflow throughout the US and in the west in particular Lab Exercises I will not ask you to carry out lengthy computations however I may ask you to do some simple calculations I suggest you review the lab assignments to refresh your memory on unit conversions etc

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