GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY PSYC 1001
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megane Sauer on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1001 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see /class/232031/psyc-1001-university-of-colorado-at-boulder in Psychlogy at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
Study Guide for General Psychology Test 1 Prologue De nition of psychology Out of what 2 disciplines did psychology develop Rene Descartes what were his 4 major in uences on scienti c psychology What is the mindbody problem What is materialism What is empiricism What is physiology Where and when did scienti c psychology begin Wilhelm Wundt founder of psychology What did he study What is introspection What is lnctionalism What were the 2 in uences on its development in the US What did behaviorists think psychology should and should not study Why What machine in uenced the development of cognitive psychology in the 1960s How did World War II in uence the growth of clinical psychology in the US What is basic research applied research Psychology s Big Debate nature vs nurture What is natural selection see the textbook pages 910 Psychology s Three Main Levels of Analysis What are they see textbook pages 1011 What is the focus of each of these perspectives neuroscience 39 quot y I J 39 J cognitive I J 39 39 J behavioral genetics socialcultural psychology behavioral p J l l gJ I 39 J 39 I J 39 39 J What are the differences among clinical psychologists psychiatrists and psychoanalysts What are the most ef cient ways to study textbook pages 1516 Chapter 1 What is hindsight bias overcon dence Read and understand The Scienti c Attitude including the notion of critical thinking textbook pages 2324 What are variables operational de nitions What does a theory do How are theories tested What is a hypothesis research methods case study naturalistic observation survey experiment know how each is performed and the advantages and disadvantages of each What is the false consensus effect textbook page 28 What is a population random sample correlation positive negative correlation coef cient What does its size mean What can be validly concluded from correlations What cannot What is a scatterplot textbook pages 3132 What are illusory correlations textbook pp 3334 Read and understand Perceiving Order in Random Even textbook pages 3435 What is an independent variable dependent variable experimental condition control condition selection bias placebo effect placebo Know how to estimate the effect of a drug using the results from the group given the drug and the group given the placebo What is experimenter bias doubleblind study Statistical signi cance what it does and does not mean What is a peerreviewed journal What are the 4 basic 1992 APA guidelines for research ethics What percentage of psychological research uses animals as subjects Read and understand quotFrequently Asked Questions About Psychologyquot textbook pages 4449 Chapter 2 glial cells glia What are their lnctions Neurons What are sensory neurons motor neurons intemeurons dendrites cell body axons myelin sheath what lnction does each serve What part of the neuron degenerates in multiple sclerosis MS What is an ion At rest which side of the axon inside or outside is more positive What are action potentials What is the fastest speed at which a human action potential travels What is the refractory period allornone transmission How are action potentials started summing of inhibitory and excitatory signals What is a threshold neurotransmitters agonists antagonists synapse receptors synaptic vesicles reuptake How are acetylcholine and voluntary muscles related acetylcholine and Alzheimer39s disease Parkinson s disease schizophrenia and dopamine how are they related Why is L dopa used to treat Parkinson s disease rather than dopamine How are Prozac and serotonin related What are endorphins Study Guide for General Psychology Final Exam Fall 2008 REMEMBER EVERYONE MUST TAKE THE FINAL EXAM Chapter 7 Dreams most dreams occur during REM sleep Research methods surveys diaries sleep lab What is content analysis of dreams In uencing dreams rst night elfects wearing redtinted goggles lucid dreams stimulating while dreaming What is each of these How effective is each Dream theories dreams as meaningful What is the manifest content of a dream latent content as a way to solve problems as the result of physiology activationsynthesis model Chapter 8 What is learning What is associative learning What is associated in classical conditioning in operant conditioning Classical Conditioning What is it US UR CR CS neutral stimulus What are they in Pavlov s research what was each e g US was meat powder shortdelay and backwards conditioning What are they Which works better What is acquisition extinction generalization discrimination spontaneous recovery How is classical conditioning used in TV commercials What is systematic desensitization conditioned taste aversion How does it differ from most other forms of classical conditioning Why is taste easily associated with illness Read and understand Extending Pavlov s Understanding Including predictability expectancy and biological predispositions textbook pp 321323 Operant Conditioning BF Skinner Skinner box What is the Law of Effect Edward Thorndike positive reinforcer negative reinforcer punishment What are some possible problems with punishment What is a primary reinforcer conditioned secondary reinforcer token delayed reinforcer shaping What are discriminative stimuli How did Clever Hans do it Continuous reinforcement What is it results in quick learning but little resistance to extinction partial reinforcement What is it results in slower learning but greater resistance to extinction What are the 4 basic schedules of reinforcement What rate of responding and degree of resistance to extinction are associated with each schedule Which type of schedule does a slot machine use Read and understand Learning by Observation including the concepts of modeling and mirror neurons and the sections Bandura s Experiments and Television and Observational Learning Chapter 9 Memory What is memory Flashbulb memory What is it Under what circumstances does it occur What incidental details does it usually include What is narrative reconstruction the 3 basic memory processes encoding storage and retrieval What are they Atkinson and Shiffrin model of memory sensory visual store 7 iconic auditory store 7 echoic shortterm acts as a working memory and longterm memory duration and capacity of each What is rehearsal automatic and effortful processing Hermann Ebbinghaus39s research who was his subject What are nonsense syllables What is the method of savings He discovered that most forgetting occurs in first few hours after learning learning occurs quickly at rst and then tapers off and spaced learning is more efficient than massed learning the serial position effect primacy effect recency effect Encoding meaning visual encoding visual imagery imagery organization of memory What is a chunk chunking a hierarchy What is longterm potentiation How is it related to memory What is the relation of stress hormones and memory What is the difference between implicit and explicit memories 3 tests of memory recall recognition relearning memory cues priming context effects statedependent memory relationship of mood and memory Forgetting What is maintenance rehearsal elaborative rehearsal What is proactive interference retroactive interference Read the textbook pages 382 to 392 including misinformation e ect source amnesia children s eyewitness recall conclusions about recoveredfalse memories listed on page 388 and ImprovingMemory Chapter 4 Developmental Psychology 3 major issues naturenurture continuitystages stabilitychange newborn s capabilities rooting re ex preferences human voices faces What is maturation What is infantile amnesia Which part of the brain showed greater development in environmentally enriched rats Piaget s stages of cognitive development schema assimilation accommodation the stages 1 Sensorimotor 2 Preoperational 3 Concrete Operational 4 Formal Operational cognitive milestones of each object permanence conservation egocentrism What are some of the criticisms of Piaget s theory Chapter 17 NOTE Questions on the following will be on the test even though this material was not covered in the main lectures What are psychological disorders What is the medical perspective on psychological disorders What is the DSM IV TR What is it used for Anxiety disorders What is generalized anxiety disorder What is panic disorder What is a phobia What is obsessivecompulsive disorder OCD What is an obsession a compulsion Mood disorders What characterizes major depressive disorder Why is it called the common cold of psychological disorders What is bipolar disorder Read and understand Dissociation and Multiple Personality Textbook pp 656657 Schizophrenia What characterizes schizophrenia How many people develop schizophrenia What are delusions What are the subtypes of schizophrenia Study Guide for General Psychology Test 3 Chapter 6 What is selective attention How is it demonstrated by the cocktail party effect What is change blindness change deafness choice blindness see textbook p 239 What is the Necker cube What is gure ground How is it demonstrated by the facevase illusion What does the Gestalt notion that quotthe whole is more or different than the sum of its partsquot mean What is the Gestalt principle of proximity similarity continuity closure What are binocular cues to depth perception e g retinal disparity convergence monocular cues e g relative size interposition relative clarity relative height linear perspective brightness light and shadows What is the phi phenomenon perceptual constancy perceptual set What can people who have had their vision restored after many years perceive What can they not perceive What is perceptual adaptation perceptual set Extrasensory perception What is it What is telepathy clairvoyance precognition psychokinesis What is the ganzfeld procedure What was the overall result of the 30 followup ganzfeld experiments What is the judgment of the majority of psychologists about ESP Chapter 7 What is Consciousness What did William James mean by the stream of consciousness Levels of consciousness What are controlled and automatic processes Which are performed serially Which can be performed in parallel What does serially mean What does in parallel mean What is the relationship between age and daydreaming How much time does a young adult spend daydreaming How is this tested by experiencesampling methods How can daydreaming be healthy Fantasyprone personalities What are their traits Fr 39 39J w atl o t e r r 39 quot How much time spent fantasizing Hypnosis What is hypnosis How is it induced What are its features What phenomena are associated with it Do major changes in the brain state occur during hypnosis Two views of hypnosis What are they what evidence does each use to back its view What is neodissociation theory What is the hidden observer Also read in the textbook Facts and Falsehoods pp 291293 Sleep milestone in the scientific study of sleep Aserinsky and Kleitman s discovery of REM sleep in the 1950s What are biological rhythms 90minute rhythms changes in alertness daydreaming circadian rhythms circadian rhythms sleep body temperature blood pressure urine production 28day rhythm menstrual cycle and yearly rhythms seasonal affective disorder changes in sexual activity What are the physiological changes during sleep in each stage What psychological phenomena occur during the sleep stages Stage 2 7 mundane thinking REM 7 vivid dreaming EEG EMG EOG 7 What are these What do they measure What is muscle tone sleep spindles Kcomplexes delta waves When does hypnogogic imagery occur When does hypnopompic imagery occur During which sleep stage does sleepwalking and bedwetting normally occur What are tonic events What are phasic events How does length of sleep stages change throughout the night What is the length of a cycle of sleep How do sleep stages change with age What are the effects of sleep deprivation on a normal person According to the research described in class what is the effect of total sleep deprivation on rats How were the rats prevented from sleeping What are yoked controls Autopsy showed signs of extreme stress on the rats What are the effects of REM sleep deprivation What is REM rebound What are the 4 major types of sleep theories Sleep disorders know the characteristics of the following disorders insomnia effects and sideeffects of sleeping pills narcolepsy what stage of sleep seems involved What is cataplexy sleep apnea sleepwalking truths and myths What are night terrors During which sleep stage do they occur During which sleep stage do nightmares occur Dreams REM sleep Research methods surveys diaries sleep lab What is content analysis of dreams In uencing dreams rst night effects wearing redtinted goggles lucid dreams stimulating while dreaming What is each of these How effective is each false awakenings sleep paralysis Dream theories dreams as meaning ll What is the manifest content of a dream latent content as a way to solve problems as the result of physiology activationsynthesis model Drugs see textbook pp 296306 What are psychoactive drugs What are the misconceptions about addiction What is tolerance dependence physical and psychological What are the behavioral effects of depressants alcohol barbiturates Stimulants amphetamines ecstasy Hallucinogens LSD marijuana Read and understand NearDeath Experiences textbook pp 309310
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