Our Changing Environment El Nino, Ozone, and Climate
Our Changing Environment El Nino, Ozone, and Climate ATOC 1060
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jon Johns on Friday October 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ATOC 1060 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see /class/232062/atoc-1060-university-of-colorado-at-boulder in Marine Science at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
ATOC 1060 Spring 2006 Final Exam Study Guide Overview of Part 3 of course Parts of Chapters 10 18 Life on Earth and Climate Change Past and Future After you look at this Guide DON T PANIC Already I have heard from half a dozen students telling me that it s too much material they won t have time to study etc First I am giving you a break by not making the nal comprehensive and 3 hours long Second as I have said many times in class I know this looks like a lot of material but we didn t cover all of it Ifyou came to class and read the lectures you will know what material is important and what I skipped 7 I have helped you identify this material by coloring the sections red blue and black I ll let you decide what this means 7 ie you will be a fool if you study the red stuiT and you are probably not using your time wisely if you start on the black stuff and skip the blue stuff understood Finally recall in my syllabus yes that thing I handed out and put on the web on the rst day of classes about four months ago that I said that the main homework in this class is READING So if you are waiting until the last week of the class to start reading it was your choice not mine 7 so don t blame me for all the work that you have to do to prepare for this exam Ok so a bit of sarcasm aside 7 I want all ofyou to do well on this test I KNOW that it is a lot of material if you read EVERY SINGLE PAGE So don t Here s the scoop as you study for this test it will be helpful for you to read the material in the book that is associated with each of the gures that showed in class In addition it will be helpful if you read the gure captions and make sure that you understand the important points that are conveyed in the gures Below is a summary of material that you should know You will not be held responsible for the material that is highlighted in red Material that was stressed in the lectures and is VERY important is in blue Please note at the end of this study guide which gures you should recognize 7 or that are related to simple concepts that we discussed I suggest that you NOT skip these gures As they say a picture paints a thousand words You will do well on this test if you can recall these gures in your minds as you read each question Also please note that this study guide is an evolving document As students send me requests Itry to accommodate them DON T print it once and ignore the web page Check it from time to time for useful additional information Most of all DON T PANIC Enjoy the moment This material is meant to be interesting and fun to learn Ifyou aren t learning anything when you read then you aren t studying correctly 7 you are trying to force information into your heads that will never stick 7 DON T MEMORIZE Good luck Darin Toohey Chapter 10 Origin of the Earth and of Life Introduction to geologic time p 187 188 Formation ofthe solar system p 1 88193 Determining the age of earth p189 Evolution of stars p191 Formation of the atmosphere and oceans pl93l95 The origin of life pl95203 general concepts not details Chapter 11 Effect of Life on the Atmosphere The Rise of Oxygen and Ozone Effect of life on the early atmosphere p2082l2 The rise of oxygen p2l22l9 don t memorize all the rock types The rise of ozone p2l9220 Carbon isotopes and organic carbon burial p224 Variations in atmospheric 02 over the last 2 billion years p220225 stick to simple concepts Modern controls on atmospheric O2 p225228 stick to simple concepts Chapter 12 Long Term Climate Regulation The faint young sun paradox revisited p23l236 just consider the general ideas not all the details The longterm climate record p236244 don t memorize terms 7 just consider the general concepts Energy balance modeling of snowball Earth p 242 How did life survive the snowball Earth p243 Variations in atmospheric CO2 and Climate during the Phanerozoic p244249 focus on the concepts like how CO2 may have changed and what factors contributed to those changes and changes in climate Chapter 13 Biodiversity through Earth History The fossil record of biodiversity p252257 again focus on general concepts Taxonomy p255 The CretaceousTertiary Mass Extinction 257263 general concepts only 7 what might cause mass extinctions Extraterrestrial in uences and extinction p263267 Chapter 14 Pleistocene Glaciations this chapter is VERY important Geologic evidence of pleistocene glaciation p270274 Milankovitch cycles p274279 Glacial climate feedbacks p279287 Chapter 15 Short Term Climate Variability Time scales of change p289292 The Holocene p293306 Presentday climate variability p306315 Chapter 16 Global Warming Introduction p317318 Carbon reservoirs and uxes p318321 C02 removal processes and time scales p321324 Projections of future atmospheric C02 concentrations and climate p324329 Changes in sea level and ocean circulation p329332 Effects on ecosystems p332334 Economic consequences of global warming p324 337 Policies to slow global warming p337340 Chapter 17 Ozone Depletion Introdution p343 Ultraviolet radiation and its biological effects p 344345 Ozone vertical distribution and column depth p345348 The Chapman mechanism p348349 Catalytic cycles of nitrogen chlorine and bromine p349350 Sources and sinks of ozonedepleting compounds p350353 The Antarctic ozone hole p353356 Evidence of midlatitude ozone depletion p356357 Mechanisms for halting ozone depletion p357359 Chapter 18 Human Threats to Biodiversity Introduction p362364 The modern extinction p364 373 Why should we care about biodiversity p373377 Some important terms and concepts not necessarily all of the important ones Solar nebula terrestrial planets planetesimals giant impact hypothesis heavy bombardment period reduced atmosphere amino acids proteins enzyme catalyst hydrothermal vent microfossils cyanobacteria methanogens nitrogen xation denitrifrcation anoxic oxidation state photochemical reactions geothermal heat reduced gas paleoclimate glacial striations glacials interglacials period eccentricity obliquity precession continental shelf coral reef hypothesis Holocene proxy data uniformitarianism dendrochronology Little Ice Age volcanic aerosol forcing sunspots CO2 fertilization nitrogen fertilization radiative forcing thermal expansion fossil fuel renewable energy ultraviolet Chapman chemistry Dobson unit photodissociation ozone catalytic cycle hydroxyl nitric oxide chloro uorocarbon CFC Antarctic ozone hole polar stratospheric clouds Montreal Protocol Figures to remember 101 don t memorize names of eons 7 just look at approximate times that things happened Box 101 note that the age of Earth isn t a guess It is based on hard facts 102 this is what solar systems come out of 104 ever wondered why planets tend to orbit the sun in the same plane 105 who said the Moon isn t important 108 we didn t dwell on this but note that life forms are related it isn t random 111 and 112 7 life leaves evidence 113 same as 108 119 record of changing 02 in the atmosphere from rocks 1115 again I didn t show this but Italked about ozone forming a er oxygen increased 1124 feedback loops are always interesting to ponder 1125 an obvious one 125 another feedback loop 126 another feedback loop 127 evidence of glaciations 128 don t memorize 7 just note that science is based on lots of evidence 1211 note that these are estimates of temperatures 7 it s hard to reconstruct things going this far back in history 1212 basic photosynthsis and effects on C02 1213 what C02 has done since 12 billion years ago 1216 India colliding into Asia was a BIG DEAL for the atmosphere and climate 131 pretty obvious population stuff Chapter 13 7 these are interesting but we didn t dwell on them get it l4l ice sheet 142 evidence of change 143 how do we know Italked about this a lot 145 why are there ice ages 146 obliquity 147 climate states 148 the ha1monics of ice ages 149 another feedback loop 1410 nutrients and ocean l4ll shelf hypothesis 14 12 another feedback loop 1413 another feedback loop 14 l 4 coral 1415 another feedback loop 1416 vegetation changes 14 l 7 another feedback loop 1418 just to show that science is based on data not speculation 1419 another feedback loop 151 7 Earth s temperature record 152 7 climate can change abruptly Box gure 151 7 rapid change is the norm not exception 153 7 receding glaciers in the Alps 154 7 volcanoes affect climate by emitting gases that form small particles that re ect sunlight 156 7 cooling due to volcanoes 157 7 Sunspot cycles may have a climate impact but presently unclear how large of one 158 7 correlations can be deceiving Read text 159 7 Reconstructing temperature 1510 7 model that includes C02 emissions does better in reproducing climate for past 20 years 1511 7 modeling the climate system 1521 7 another feedback loop 161 7 Basic carbon uxes Table 161 7 where fossil fuels come from Table 162 7 who consumes the most fossil fuel Figure 162 7 emissions of C02 163 7 projecting future C02 emissions 164 7 mankind s in uence on some atmospheric gases 165 7 what contributes to climate change What are the uncertainties 166 7 projections of future climate change 167 7 global sealevel rise 168 7 projections of sealevel rise 169 7 Greenland and sealevel rise 171 7 ozone and ultraviolet radiation 172 7 how changes in ozone in uence changes in UV 175 7 the ozone layer is naturally thickest at high latitudes and thinnest at the equator Table 172 7 Sydney Chapman s reactions of oxygen species to make ozone 177 7 nitrous oxide N20 is a source of NOX NO and N02 catalysts that destroy ozone 178 7 once the world s countries got together to ban production of CFCs their concentrations leveled off in the atmosphere and some started dropping 179 7 the atmospheric chlorine cycle 1710 7 winds blow around the pole trapping air over Antarctica 7 ultimately this air cools byu radiating heat to space and this cold air is where the ozone hole forms in later winter Aug Sept l7 l4 7 different scenarios for changes in chlorine due to mankind s actiVities
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