Intercultural Communication COMM 3410
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Duncan Bradtke on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 3410 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Jane Elvins in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see /class/232035/comm-3410-university-of-colorado-at-boulder in Communication at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
COMM 3410 Dr Elvins Spring 2009 Exam 1 Study Guide General Guidelines for Exam Prep Read all assigned readings thoroughly highlighting what seems most important to you Study the lists of key terms at the end of each textbook chapter Use class discussion and lecture where applicable as a guideline for what should be emphasized from each reading Text Chapter 1 Know the six imperatives currently motivating the study of intercultural communication Know what each is referring to and be able to recognize examples of each imperative Also know what quotimperativequot means Know the key points about technology and human communication found in the bottom half of pg 5 Know the key points on access to communication technology found in the middle of pg 11 Be familiar with the key points about changing US demographics found on the bottom of pg 13 and on pg 14 Know the key points about specific changing immigration patterns found in the top half of pg 15 Know the significance of the change away from the llmelting pot metaphor to alternative images such as the salad Text Chapter 2 Review the section on the early development of the discipline of intercultural communication when did it happen Why did it happen Which organization and individuals were instrumental in this Study Table 21 on pg 50 so you can make some broad distinctions among the 3 approaches to studying intercultural communication Familiarize yourself with the text s dialectical approach know what it is and how is different fromsimilar to the three main approaches Skip the section titled llSix Dialectics of Intercultural Communication on pg 7174 Text Chapter 3 Review the text s discussion of and your class notes about the nature of culture eg subconscious complex ubiquitous etc Study Table 31 to understand how the three main perspectives on intercultural communication research would define culture Review the section called llwhat is communication Study Table 32 on Kluckhohn amp Strodbeck s basic questions all cultural groups must answer Study Hofstede s four value orientations and be able to recognize specific countries used as examples for each orientation Table 33 is a good summary to study Study the section on the relationship between communication and power Text Chapter 4 Be able to distinguish among the different types of histories political social intellectual and absent plus family histories national histories and culturalgroup histories etc Understand how power is a central dynamic in the writing of history Why is this so What is the impact of this on intercultural communication attempts What is the relationship between history and one s cultural identity How is history transmitted and by whom What are hidden histories Be able to recognize examples from readings films or class discussion of gender histories sexual orientation histories racial and ethnic histories diasporic histories colonial histories and socioeconomic class histories What is the contact hypothesis Text Chapter 5 Be familiar with the 3 main perspectives differing views on identity and the key terms or concepts associated with each pg 155161 Study the stages of the Minority Identity Development Model and the Majority Identity Development Model Review class notes on the third model labeled Multicultural Identity Development Model Understand the significant issues associated with gender identity age identity racial and ethnic identity whiteness religious identity class identity national identity regional identity and personal identity Be able to distinguish among the following concepts accurately stereotyping prejudice and discrimination Know the meaning of the following terms global nomads culture brokers encapsulated marginals constructive marginals The last two are defined and discussed at the bottom of pg 202 and the top of pg 203 Reading by Nakayama What are the author s stated goals in writing this essay Be sure you understand the issues of being Asian or Asian American that is what are the problems to which Nakayama is referring in the essay What is the socalled llspecter of the Orient about which Nakayama writes What does he say it means to be perceived as a llperpetual foreigner Why is the exact location and identity of the Orient confusing How and why has the identity of the Orient and Orientals been portrayed negatively by mass media What does Nakayama mean by the statement lldisorientation is a dialectical process Is he using the word disloriented in the same way we usually use the word disoriented Why have the histories of Asians in the US often been difficult to find What has been the negative result of these histories being so hidden What did Nakayama find bizarre about his growing up experiences in Georgia Text Chapter 6 Know what each of these aspects of language is semantics syntactics pragmatics phonetics Consider the question How much of our perception is shaped by the language we speak Know the Nominalist position the Relativist position and the Qualified Relativist on this issue Along with the Relativist position know what the SapirWhorf hypothesis said With regard to cultural variations in language what does the term quothonorificquot mean In the section dealing with variations in communication style study the differences between high context vs low context styles Study the section on Language and Power including Table 61 Understand how power and labeling are interrelated and how language politics and policies result from all this for discussion of lang Politicspolicies see pp 171174 Study the section on multilingualism one thorough reading of this should be enough What is the difference between translation and interpretation and what are potential pitfalls when using a translator or interpreter Reading by Giles amp Noels What are the 3 goals Giles and Noels state for their essay What are 3 reasons why language is so important for interethnic relations according to Giles amp Noels Know the main principle of Communication Accommodation Theory CAT and its basic concepts of convergence divergence and maintenance Also know the further distinctions of the above work with regard to direction degree and mutuality of accommodation What do Giles amp Noels report about gender differences in communication accommodation patterns What are the conclusions stated as to what is needed for satisfying communicative exchanges Text Chapter 7 Regarding the section which presents general information on nonverbal communication study it more if you haven t had a course in nonverbal and less if you have What are 3 main things nonverbal behavior communicates In the sections dealing with nonverbal codes learn about or review proxemics including contact vs noncontact cultures cultural variations in eye contact facial expressions chronemics and silence Review class lecture notes on nonverbal communication Study class lecture notes on Stan Jones chapter on touch behavior across cultures from his book The Right Touch Other Study viewing guides and class notes from the four films viewed so far The NewAmercans Part 1 Skin Deep A World of Gestures and In Whose Honor MIDTERM EXAM STU DY GUIDE missing some stuff CHAPTER 1 639 39 currently motivating the study of intercultural communication 1 Technological imperative a Gives us increased information about people and cultures b Increased contact with people who are different from us c Increased contact with people who are similar to us who can provide communities of support d Identity culture and technology allows you to be anybody you want e Different access to communication technology poor Americans less likely to use web minorities less likely to use web US and other developed countries have much more access to web 2 Demographic Imperative all populations except nonhispanic whites are expected to grow 50 hispanic and asian population triple back population increase 70 15 of total population Changing Immigration patterns 1out of 5 American was born abroad or born of parents who were born abroad previously most immigrants were from Europe now most are Asian or Latin American Meting Pot a metaphor that assumes that immigrants and cultural minorities will be assimilated into the US majority culture losing their original culture never realistic quotSaadquoteach group retains its own flavor and yet contributes to a unified pattern 3 Economic Imperative highlights issues of globalization and the challenges for increased cultural understanding needed to reach the global market 4 Peace Imperative involves working through a issues of colonialism b past foreign policies c raical ethnic and religious differences 5 Selfawareness Imperative intercultural learning that involves an increased awareness of being caught up in politicial economic and historical systems of your society 6 Ethical Imperative calls for an understanding different approaches to ethical issues Universalist tries to find majority on rightwrong Relativist believes that no cultural pattern is inherently rightwrong Dialogic focuses on the importance of dialogue in developing and maintaining relationships between individuals and communities judges what is ethical and unethical behavior given variations in cultural priorities identifies guidelines for ethical behavior in intercultural contexts in which ethics clash CHAPTER 2 Early development of Intercultural Communication When post WWII 1946 Why US govt was world power govt officials were ill equipped to working among people of other cultures Which organizationsindividuals were instrumental US govt established the Foreign Services Insitute FSI FSI hired Edward T hall birdwhistell trager CHAPTER 3 What is communication a symbolic process whereby meanings are created maintained repaired and transformed messages have multiple layers of meaning contentwords relational communicators assume their audience will take the meanings intended dynamic always changing Basic Questions all Cultural Groups Must Answer 1What is human nature basicaly good mixture of good and evil basically bad 2 What is the relationship between humans and nature humans dominate harmony btwn the two nature dominates 3 What is the relationship between humans individual group oriented collateral 4 What is the preferred personality Doing stress on action Growing stress on spiritual growth Being stress on who you are 5 What is the orientation toward time future oriented present oriented pastoriented CHAPTER 4 Political Histories written histories that focus on political events Social Historieswritten histories that focus on everyday life experiences of various groups in the past Intellectual Histories written histories that focus on the development of ideas Absent Histories any part of history that was not recorded or that is missing Family histories histories of individual families that are typically passed down through oral stories very personal may be unrecorded National history taught formally in school and expected to be accepted booksa body of knowledge based on past events that influenced a country s development CulturalGroup Histories the histories of each cultural group within a nation that includes for example the history of where the group originated why the people migrated and how they came to develop and maintain their cultural traits Power is a central dynamic in the writing of history infuences the content of the history we know and the way it is delivered infuences what is taught and what is silenced The impact of power on intercultural communication attempts Power is the legacy of past history and leaves cultural groups in particular positions Relationship between History and Cultural ldentity development of cultural identity is influenced largely by history ethnic history racia history events of the past Hidden Histories the histories that are hidden from or forgotten by the mainstream representation of past events gender histories histories of how cultural conventions of mean and women are created maintained andor altered sexual orientation historieshistorical experiences of gays and lesbians racialethnic histories diasporic histories histories of the ways in which international cultural groups were created though transnational migrations slavery religious crusades or other historical forces coonia histories the histories that legitimate international invasions and annexations socioeconomic class histories Contact Hypothesis the notion that better communication between groups is facilitated simply by putting people together in the same place and allowing them to interact CHAPTERS Gender identity the identification with the cultural notion of masculinity and femininity and what it means to be a man or a woman Age identity the identification with the cultural conventions of how we should act look and behave according to our age Racial ldentity identifying with a particular racial group Although in the past racial groups were classified on the basis of biological characteristics most scientists now recognize that race is constructed in fluid social and historical contexts Ethnic ldentity 1 A set of ideas about one s own ethnic group membership 2 A sense of belonging to a particular group 3 knowing something about the shared experience of the group Whiteness 1 Dominant race privilege 2 Viewed as superior to other groups 3 Cultural practices Religious ldentity A sense of belonging to a religious group Class ldentitya sense of belonging to a group that shares similar economic occupational or social status National ldentity national citizenship Regional IdentityIdentification with a specific geographic region of a nation Personal ldentity who we think we are and who others think we are Global Nomad people who grow up in many different cultural contexts because their parents relocated Culture brokers Individuals who act as bridges between cultures facilitating crosscultural interaction and conflict people who facilitate crosscultural interaction and reduce conflict Encapsulated Marginals become trapped by their own marginality Constructive Marginals thrive in their marginality CHAPTER 6 The Study of Language Semantics the study of words and meanings Syntactics the study of the structure or grammar of language rules for combining words into meaningful sentences Pragmatics the study of how meaning is constructed in relation to receivers and how language is actually used in particular contexts in language communities Phonetics the study of the sound system of a language how words are pronounced How much of our perception is shaped by the language we speak Nomianlists the view that perception is not shaped by the particular language one speaks Relativist the view that the particular language individuals speak especially the structure of the language shapes their perception of reality and cultural patterns SapirWhorf Hypothesis assumption that language shapes our ideas and guides our view of social reality Qualified Relavist a moderate view of the relationship between language and perception This position sees language as a tool rather than a prison Cultural variations in language Honorific a term or expression that shows respect Ex Using usted or tu in SpanishFrench High Context Vs Low Context High context a style of communication in which much of the information is contained in the context and nonverbal cues rather than expressed explicitly in words Low context a style of communication in which much of the information is conveyed in words rather than in nonverbal cues and contexts We use language from our social positions and the power of our language use and labels comes from that social position Language polices laws or customs that determine which language will be spoken when and where Language policies are instituted with different goals Sometimes language policies are meant to encourage assimilation into a language and national identity are meant to provide protection to minority languages reguate language use in different parts of a nation Translation the process of producing a written text that refers to something said or written in another language lnterpretation the process of verbally expressing what is said or written in another language Pitfalls equivalency and accuracy CHAPTER7 Nonverbal Behavior Communicates 1 Relational messages messages verbal or nonverbal that communicate how we fell about others 2 Status and power the relative position an individual holds in social or organizational settings 3 Deception the act of making someone believe what is not true Nonverbal Codes Facial expression Proxemics the study of how people use personal space Contact Vs Noncontact Cultures Contact Cultures cultural groups in which people tend to stand close together and touch frequently when they interact Noncontact Cultures cultural groups in which people tend to maintain more space and touch less often than people do in contact cultures Eye Contact regulates interpersonal distance some cultures this signifies turntaking respect and paying attention avoiding eye contact may show respect chronemics the concept of time and the rules that govern its use sience
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