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What discrimination mean?

What discrimination mean?


School: Georgia State University
Department: Sociology
Course: Introduction to Social Problems
Professor: Mindy stombler
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: sociology and Social problems
Cost: 50
Name: SOCI 1160 Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers the material for Exam 3
Uploaded: 03/26/2016
6 Pages 190 Views 12 Unlocks

Social Problems

What discrimination means?

Concept List for Exam 3

There will be approximately 10 questions from the readings/articles assigned listed for  this exam in the syllabus.  The other approximately thirty questions will come from  the material identified below:

Racial Inequality

-Types of discrimination (know definitions and be able to identify using examples)-- -Individual Acts= actions by individual members of one group intended to have harmful  effects on another group (usually done by racial majority)

1) Overt: occurring because individual is prejudice

i.e. landlord prejudice of Latinos so he says his building is full

2) Adaptive: based on the prejudice attitude of others

i.e. landlord not prejudice of Latinos himself but based on his tenants’  

What are discriminatory hiring practices?

prejudice he wants to keep the Latinos out of his building

-Institutional Acts= built/ structures into organizations and institutions through  policy (i.e. The Jim Crow South)

1) Intended: purposefully put in place to be harmful (by the majority)

i.e. Denny’s written policy on # of blacks in store at one time

2) Unintended: meant to be race neutral, but has harmful effects

i.e. SAT use for college admission

-Racism= a set of beliefs about the superiority of one racial/ ethnic group over another; used to justify inequality; accompanies by systemic power in society -Colorblind ideology and critique

-Saying the best way to end discrimination is to treat individuals equally without  regard for race, as if skin color doesn’t matter

What are the sources of discrimination?

-Critique: when put into practice it discounts past and current discrimination and  oppression POC continually experience If you want to learn more check out Is flucloxacillin a broad spectrum antibiotic?

-Economic Discrimination

-Patterns of consistent discrimination: minorities less likely to get interviews and  job offers/ social networks play a strong role

-Results of social audit studies on hiring (know stats)

-People (“testers”) w/ same skills and background apply for same jobs -Black/Latino testers receive on avg. 25% fewer interviews and 34% fewer job  offers than white testers

-Know general patterns/processes regarding hiring discrimination

-Social Audits, Homosocial reproduction (leaders want to hire people who think  like them to perpetuate their ideas), Employment agencies

-Know results/data based on racial discrimination on the basis of applicant names  (White sounding vs. Black sounding; White sounding vs. Arab sounding) -Black sounding names receive 50% fewer call backs; minorities with non traditional names shortening/changing their names to a more acceptable one -Role of employment agencies in perpetuating race-based discrimination (know data) -Discriminated against AA at a rate of 60%If you want to learn more check out What chronic diseases are associated with unhealthy body? weight?

-Know Devah Pager’s research design and results on hiring practices and the role of race  and criminal record

-Pager studied the effect of the criminal record on employment

-Black w/ criminal record: call back=5%; w/o criminal record= 14%

-White w/ record: call back rate= 17%; w/o record= 34%

-Unemployment—know White and Black rates (and who has the lowest and highest  rates of unemployment) If you want to learn more check out What are the traits of a personality disorder?

-U.S. Rate of unemployment= 5.2%

-White= 4.5%   Black= 9.5%   Latino= 6.5%   Asian=3.7%

-Black has the highest rate and Asian has the lowest rate

-How/why the unemployment rate is an underestimate and why it is likely particularly  underestimated for African Americans

-those in jail, military veterans, discouraged workers, and homeless people are  not accounted for in the unemployment rate

-Reasons for gaps in lifetime earnings by race

-Level of college degree, education, low wage jobs with inadequate benefits,  prejudice feelings from those higher up Don't forget about the age old question of What is the formula for marginal utility?

-Cost of being black (what does this mean and what is the cost)

-10% paycut  

-Why the gap/cost of being black gets wider as group members age -Black people are far less likely to go up in rank/ receive promotions -Affirmative Action (what it is, what it was intended to do)

-Government policy saying that qualifies minority members have to be given  preferential treatment

-When majority/surplus groups wish to defend the current social hierarchy, what do  they say caused it? (3)

-justify power by 1) God, 2) Nature, 3) blame minorities

-Black Americans’ control of U.S. social institutions: 0 control

-An example of our government creating policy to correct prior legalized oppression -Brown v. The Board of Education to reverse segregation of public schools -Know and understand Surplus/Deficit diagrams and what they represent -Currently Black people are at a deficit, while white people at surplus; the  diagrams are used to illustrate how reverse racism can’t exist because in order to get to  “reverse racism” (blacks= surplus while whites= deficit) we must first get to equality -Movement from Surplus on Top diagram to Equality often labeled Reverse      - Discrimination (stops movement to Equality diagram/Equality) (as demonstrated by  “scale” diagram”)

-Deficit on Top is more akin to Reverse Discrimination

-When the group who is a deficit (blacks) is on top, then “reverse racism” could  occur Don't forget about the age old question of What is flexion in the shoulder point?

-Racial gaps in Education: less funding, more tracking, more punishment for black  students

-Examples of Structural inequality in Education

-Education funded by property taxes from the surrounding area; Low income  neghbordhoods???? poorly funded schools

-VIDEO:  A Tale of Two Schools

-two different schools: one in an upperclass suburban neighborhood and one in  a predominantly black neighborhood showed the differences between the two. The  white school was nicely kept and the curriculum was advanced, whereas the black  school was beat up and the students had to go through metal detectors to get in.  -School funding: difference in facilities, course offerings, teacher quality, extracurricular  activities

-Legacy policies: people whose parents attended are more likely to get accepted -Percentage of legacy applicants admitted to Harvard compared to their general  acceptance rate: Harvard admits 10% of apps, but accepts 30-40% of legacy apps

-Segregated schooling: in Atlanta city school 13% of students are white while AA and  Latino students attend “minority dominated” schools

***-How white Americans avoided integration of schools: private schools came about in  the 1970s to avoid integration; black students not able to afford tuition -Percentage of Atlanta Public School students who are white Don't forget about the age old question of What are the two ways to reduce risk?

-ATL city schools are 13% white

-Vast majority of African-American and Latino students attend minority-dominated  schools (these schools are 80-90% minority and are disproportionately poor) -How teachers discriminate

-teachers tend to work better and pay more attention to  

-Rates of vocational education tracking

-minority students 3x more likely to be tracked

-Disproportionate suspension & expulsion

-black students suspended/ expelled 3x the rate of white students

-Results of research on pre-schoolers and suspension by race (know data) -black preschoolers represent 18% of preschoolers, but make up 48% of  suspensions 1+ times

-Highest and lowest rates of college degrees by racial group

-34% rate of degrees earned

-Highest= Asian Americans: 60%   Lowest= Latino Americans: 16%

-How income is affected by race, despite education

White men are more likely to be  

-Comparing earnings of black men with Master’s degrees to earnings of white men with  -Bachelor’s degrees

-Black men w/ master’s degrees earn less tha white men w/ Bachelor’s -Comparing employment of black men with college degrees to white men  Black men w/ college degrees are as likely to be employed as white college  dropouts

-How social class of students’ families affects their future earnings, despite degree  earned and why it disproportionately affects racial minority group members -when a student’s family is well off in terms of social class, usually they are  inclines to be well off too despite what degree they earned

-Recent research on suspicion

-regions of poverty experience more suspicion

-Groups studied (college students and police officers)

- police/ college students view black men as older and far less innocent Showed them photos

-Findings (age overestimations; how much overestimated by; group most  overestimated)

-Black boys, in particular, less likely to be viewed as innocent.  

-Video:  Bike thieves:  

bike set up in a park and tested by a white man, white woman, and black man  trying to break it free.The white man gets questioned, says it isn’t his bike, but is helped  with freeing it from the chains. White woman isn’t questioned and the park-goers help  her. The black man is heavily questioned and has the police called on him by several  people.

-Video:  Shopping (where sisters in law are treated differently at the Safeway checkout) -black woman and mixed race sister in law are treated differently at groery store  check out line by white cashier; the black woman is asked for several forms of  identification after writing her check for groceries; mixed sister-in-law who looks white  calls the cashier out on her maltreatment of the black woman

-Police excessive use of force/brutality

-Neighborhoods with higher crime/poverty rates likely to see excessive force;  socioeconomic class and race play huge roles

-Regarding Ferguson: Black= 80% say “raises important issues about race”;  White= 37% agreed but 47% say Ferguson “got too much attention” -NPR Audio recording:  StoryCorps presentation (black son, white mother)

-Black man with white adoptive parents living in a suburban neighborhood is  profiles and brutally beaten by police; called the N word, while his friend who was in  possession of weed was only handcuffed

-Minority group attitudes on use of excessive force

-Low confidence in aw enforcement to not use excessive forcer/ protect them -Police perspectives/challenges (high homicide rates in U.S., many more guns in the  hands of citizens)

-Excessive Use of Force by Police

Rate at which black people are killed by law enforcement compared to that of  white people: Blacks killed at 3x higher rate

Characteristics of police perpetrators of excessive use of force

-a lot of times racially bias, quick to act w/o thinking

-Recent research on race differences stopping/searching/finding contraband, know main  point and know the differential “hit” rates and what they mean

-Black drivers 3x as likely to be subjected to traffic stops; whites more likely to be  found w/ contraband

-in a 5 year period:  

-Chicago PD stopped 200,000 white drivers, searched 906 of???? 237 had  contraband; 26% hit rate

-stopped 300,000 black drivers, searched 6,593 ???? 1,232 had contraband; 19%  hit rate

-Race Inequality Theories

-Biological Deficiency Theory:  person-blame of POC

-POC are biologically inferior

-Critique: there is no evidence; not accepted by scientific community

-Cultural Deficiency Theory:  person-blame of minority groups

-Minority groups find themselves in a deficit position due to their cultural  characteristics

-Critique: the difference isn’t in culture, but rather in minorities  

adapting to prior and socioeconomic conditions

Bias Theory:  person blame of the majority

-The prejudice attitudes of the majority cause discriminatory actions,  which keeps minority groups in a deficit position; dialectical relationship -Critique: you can be prejudice without discriminating, or you can have  low levels of prejudice and still discriminate bc it’s built into the system

Structural Discrimination Theories- 4 Themes of Structural Discrimination 1) History is important/ institutions have an inertial quality (continuous  movement in one direction)  

2) S.D. can occur without conscious bigotry

3) It’s much harder to detect structural discrimination because it’s built  into the institutions???? harder to fight bc it’s hard to detect

4) S.D. gets reinforced because institutions are interrelated and the  effects are cumulative

-critique: ignore agency (individual ability to act) and autonomy


-Costs and benefits of being male/female (from our exercise)


-Costs: being perceived as pervert if you like kids, financial responsibility for  family, lower life expectancy, military draft

-Benefits: less double standards, less policing of bodies/ sex life, make more  money, allowed to age


-Costs: giving birth, lower wages, policing of bodies, slut shaming, world views  you as inferior, limited professions

-Benefits: giving birth, more protection, cheaper insurance, not as criminalized

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