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by: Jon Johns


Jon Johns

GPA 3.95

David Noone

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David Noone
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This 24 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jon Johns on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ATOC 3600 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by David Noone in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see /class/232051/atoc-3600-university-of-colorado-at-boulder in Marine Science at University of Colorado at Boulder.




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Date Created: 10/29/15
Past Climate Deparures m Iemperamre c from me 1 961 I0 1 990 average Observed climate change GLOBAL 708 1860 1860 TEM PERATU RE AN OMALV 65 man 1200 Mon man 1800 2mm VEAR Drilling ice cores Isotopic composition of ice related to temperature Also air bubbles trap CO2 Ice core samples analyzed at the National Icecore Lab in Denver CUINSTAAR cores stored at Greenland ice core isotope record lu L I w a I w m 14 19 0 I w on r GISPZ d o 000 41gt O l 0 2 0000 60000 40000 Age yr B P Records from Antarctica 4 glacial cycles recorded in the Vostok ice core 2m r 2 a 6 ISOTOPES i WI 7m v l MA 1 d mp 200 zsn ann 35m 400 reen an Salk 5P i PA E5 f r quot r 1 JR Petitetah NarLrs3994298861999 wwtwwszs Water isotopes Normal water is mostly H2160 Some small fraction is H2180 In ocean water the ratio ofR HEROH2180 is 2005x10393 ie about 02 Slightly less energy is required to evaporate lighted molecules So When evaporation occurs some of the heavy H2180 is le behind Similarly When condensation occurs it is easier to condence the heavy isotopes so more of the H2180 falls We say vapor is depleted less than norm ratio Useful to compare to standard ie ocean so rather than ratios o en write isotopes in delta values 5RR lX1000 ocean m m 5 W mu 1 1030 U Delta valuesquot 6 80 RlR5 andam1x1000 R moles ofHZ EOmoles of H2150 Evaporatlon NewMemesmmmm ismsingwm Heuw O ch water condense mldrlumudes p mv Light isotopes H2160 more easily than heavy isotopes H2180 RH2180H2160 Raced aRVapO liquid water vapor near liquid egu ocean e g atmosphere a1016 1 factor 45 w vs n my 5 Recall saturation vapor pressure um ClausiusClapeyron relation salumlon vapor nusme 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39lt Va or over subtro ical ocean 3 About the same during LGM Vapor over Antarctica today Vapor over Antarctica LGM w m Change in saturation vapor pressure means condensation must occur thus some isotopic depletion 7 mm 4n Iu n w 20 an as nannyhmmeme WWW LGM Colder Antarctica more condensation more isotopic depletion So isotopes are a proxy for tempera ure Condensation on route New was 0mm W ramminwa Heuw worm wmev condenses we mvmumunes me ngluwul m a n armsu aw waters Heavy isotopes H2180 condense more easily than light H2160 1 2 Each time it snows 0m 1 016 u Rm Rmpm So if we know the fraction of vapor remaining F we can write for vapor R R FWD vapor Climate reconstruction problem 0 We know how the amount of water vapor depends on temperature ie Claussius Clapeyon relation temperature determines amount of water We know how isotopes change when the precipitation occurs ie water amount changes Amount of water determines isotopes Example calculations 1 Isotopic composition of vapor in equilibrium ocean Rvapor Roceara 2005X10393l016 1974XlO393 2 Isotopic composition of vapor over Antarctica From ClausiusClapeyron curve fraction remaining F N 0067 R nal Rim39tial39F 0H 1974XlO393 X 00671015 1 1890XlO393 3 Isotopic composition of snow falling on Antarctica RSHOW aRvapor 1016 X1890X10393 1920XlO393 4 Delta value 5 RRomm 7 lX 1000 1920XlO3932005XlO393 711000 423 permil Last Glacial Maximum Surface temperature difference Climate model simulation matches well with existing reconstructions from data including ice cores Diffemnce 39c Observed global temperature Iu I I 39 cHuTEMa 05 NCDC GISS 05 LugmaeaL2005 oa WW Hwy o2 Iquot AI w J x w 0A os II R I I I I I I I I 1550 man man 1920 1940 was mu 2m 39z 1 m e I MI a lm wdemdal valarms see Appendx 1A The mm curve mmI mnng ls compared wrI muse mun NCDC 5mm and mmms 2005 my ass Hansen er a 2001 red and LugIva e 3 2005 green IPCC AR4 GlSPZ d o ooo 34 V M m L 1 1 36 l 4 8 12 14 H 19 90 vn 11 15 s l r 10 H 38 2 I 9 13 18 r 40 42 I r 39 IG39L 44 l 0 20000 40000 60000 Age yr BP Greenland ice core isotope record 80000 Very rapid climate changes in GreenlandNorth Atlantic region Fresh water discharge Changes in THC Sea ice Expected 2100 ppm Today 365 ppm mchch tempevanw l 4 glacial cycles recorded in the Vostok ice core on 50 son am we 750 Age kyr 5 JR Pelit et all Nature 399 429E86 1999 PA ES msr swam wwzs c INVERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMA VE CHANGE The water cycle Announcement Mid term next Thursday 4 October Few word question few simple calculations Closed book bring calculator Lectures demonstrations problem sets reading assignments OH chapters 14 all fair game The water cycle mam um mm must wml inst must Earth s Water Distribution Distribution of water on Earth emerisstN 0mm N Annual mean precipitation Pentud mecm Prec39 totion mmd0 Hum mean Sea surface temperature Pentod mean SST 3 Annual mean httpwwwcpcnoaa gov Precipitation mmmonth 0 Very wet over tropics Monsoon regions wetter in summer Extremely dry subtropical areas Midlatitudes wetter in winter Western US dry Polar regions very dry Seasonal shift NS Water vapor quantities 39 Vapor pressure e Proportional to number of molecules of water Relative humidity h eeAv Ho mu water relative to holding capacity Not proportional to ammnt of water Speci c humidity q mass water mass wet air Mass mixing ratio r mass water Imass dry air Dew point temperature T 1 Temperature at which air wzmld saturate ie where e es ClausiusClapeyron relation Saturation vapor pressure 15 1u 5 n m 5 depends only on temperature Um er temp erature molecules in the 7quot liquid move faster and can more easily so 7 3 escape into vapor 2 39quot Salurzttnn 5D 7 312 More water can be present in water air Might my warmer air can hold more w Waler Vapnr Pressure mbl Each 10 K ex about doubles eg h eeS 1242 28 or Td 10C If air cools to below 10C condensation Will occur ammabmwmemw Tmmmm lt r a c j Long Ter Do Me I JH Lf39 an rhum Z I 20W 0 5 1o 15 25 so 35 4o 45 50 0 Global mean 25 mm 16 1 1nch NCEP Reanalysis httpwwwcdcn0aagov Sea surface temperature Pentcd mean SST CC Annual mean u see 125 mo now saw a 4 a 12 14 95 u m 22 2A 2E 27 23 29 httpwwwcpcnoaagov Up and over mountains Recall lapse rate dTdz 65Kkm So 3km mean temperature decreases by 20 K From Clausius Clapeyron relation amount of water halves each 10K so only 25 of the water is left Ascent up and descent dawn a 3 was meumm by uur KWDAVWET parcel PRISM Climatology Annual precip estimates PR1 SM mm 3221 t22cmmm gre W W 5H1 WWWV ocs0rsteduprism genice Oregon Stale Universuy W 737 mg legend inches I Less mm Amusn I 5mm More than 13m and Chmate Center Demand Oregon Water in the atmosphere 9 Annual mean Temperature C U3 Pressure hPa 8 m 1000 L C with quot atitu e 76th P61 7 4 45w v1 Pole iuim mman Speci c humidity gkg NCEP Reanalysis httpwwwcdc noaagov Precipitation and evaporation Global average water balance total precipitation total evaporation Ocean 77 of global precipitation 84 of global evaporation Atmosphere over ocean gains Water ocean loses Water For balance 7 ofWater transported from ocean to land by windWeather Land I 23 of global precipitation I 16 of global evaporation I Atmosphere over land loses Water land surface gains Water I For balance 7 ofWater transported from land to ocean by rivers v Where does the water go Atmosphere i001 0013 x io Fma Evapmauan 36 x 10 2m3year oceans 5757104 1350 x 10 99 x uquotmJ Evapomticn a gtlt 10 Elnayea Runs 37 K10 2m3ycar Prec pnagan year Land 2Va23 33 6 X 10395m3 Prototype hydrologic cycle Reservoir ie 39 Water vapor q Advection in Fin gt gt dq E PFin Fout dt A Evaporation E l 0 Precipitation P EV Sink eg land Advection out F out Source eg ocean Advection is the transport by winds F in F out is the horizontal convergence of water convergence divergence Atmospheric water budget dq in on E E PF F I At steady state P E Fin Fout Where P gt E there must be convergence eg when interest in climate gt interest in lunch convergence to room G1 25 for ATOC3 600 Where P lt E must be divergence eg end of class there is a divergence from G125 H mm 53733 Precipitation FIGURE us MUidInnIl Nailka xhk39lumlrmmn mupunnnn lit m m r 39rnnns Mu m the land m M and um mml Inna pm man atquot m lor Innu1DIFudJA Mcridjnnal pro lcs of Lhc zonalmean vaporation rate in cm yr avcr hr 3 Eq 1038 and our 1963 73 surface dam Eaumgarmer and Reichcl s IGURE 127 oceans computed usin 1975 occan values from Fig 726 have been added for comparison Into atmosphere Out of atmosphere Evaporation minus precipitation source hydrologic balance aAuMGAnrNER AND REICHEL 1975 I I i i 20 40 60 FIGURE 1216 H 39 39 39 part div QE7P in 001 myr 39 for annual DJF and IA mean condiiio t c 1 V 115 Sum mm estimates ofE 7 p by Baumganncr and Rcichel 1975 are added for comparison scuba Table 71 Energy balance requires energy transport Energy m Net radiation dalicrl 1 1 I l 70 50 South 30 l I l 30 50 North 1 i ii 101 70 Latitude quot 90 90 Absorbed solar energy Emitted infrared energy Flawtuv rm Inc Evaporation minus precipitation DJF JJA so 70 Q nvm ay Water entering atmosphere at low latitudes ie source Exits atmosphere at higher latitudes ie sink Must have water moving toward poles and toward ITCZ Thixprovidexpart 0fthe energy tranqmrt Key points The oeeanls the main source ofwater Water moves from the oeean to land oh lee sheetsl and back again Thus mm yckv from one place to another an hack andcmzsamovznzmqunngy Saturation depends on tanperature ClausiusClaperon relationshi a Wann an can have more Watervaporbefore eondensataon occurs a Cold an can have only small amounts ofwatervapor Energy latent lost Where there is mostur divngtncz le suhtaoples Energy latent is ained Where there is moisture canvagencz Le 39 latitudes equatorITCZ m Where condensation occurs depmds on Where cooling occurs ATOC 3600 Final exam study guide The exam will be mostly descriptive answers that require reasoning and understanding the physical processes rather than memorization In addition to reading the textbook you should revise lecture notes problem sets and assignments What are typical time scales for changes in the atmosphere ocean surface and deep ice sheets and the biosphere What fraction of the atmosphere is oxygen nitrogen water vapor C02 What are the three most important ways that earth s orbit around the sun can change How do sun spots change the amount of solar radiation received on earth What is hydrostatic balance Why does pressure decrease with increasing elevation Why can we say surface pressure is a measure of atmospheric mass What is the mean vertical structure of temperature in the troposphere stratosphere and mesosphere Would water condensation rain occur if there was no nitrogen in the atmosphere What is the mean energy balance of the atmosphere What is the mean energy balance at the earth s surface Why is there a greenhouse effect Of the initial solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere what fraction is re ected by clouds and the surface what fraction is absorbed by ozone and what fraction is intercepted by the surface What is the residence time of water vapor mean What is a typical value What is an adiabatic process How is potential temperature related to density Describe how a parcel of air could be unconditional or conditionally stable Does hot air rise What causes salinity temperature and density changes in the ocean What drives the thermohaline and wind driven circulation of the ocean Why do we see a Coriolis force How does Ekman upwelling and Ekman transport work How does conservation of absolute vorticity explain Rossby waves What are Rossby waves What is the difference between balanced and unbalanced ow What are some examples of balanced ow When can we assume geostrophic balance is a good assumption How is divergence related to vertical motion near cyclones and anticyclones Why is the descending branch of the Hadley cell in the subtropics Do you expect climate change to be the same every where Why What are a few examples of proxy climate records How does the isotopic composition of ice cores record climate change What are the main features of the ocean and atmosphere that are different during an El Nino Why has C02 not increased as much as would be expected from the amount of fossil fuels that have be burnt Why might the polar regions be more sensitive to climate change than the tropics


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