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Accelerated Introductory Astronomy 1

by: Stephan Kuvalis

Accelerated Introductory Astronomy 1 ASTR 1030

Marketplace > University of Colorado at Boulder > Astronomy > ASTR 1030 > Accelerated Introductory Astronomy 1
Stephan Kuvalis

GPA 3.89

Webster Cash

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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Stephan Kuvalis on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ASTR 1030 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Webster Cash in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/231960/astr-1030-university-of-colorado-at-boulder in Astronomy at University of Colorado at Boulder.


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Date Created: 10/29/15
ASTR1030 Accelerated Solar System Astronomy Midterm 3 Study Sheet I SOLAR SYSTEM FORMATION See Midterm 2 Study Sheet II RADIOACTIVE DATING Certain elements are unstable and decay The decay process is characterized by a halflife making it an ideal clock By comparing the remaining amount of the unstable ele ment with the decay product one can determine the age of a rock argon40 fraction of isotope O 01 potassium40 13 26 46 time since rock formed billions of years III CHAOS Definition In a chaotic system a small change in initial conditions can lead to very large changes in the nal state In a nonchaotic system the more accurately one knows the initial conditions the more accurately one can predict the nal state Predictability Chaotic systems are inherently unpredictable in detail but one can observe patterns Example weather One can not accurately predict in thirty days ifit will rain But one can predict that it will be colder in January than in July In other words there are patterns in the weather even though the details are dif cult to predict Chaos and Nebular Theory Virtually every phase of the solar system formation is cha otic A small change in the initial rotation can dramati cally change the collapse A small change in the initial formation of planetesimals can lead to a completely dif ferent set of planets Under the nebular theory one can predict patterns for example giant planets versus terrestrial planets all plan ets orbiting in the same direction etc but one cannot pre dicta detailed nal result IV PLANETARY GEOLOGY 1 Basic Processes of Formation Accretion Collisions between planetesimals and a planet result with the planet increasing in size Differentiation The heavy materials metals sink to the center forming the core 2 Interiors of the Terrestrial Planets 21 By composition 0 Core Mostly metals Mantle Rock p i N Equot Crust The scum that oats to the top 22 By rigidity Lithosphere The rigid outer section the crust and part of the mantle Basic Processes of Heating of the Interior Accretion The kinetic energy of the impacts turn into thermal energy Differentiation As the heavy metals sink the friction releases heat Radioactivity Nuclear energy released from the nuclear ash of a burned out star part of the solar nebula Cooling of the Interior 1 Basic Processes Convection Hot material ows carrying thermal energy with it Conduction Heat ows within a material The material does not move Eruption In my mind a form of convection Radiation Conduction and convection move heat to the surface Ultimately the energy escapes the planet by radi ation mostly in the infrared Important Point Conduction convection and eruption bring heat from the interior to the surface The heat must ultimately leave the surface via radiation mostly in the infrared 42 Smaller planets cool faster The most important effect surface area to volume ratio Remember potatoes and peas Large planets tend to have larger cores and therefore more radioactive heating The initial accretion and differentiation energy was greater for the larger planets since the gravity was stron ger and they accreted more mass Larger planets tend to have atmospheres which with greenhouse gasses can slow the radiative cooling 5 Magnetic Fields Terrestrial Planets Need 0 A metal core 0 Internal convection rotation Important point A terrestrial planet without a metal core Mars has a small core or a planet that has cooled off e g the Moon is not expected to have a strong magnetic eld 6 Shaping the Surface of Terrestrial Planets 61 Impact cratering A typical crater is about 10 times wider than the impactor that created it Cratering can tell us how old a surface is 62 Volcanism Lava Plains Low viscosity runny Shield Volcanoes Medium viscosity Strotovolcanoes High viscosity goo 63 Tectonics Plates move due to internal convection and a thin weak lithosphere Tectonics causes long cracks valleys or ridges on plane tary surfaces 6 4 Erosion Only planets with atmospheres have signi cant erosion 7 The Planets 7 Mercury 0 Impact cratering Volcanism Tectonics 72 Venus 93 4A4 Impact cratering Volcanism Tectonics Erosion 7 3 Earth Impact cratering 39 7 4 Moon Impact cratering Volcanism Tectonics Erosion Note The dust on the moon comes from bombardment by microm eteorites V MARS MARS MARS 1 Volcanism Olympus Mons 78000 ft 24 km Tectonics Valles Marineris Erosion Signs of Running Water Sand Dunes Impact Cratering The South is heavily cratered e Crater Hellas Crater Isidis Crater Important Feature The Crustal Dichotomy The South is higher older and more heavily cratered than the North Seasons Long mild summers in the North Short mild winters in the North Long harsh winters in the South Short harsh summers in the South Life Running water was N35 billion years ago Life on Earth started 38 billion years ago Meteorites from Mars suggest microbes VI PLANETARY ATMO SPHERES 1 Planets Venus 72 AU from the sun 072 planetary albedo 117 days per revolution Atmosphere 96 C02 35 N2 230 Kelvin expected surface temperature 740 Kelvin actual surface temperature Earth 10 AU from the sun 036 planetary albedo N1 day per revolution Atmosphere 77 N2 21 Oz 1 Argon some H20 250 Kelvin expected surface temperature 288 Kelvin actual surface temperature oooo oomoNo 5 quot oooa oooo ars 152 AU from the sun 025 planetary albedo N1 day per revolution Atmosphere 95 C02 27 N2 16 Argon 218 Kelvin expected surface temperature 223 Kelvin actual surface temperature Atmospheric Structure Troposphere IR is absorbed Stratosphere UV is absorbed Therm osphere and Ionosphere XRays are absorbed Exosp ere Creating Atmospheres Vol anism Evaporation and Sublimation Bombardment Atmospheric Loss Thermal Escape Bombardment Atmospheric Cratering Condensation Chemical Reaction Determining a Planet s Surface Temperature How far is the planet from to the Sun How much sunlight does it absorb albedo How fast does it rotate Atmosphere atmosphere atmosphere Greenhouse Gasses COZ Carbon Dioxide CH4 Methane ooa oooouloooooi39kooomoooo HZO ImportantPoint Greenhouse gasses transmit visible radia tion and absorb infrared radiation Thus t e energy from sun can reach the planet surface and be absorbed but the infrared radiation from the planet does not escape 7 Why is the Sky Blue Blue light has shorter wavelengths and scatters more in r The sky appears blue due to the scattered blue light The sun at sunset appear red because 1 the sunlight must travel through the atmosphere at a steep angle longer path and 2 the red light is not scattered as much as blue so rt penetrates 8 Calculating Temperatures 2 7 2 4 NR Fsun ioc 7 47cR GT gh R Planetary radius Fm Solar radiance 1360 Wm2 for Earth at Planetary albedo 036 for Earth 0 StefanBoltzmann constants 57 x 10398 Wm2K4 T Planetary surface temperature gh Effective infrared transmission factor greenhouse effect gh 1 No greenhouse gasses gh N 0 Complete green house effect 7 4 Fsun ioc 7 4GT gh F 17a T4 sun T4 40gb Fsun 70L 40gb VII GIANT PLANETS 1 Formation Accretion Giant planets formed outside of the frost line Collisions between icy planetesim als resulted in rapid for m a ron Nebular Capture Giant planets captured nebular gas before it was cleared away by the solar wind Di erentiation The heavy materials metals sink to the center formin the core 2 Interiors of the Giant Planes Rocky Core Metallic Hydrogen 4 gmcm3 at high pressure Liquid Hydrogen Gaseous Hydrogen gumus39nyd mgsn 1 bar 125 x o 0002 gcm J set one bar 2000 K Wu Nitrogen a 5 gm 1 u 9ch 2 000000 bay 5000 K metallic warmquot 74 0ch i00000000 bar 20000 K 225 gm3 c manlle cove m metal and hydrogen comvounds 3 Banded Structure 39 quot 39 me rota tion period varies with latitude The white bands are ammonia clouds where hot atmo sphere undemeath has risen and cooled The orangeyellow bands are w ere the gas is sinking into the planet The color is believed to come from sulfur com poun s The multiple circulation cells and the differential rotation is a result of the Coriolis e ect 4 Atmospheres The primary composition is Hydrogen and Helium Other materials 39 39 water 39 de and methane The blue color of Uranus and Neptune is from methane which absorbs red Thus only blue light reaches to the white clouds to be re ected 5 Equatorial Bulge Gravity by itself farces a spherical shape Rapid rotation ofthel e lanet offsets the gravity at the equator Muc like a spinning pizza dough the equator bulges outward The surface gravity ofthe giant planets is similar to that of 6 Aurora and Magnetopsheres All giant planets have a magnetic eld and atmosphere an s v magnetos heres and aurora Earth is the only terrestrial planet with aurora e aurora is caused by electrons precipitating along magnetic eld lines into the upper atmosphere The elec trons collide with molecules in the atmosphere causing t l39 ht them to emi 1 Jupiter s magnetosphere is larger than the sun and thus the la est structure within the so ar sys em Jupiter has an additional type of aurora caused by the moon Io VIII MOONS 1 Formation The larger moons formed in much the same way as did the planets accretion then di erentiation The same processes that reform the surfaces are also a work Cratering Vulcanism Tectonics and Erosion 2 Synchronous Rotation The tidal bulge on the moon due to the planets gravity will creating a constant ex which will cause the moon s rota tion to slow Almost all moons have synchronous rotation 3 Orbital Resonances Io Europa and Ganymede have resonant orbits Europa s period is 2 times Io s Ganymede s period is 2 times Europa s an 4 me o s Orbital resonance forces Io into an elliptical orbit 4 I o ost volcanically active body in the solar system Constant exing oro gives it an internal heat source over 200 times at of Earth s ra ioactivity Io s geysers plumes of sulfur and sulfur dioxide shoot up hundreds of kilometers Io emits gasses all along its orbit forming a gas ring around Jupiter called the Io torus 5 Europa Europa s surface is made oficesTectonics causes long cracks on p anetary s aces The tidal bulging heats Europa and may give it a liquid ocean quotquot 39 The constant working forms ridges in the ice Volcanism may melt sections creating ram jumbled ice bergs refrozen into the surface Impact craters cause pitting of the surface Large craters dent the surface the most important unanswered questions on does it have a liquid ocean Largest moon in the solar system Displays both old and young surfaces as an 39 39 eld 7 Callisto Callisto has an old cratered surface as expected for a Jovian moo Callisto may not have fully differentiated 8 Mimas Mimas in inner most of the medium size moons ofSat um It looks like the Death Star 9 Enceladus Enceladus is 500 km in diameter yet shows evidence of geological activity cantaloupe terrain 1 0 Titan Satum s largest moon Titan is the only other world with a dominant N2 atmo s ere other an Radar maps indicate that Titan may have an ocean and continents 11 Miranda Miranda is a medium size moon orbiting Uranus Miranda may have been broken apart by a giant impact and is slowly accreting back together 12 Triton Triton has a retrograde orbit The leading theory is that it is a ca t11red moon Triton shows evidence ofvolcanism there lled in craters maria simi ar to lunar IX RINGS 1 General Properties Rings are extremely thin only 10 s of meters thick Rings are in the he Roche zone a region near the planet where tidal forces can exceed gravitational attraction between to small bodies Rings and Ga s Rings are high concentration of particles gaps are voids between the rings Orbital Resonances Saturn s moon lLim as is responsible for the Cassini Division a region of 21 resonance All outer planets have rings Rings and Gaps Gap moons clean their orbits Shepherd moons force rings between them Gaps can also be caused by large outer moons by orbital resonances 000 3 Viewing Rings With the sun at your back you see mostly large particles With the sun at your front you see mostly dust 4 Tidal Forces Tidal force FT 2GA31m5 r Tidal acceleration 2GM5 LIT 3 r r is the distance from the center of the large object 1V1 5 is the distance from the center of the small object X ASTEROIDS 1 General De nitions Asteroids and comets are distinguished by composition Asteroids are rock meta comets are ices Asteroid a rocky planetesimal orbiting the sun Comet an icy planetesimal orbiting the sun Meteor a comet or asteroid that emits light entering the Earth s atmosphere Meteorite a comet or asteroid that strikes the ground The Asteroid Belt Gaps in the asteroid belt are caused by orbital resonances with Jupiter The Trojan asteroids are in Jupiter s orbit leading or fol lowing by about 60 degrees Types of Asteroids C pe includes more than 75 of known asteroids extremely dark albedo 003 S type Mtype Brighter albedo 01022 Gathering information about asteroids Optical telescopes can tell us the orbit Combine optical and infrared to deduce the size and brightness Modulations in the optical signature tell us the rotation rate and if the asteroid is irregular in shape Spectroscopy ultraviolet can tell us the surface composi N o 004 0 Radar images can give us shape Kepler s 3rd law Ida and Dact 1 One of the most important sources of information is ana lyzing meteorites XI COMETS 1 General Properties Comets are dirty snowballs The core is called the nucleus The escaping atmosphere is called the coma The particles form a ust ta39l The ionized gas forms a plasma tail Comets only emit gas near the sun Comets in the Solar System Oort cloud comets were thrown far from the sun by giant planets during the early formation The Oort cloud is the only spherical structure in the solar oNooooo system The Kuiper belt comets are leftover icy planetesimals out side of the orbit of Neptune XII PLUTO Pluto the Planet Pluto while located near or in the Kuiper belt is signifi cantly larger than Kuiper belt comets Pluto has a moon Charon which is unusual for a Kuiper belt object Pluto is slightly brighter than most Kuiper comets Pluto maintains an atmos ere as do most planets Pluto s density 2 gmcm is a bit high for a Kuiper belt objec Pluto the Large Kuiper Comet Pluto is a misfit among planets Pluto is smaller than many moons Pluto s atmosphere increases as it com es toward the sun as does a comet Pluto has a highly elliptical and inclined orbit as do the Kuiper belt comets Pluto has the same composition as most comets XIII ORBITAL RESONANCES p A oooN Europa 2 2 41 3 PEumpa GMJaEuropo Io P2 41 as I I o GMJ 0 Reduce 2 3 PEuropo aEuropo 2 3 P am I0 By definition pEumPa 2p10 P 23 23 aEuropo 10M 102 16am Pro This means that Europa s orbital radius must be 16 times Io s orbital radius to have a 21 orbital resonance 1 General Formulas 212 2 1 ply3 a a 2 1 p1


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