Philosophy and the Sciences
Philosophy and the Sciences PHIL 1400
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kenton Grimes on Friday October 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PHIL 1400 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Carol Cleland in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see /class/232158/phil-1400-university-of-colorado-at-boulder in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
Philosophy 1400 Cleland STUDY QUESTIONS 1 The Criterion ofVerif1cation I Ayer A What is Ayer s objection to metaphysics Be sure to explain what he means by quotmetaphysicsquot What are some examples of metaphysical claims B Paying close attention to the following technical terminology which you should use and explain carefully explain Ayer s quotcriterion of verif1abilityquot p7 i factually signif1cant vs emotionally signif1cant ii verify iii sentence vs proposition iv practical verif1ability vs verif1ability in principle v strong verif1ability vs weak verif1ability vitautology C According to the criterion of verif1ability metaphysical statements are meaningless Why Do you believe that this is true Explain D Do scientif1c laws such as quotAll copper expands when heatedquot and mathematical truths such as quot2 2 4quot satisfy the criterion of verif1ability Be sure to carefully explain your answer E Ayer s intention is to distinguish scientif1c from nonscientif1c claims and to establish that science has a privileged position among all other intellectual inquiries Explain how the principle of verification is supposed to achieve all of this F Critically evaluate Ayer s criterion of verif1ability Do you think he is right Does he really escape Wittgenstein and Bradley s objections Be sure to explain aid defend your answers 111 DJ 0 Study questions 5 Saving Science from Irrationalism Explain why Lakatos believes that Kuhn s account of science portrays scienti c practice as fundamentally irrational Paying close attention to the following technical terminology first explain then use explain Lakatos solution to the demarcation problem Na39139ve falsificationism Excess empirical content Novel fact Theoretically progressive problem shift Progressive problem shift Degenerating problem shift Sophisticated methodological falsificationism wrung96x What does Lakatos mean when he claims that only a series of theories can be said to be scientific or unscientific Explain why Lakatos believes that any scientific theory has both thousands of trivial verifying instances and hundreds of readily available anomalies Explain what Lakatos means when he says science can grow without any refutations leading the way compare and contrast sophisticated methodological falsificationism with na39139ve falsificationism in what sense can the former be said to employ falsification in the rejection of theories Do you believe that Lakatos sophisticated methodological falsificationism escapes the problem of Popper s na39139ve falsificationism and narrow Baconian Inductivism while also avoiding Kuhn s irrationalism Carefully explain and defend your answer Which of the philosophical accounts of science discussed thus far do you think best characterizes the scientific research involved in the discovery of the ozone hole Be sure to carefully explain and defend your answer utilizing specific examples from the actual scientific research Warning The science may not fit neatly into a single account
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