Popular in Crime Control Policies
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah Good on Wednesday January 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CRJ201 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Schultz in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 173 views. For similar materials see Crime Control Policies in Criminal Justice at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 01/21/15
7 CRJ 201 CRIME CONTROL POLICIES MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE S Scan What s the problem A Analyze Why is there the problem R Respond Time to do something What action do we take A Assess What measures were taken and if it workedhow well The SARA model is under problem oriented policing where police are required to carefully define specific problems conduct in depth analyses to understand their causes undertake broad searches for solutions to remove these causes and bring about lasting reductions in problems and evaluate how successful these activities have been The main purpose for the free book Crime Analysis for Problem Solvers is to tell about problem oriented policing and to distinguish it from other types of community policing It also shows how using environmental criminology and situational crime prevention can make problem oriented policing more effective and teaches the SARA model The purpose of the analysis stage of SARA is to subject the patterns that police detect to in depth analysis This is one of the greatest difficulties in the SARA model The analysis can be mapped data that help to identify underlying problems to the original problem A crime analyst learns more about crime itself They are the first to know of any new crime waves and quickly map and analyze statistics If an analyst waits others will make guesses without any factual basis The analyst knows what works in policing and what doesn t They can stay on projects as long as weeks months or even years They must communicate well and quickly An analyst wastes the work if the results can t be communicated properly so they use graphs charts maps etc Having an analyst as the eXpert provides more opportunities to warn citizens detect offenders and to initiate prevention efforts They sit regularly with dispatchers and talk to officers about what they see compare day shift officer reports to late night shifts officer reports from one side of town versus the other side They also go on ride alongs The crime analysts go to regular crime scenes read through crime reports pay attention to failed crimes talk to city code inspectors principals small business owners emergency room personnel women s shelters private security guards and the offenders themselves In Brantingham s Crime Pattern Theory edges are the boundaries of the areas where people live work shop or go for entertainment These edges have a greater possibility of having certain crimes committed such as racial attacks robberies or shoplifting because this is where people from different statuses and neighborhoods who don t know each other come together Think of the robberies in Tallahassee Florida and how they tended to border where af uent areas met with poor areas The Problem Analysis Triangle comes from routine activity theory The triangle shows that crime occurs when a likely offender and suitable target come together in a time and place without a capable guardian The most recent formulation of this triangle adds an outer ring of 10 ll 12 Controllers For the targetvictim this is the capable guardian For the offender this is the handler or someone who knows the offender well and who is in a position to exert control over them For the place the controller is the manager or owner who has responsibility for Huardfan controlling the behavior of a specific location Environmental criminologists feel that opportunity makes the thief They believe that if opportunity is increased then crime will be increased as well In one study in the UK it was found that opportunity plays a major role in suicide During the 1950 s about half of suicides were committed using domestic gas that contained CO As the gas the country began to transfer to contained less and less CO less suicides were done with gas By the mid 1970 s less than 1 of suicides in the UK were committed by using gas Another study shows that the US has a higher homicide rate involving guns than the UK because the UK has far less people carrying handguns than the US does So when a fight breaks out here it is more likely a gun will be used From 1980 1986 a study was done between Seattle and Vancouver comparing the rate of homicides and assaults to determine the effect of handgun availability on crime rate Vancouver has more restrictions on the possession of handguns This study found that a wider availability of handguns increases the rate of homicide Though the two cities differed little in their rate of assaults and non gun homicides the murder risk was noticeably higher in Seattle than Vancouver due to a five times greater risk of being murdered with a handgun in Seattle The most important element about changing the perception of opportunity is that changes in the environment change the offenders perceptions These perceptions in uence offenders behaviors which adjust crime patternsChanges in perceptions of opportunity can have unintended positive effects such as the reduction of crime beyond the focus of the measures or di usion of bene ts and the reduction of crime before such measures have actually been implemented known as anticipatory bene ts Displacement the opposite of diffusion of benefits is when crime prevention measures actually just move crime around instead of preventing it It occurs when offenders change their behavior to thwart preventive actions There are five different types of displacement geographical from 13 14 15 16 17 171 172 one place to another temporal from one time to another target away from one target to another tactical one method of committing crime replaces another and crime type one kind of crime is substituted for another Adaptation is when the offenders discover new crime vulnerabilities in response to preventive measures that have been in place for a while This can be referred to as an arms race between preventers and offenders Crimes that have been reduced before due to preventive measures tend to reappear as criminals discover new ways to commit them Adaptation may occur as offenders slowly discover new methods or as new offenders take advantage of changing opportunities Diffusion is when crime has been reduced more widely than eXpected beyond the intended focus of the measures Potential offenders may be aware of new prevention measures but they are often unsure of their precise scope C Community Members of the public must eXperience the harmful events Only some not all H Harmful People or institutions must suffer harm Illegality is not a defining characteristic of problems E EXpectation There must be an eXpectation of the police to address the causes of the harm Expectation should never be presumed but must be evident through processes such as citizen calls community meetings press reports or other means E Events Must be able to describe the type of event that makes up the problem R Recurring The event must recur May be symptomatic of acute troubles or a chronic problem S Similarity The recurring events must have something in common Committed by the same person same type of victim same type of location similar circumstances same type of weapon or have one or more other factors in common Without common features you don t have a problem CHEERS is the siX required elements of a problem Putting yourself in the offender s shoes means understanding why the offender committed a particular crime understanding the benefits they are seeking Understanding the tangible benefits the offender is seeking and how he must manage the commission of crime without too much effort or risk is being in the offender s shoes To do this you can talk to the offenders themselves or search reports of interviews with similar groups of offenders You have to think thief Hot spots are spots that have a high crime rate There are acute hot spots which show abnormal spikes in crime and may decline naturally and there are chronic hot spots which have a persistently higher crime level than other areas and are unlikely to decline unless something is done There are three types of chronic hot spots Hot dots locations with high crime levels Show crime concentrated at facilities or at addresses of repeat victims Multiple crime events at places are represented by dots Hot lines street segments where crime is concentrated Multiple crimes along street segments are shown with lines 173 18 19 20 21 22 23 231 232 24 241 242 243 Hot areas neighborhoods where crime is concentrated Area characteristics may give rise to crime or may contain many separate and discrete problems Shown as shaded areas contour lines or gradients Crime attractors are places affording many criminal opportunities that are well known to offenders People with criminal motivation are drawn to such locales such as prostitution and drug areas Crime enablers occur when there is little regulations of behavior at places rules of conduct are absent or are not enforced and also occurs with the erosion of guardianship and handling Crime generators are places to which large numbers of people are attracted for reasons unrelated to criminal motivation like shopping malls Providing large numbers of opportunities for offenders and targets to come together in time and place produces crime or disorder Same as above For the final project we have to get in a group and develop a crime prevention stregy for a local police department We need to use the SARA model examine crime stats do an analysis review reports and measures of strategies that redued similar problems elsewhere and come up with a unique set of strategies tailored to our specific crime problem Needs to have at least 12 slides and be 15 20 minutes long and contain some sort of media The paper we write individually using the SARA model will be no less than 500 words and follows APA format Both the presentation and the paper must have a resources page for the last slidepage Hot dots locations with high crime levels Show crime concentrated at facilities or at addresses of repeat victims Multiple crime events at places are represented by dots Hot lines street segments where crime is concentrated Multiple crimes along street segments are shown with lines Hot areas neighborhoods where crime is concentrated Area characteristics may give rise to crime or may contain many separate and discrete problems Could have a tightly grouped pattern of events or have a relatively even spread of events over the hot spot area Shown as shaded areas contour lines or gradients Same as above Effective police work requires both focused attention and diverse approaches The strategy must diversify its approaches to crime and disorder Policing must address crime and disorder using a greater range of tools than simply enforcing the law such as working with the public and going beyond law enforcement These can have slight reduction effects on crime and disorder and the more personal the police citizen contacts the more likely it is that they will have an effect on crime Geographically concentrated enforcement at crime or disorder hot spots can be effective in the short run at least Focused patrolling of very small high crime places has a modest effect on crime and a large effect on disorder Offenders find suitable targets in 3 ways Through personal knowledge of the victim Through work Through overlapping activity spaces 25 26 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 27 28 29 30 31 The most important element of changing the perception as a preventative measure is understanding how offenders see things because almost all crime prevention involves changing offenders perceptions of crime opportunities Changes in the environment change offender perceptions Facilities are environments with special functions and can be known as risky facilities Examples are convenience stores gas stations banks schools bus stops and parking facilities A facility becomes risky from some of these eight reasons Random Variation it s possible to get concentrations of crime in a few places through some randomness This is more likely to occur when looking at only a few facilities with few incidents Reporting practices some facilities might always report crimes to the police while others experiencing the same number of incidents might not Many targets some facilities contain many targets ie the biggest store in the city Hot products a risky facility may not have a large number of targets but it might have targets that are especially hot or on the market for criminals Location facilities located in high crime areas like where many habitual offenders live are more likely to be crime risks because offenders prefer not to travel far to commit crime Repeat Victimization some places attract people who are particularly vulnerable to crime Crime attractors facilities that draw in large numbers of offenders are crime attractors They have high numbers of offenses and high offense rates Poor management when owners or managers do not exercise proper control or management a risky facility can develop Offenders find suitable targets following Brantingham s Crime Pattern Theory Offenders find targets in the course of their daily routine from home to work to recreation Around the nodes home work recreation and along each of these three paths minus the buffer zone where they might be recognized offenders look around for crime opportunities Usually don t go far beyond the area they know Offenders also look for edges or the boundaries of areas where people live work shop and entertain because this is where people from different places collide Wernicke says offenders travel further to commit crimes as they get older because of the increase to greater access to cars Leslie Kennedy says the three steps of crime are the precursors transactions and aftermath To show that there are different steps of crime Rob Guerette did a study for the US Border Patrol of the circumstances in which illegal migrants die crossing the US Mexico border C Concealable Things that can be hidden in pockets or bags are more vulnerable to shoplifters and other sneak thieves Also things that are difficult to identify or can easily be concealed after being stolen R Removable Anything mobile like bikes or cars or easy to carry like laptops cigarettes liquor medicines etc A Available Desirable objects that are widely available and easy to find are at higher risk New products too 32 321 322 323 324 325 33 V Valuable Thieves will generally choose the more expensive goods particularly when they are stealing to sell May select goods that confer status among their peers E Enjoyable Hot products tend to be enjoyable things to own or consume D Disposable Thieves will tend to select things that are easy to sell such as batteries and disposable razors from drug stores Main points of Products that are CRAVED by thieves Not all products are equally at risk of theft because thieves are very picky about what they will steal Focus on hot products like cars laptops DVD players and cell phones Hottest product is cash Known as the mother s milk of crime People s possessions can help eXplain their victimization CRAVED acronym Concealable Removable Available Valuable Enjoyable Disposable 25 deduction for each day the paper is turned in late Late papers must be emailed In class exercises and assignments are 250 points Midterm and Final are 200 points Msc homework is 50 points Chapter quizzes are 300 points Research paper 100 points Oral presentation 100 points
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